While informal relations between economic and political actors are prevalent in post-communist economies, proper tools for their quantitative measurement are lacking. This paper is a starting point for thinking about this issue. Relying on previous research (Magyar – Madlovics 2020), we elaborate the concept of ‘relational economy,’ and discuss the problem of measuring its peculiar phenomena by existing direct and indirect data. Towards a set of indices for relational economy, we consider the use of proxies in three ways: (1) a radar chart composed of specific company data; (2) ‘moments of truth’ when property movements reveal an actor's de facto ownership status; and (3) ‘moments of truth’ when adoption to or exclusion from the informal patronal network is accompanied by a significant change in financial situation. Illustrations to each of the three methods are provided from the case of Hungary after 2010.
Encouraging people to adopt a healthy diet is believed to reduce the prevalence of obesity. However, a deeper understanding of consumers' psychology regarding healthy dieting is required for this intervention to be effective. To date, knowledge remains limited on the motivations preceding healthy dietary adoption among adult consumers in the Czech Republic, which is undoubtedly facing a high prevalence of obesity among other EU member states. Most importantly, few studies have modeled the food choice motives as primary antecedents of healthy dietary adoption intentions. Therefore, the current study proposes and tests a research model that explains the motivational factors for adopting healthy diets. Data were collected through an online survey involving 161 university students and analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) procedures. The results reveal that food choice motives explain healthy dietary adoption intentions satisfactorily. Notably, the natural content and weight control motives positively and significantly affect healthy dietary adoption intentions. The study offers relevant contributions to the science of consumer motivation regarding healthy dieting and practical means to health promotion.
Considering ecological issues in supplier evaluation and management alongside business considerations is getting more recognition among firms. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is one of those methods, which is frequently suggested by the literature to support management decisions. However, the data requirements of the method should be an important consideration. The literature often addresses the issue of desirable outputs and undesirable input as an important data related problem in case of the ecological use of DEA. This paper will present a new solution to manage these data problems along with connecting the evaluation of management criteria, environmental criteria and total cost aspects. The proposed environmental supplier selection problem is an extension of a former paper. The new model examines the effect of inventory related costs, such as EOQ costs of inventory holding or ordering costs on the selected supplier, extended with newly introduced scaled values of input and output indicators. The usage of scaled values is motivated by the problem of invariance to data alteration. In addition to the uncertainty of the data, the paper looks for a functional relationship between the input and output criterion values and the efficiency that can be assigned to them using DEA.
The 21st century is characterized by digital transformation, which affects economic processes and social life, and results in the parallel existence of life in both online and offline spheres. Thus, the concept of citizenship should no longer be restricted to its traditional understanding, but expanded to digital citizenship as well, and it should be adapted to the challenges of the 21st century. Thus, we need to analyze responsible digital citizenship, and our research is aimed at the question of how to assess this. As a pilot, we conducted a survey among university students to understand the focal points in this field. Our results confirm that most students can be considered responsible digital citizens, and can also be classified according to various aspects of responsible digital citizenship.
The study seeks to explore how blockchain technology enables the creation of new ideas for ventures and to examine the activities of founders and entrepreneurial teams in shaping those ideas. We adopted several theoretical frameworks – external enablers theory, dynamic capabilities (DCs), and dynamic managerial capabilities (DMCs) – to explain the interaction of the actor-independent and actor-dependent factors in the process of new firm formation. We analysed four Hungarian blockchain start-ups that operate across financial services, cryptocurrency trading, crypto asset management, energy, information technology, and identity industries and create high value-added and cross-industrial offerings for Hungarian and foreign markets. Using qualitative study research results, the study develops the model of external enablers, founders' and firm capabilities and new venture creation. We identify three interconnected external enablers – namely, market volatility associated with the growing popularity of cryptocurrencies and the underlying blockchain technology, the properties of blockchain, and the ideology behind the technology – and discuss the role of entrepreneurs' DMCs and sensing and seizing activities in discovering and shaping these enablers into profitable business ideas.
The degree of digitalization and potential of growth in this sector are the new criteria that split the countries into various groups. The aim of this research is to find an easier and faster method of assessing the level of digitalization for countries, over different periods, having a sample 10 countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The research compares and groups these countries, determining the impact of four additional variables on their digitalization level. There were combined multiple analyses including comparative, cluster and panel analysis. As a result, we defined a new standardized indicator, named Digi-Index, which can be adapted for various time ranges, countries or study groups. Academic researchers or business practitioners can use the Digi-Index, the clusters and their characteristics to build development plans for the digital sector, based on each country's conditions, potential and influence factors.
This study examines the role of Magyar Suzuki in the Hungarian automotive industry. It is the oldest foreign vehicle manufacturer and a symbol of modernisation in the post-communist era in Hungary. Due to EU's local content rule, Magyar Suzuki, in comparison with its counterparts in the region, has established a locally embedded supply chain network. Magyar Suzuki has facilitated process and product upgrading of the local suppliers in Hungary. Nevertheless, functional upgrading is relatively limited due to automotive multinational corporations' recognition of Hungary as a low-cost production location, a low level of R&D operation, and a small domestic market.
In a context of rapid technological change, digital manufacturing technologies bear the promise of enabling significant improvement in operational efficiency. However, evidence indicates that investing in smart digital solutions, per se, does not guarantee performance improvement. Smart factory projects may be derailed, failing to realise the expected operational benefits. This study addresses the gap between academic propositions regarding the unequivocally positive impact of digitalisation and the actual evidence.
It draws on data obtained from 18 interviews with technology providers, managers and front-line workers at 12 Hungarian manufacturing companies. We use the concepts of resource complementarity, task–technology misfit, and technology acceptance as a theoretical lens to categorise the seemingly idiosyncratic and context-specific operational problems.
We find that digital technology implementation produces inferior-to-expectations outcomes unless companies invest in and upgrade their complementary intangible resources. Four distinct, albeit strongly interrelated types of complementarities are identified: managerial, organisational, skill-related and technical complementarities. Managerial capabilities to adjust the organisational structure, improve workflows and develop a strategy to address technical problems are found to be paramount to eliminate task-technology misfit and enhance technology acceptance.
The transitory shock of the financial crisis of 2008 pushed most economies to permanently lower-level growth paths than those prevalent before the crisis, which can be considered as a manifestation of hysteresis. It is well known that some fixed adjustment costs lead to hysteresis in aggregate output. This paper investigates within an agent-based model, whether the fixed costs of price adjustment (menu costs) lead to the same result. Hysteresis emerges in some simple variants of the model independently of firms being assumed boundedly or perfectly rational, but these model variants fit to the empirical data poorly. The model's empirical performance can be improved by assuming that firms are hit by idiosyncratic productivity shocks, but these shocks eliminate hysteresis generated by menu costs. However, hysteresis survives even in their presence, if it is generated by demand-supply interactions, i.e., positive feedbacks from the output gap to potential output. Our conclusion is that if one would like menu costs to serve as an at least as relevant explanation for the hysteretic dynamics of aggregate output as demand-supply interactions, one has to find an alternative assumption to replace idiosyncratic productivity shocks as a mechanism to assure good empirical fit for the model.
The present study aims to investigate the impact of tourism on the economic growth of the South Asian region. By employing panel data of six South Asian economies spanning from 1998 to 2017, our empirical investigation relies upon the panel cointegration and Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) techniques. Consistent with the “Tourism Led Growth Hypothesis”, the results prove a significant positive and long-run association between tourism and economic growth. The novelty of our study is the presentation of two models which confirm that tourism is an independent accelerator of economic growth, and it performs the same role even in the presence of standard income determinants. These findings are robust when we apply alternate statistical techniques, such as, dynamic ordinary least square method and Granger Causality Test. It implies that the South Asian economies should focus on the development of the tourism sector with permanent development in public infrastructures, like public transport, airports, road system and telecommunication to surge their economic growth.