This article tests the popular Lee-Carter model's performance for Hungarian mortality rate forecasting. Hungary passed through a mortality crisis which makes the task particularly difficult. Previous forecasts and model choices are validated, and updated forecasts are produced. We find that the behaviour of mortality rates is normalizing, and so the basic Lee-Carter model is becoming applicable.
While informal relations between economic and political actors are prevalent in post-communist economies, proper tools for their quantitative measurement are lacking. This paper is a starting point for thinking about this issue. Relying on previous research (Magyar – Madlovics 2020), we elaborate the concept of ‘relational economy,’ and discuss the problem of measuring its peculiar phenomena by existing direct and indirect data. Towards a set of indices for relational economy, we consider the use of proxies in three ways: (1) a radar chart composed of specific company data; (2) ‘moments of truth’ when property movements reveal an actor's de facto ownership status; and (3) ‘moments of truth’ when adoption to or exclusion from the informal patronal network is accompanied by a significant change in financial situation. Illustrations to each of the three methods are provided from the case of Hungary after 2010.
Encouraging people to adopt a healthy diet is believed to reduce the prevalence of obesity. However, a deeper understanding of consumers' psychology regarding healthy dieting is required for this intervention to be effective. To date, knowledge remains limited on the motivations preceding healthy dietary adoption among adult consumers in the Czech Republic, which is undoubtedly facing a high prevalence of obesity among other EU member states. Most importantly, few studies have modeled the food choice motives as primary antecedents of healthy dietary adoption intentions. Therefore, the current study proposes and tests a research model that explains the motivational factors for adopting healthy diets. Data were collected through an online survey involving 161 university students and analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) procedures. The results reveal that food choice motives explain healthy dietary adoption intentions satisfactorily. Notably, the natural content and weight control motives positively and significantly affect healthy dietary adoption intentions. The study offers relevant contributions to the science of consumer motivation regarding healthy dieting and practical means to health promotion.
Considering ecological issues in supplier evaluation and management alongside business considerations is getting more recognition among firms. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is one of those methods, which is frequently suggested by the literature to support management decisions. However, the data requirements of the method should be an important consideration. The literature often addresses the issue of desirable outputs and undesirable input as an important data related problem in case of the ecological use of DEA. This paper will present a new solution to manage these data problems along with connecting the evaluation of management criteria, environmental criteria and total cost aspects. The proposed environmental supplier selection problem is an extension of a former paper. The new model examines the effect of inventory related costs, such as EOQ costs of inventory holding or ordering costs on the selected supplier, extended with newly introduced scaled values of input and output indicators. The usage of scaled values is motivated by the problem of invariance to data alteration. In addition to the uncertainty of the data, the paper looks for a functional relationship between the input and output criterion values and the efficiency that can be assigned to them using DEA.
The 21st century is characterized by digital transformation, which affects economic processes and social life, and results in the parallel existence of life in both online and offline spheres. Thus, the concept of citizenship should no longer be restricted to its traditional understanding, but expanded to digital citizenship as well, and it should be adapted to the challenges of the 21st century. Thus, we need to analyze responsible digital citizenship, and our research is aimed at the question of how to assess this. As a pilot, we conducted a survey among university students to understand the focal points in this field. Our results confirm that most students can be considered responsible digital citizens, and can also be classified according to various aspects of responsible digital citizenship.
The study seeks to explore how blockchain technology enables the creation of new ideas for ventures and to examine the activities of founders and entrepreneurial teams in shaping those ideas. We adopted several theoretical frameworks – external enablers theory, dynamic capabilities (DCs), and dynamic managerial capabilities (DMCs) – to explain the interaction of the actor-independent and actor-dependent factors in the process of new firm formation. We analysed four Hungarian blockchain start-ups that operate across financial services, cryptocurrency trading, crypto asset management, energy, information technology, and identity industries and create high value-added and cross-industrial offerings for Hungarian and foreign markets. Using qualitative study research results, the study develops the model of external enablers, founders' and firm capabilities and new venture creation. We identify three interconnected external enablers – namely, market volatility associated with the growing popularity of cryptocurrencies and the underlying blockchain technology, the properties of blockchain, and the ideology behind the technology – and discuss the role of entrepreneurs' DMCs and sensing and seizing activities in discovering and shaping these enablers into profitable business ideas.
The study shows what management students could learn from technology startups from an organizational learning (learning organization) perspective; and whether or on what level this entrepreneurial mindset is built into management education. First, the organizational learning patterns and adaptive entrepreneurial skillset of startups are identified, based on a review of the recent literature focusing on knowledge-intensive technology startups' organizational learning patterns. Then, qualitative interviews and document analysis are applied to find out whether or on what level the improvement of these skills for developing an adaptive and successful startup are present as ‘learning organizations’ are integrated in top Central-European higher management education curricula. Based on the literature review, the theoretical framework is introduced, consisting of five pillars of ‘start-up learning’: ambidextrous entrepreneurial learning, business model development, failure and experiential learning, benchmarking and learning from others, and agile product development. The empirical research looks for these pillars in management MSc programs of a top Central-European business school. The most important findings reveal that the analyzed management education programs strongly prepare students with benchmarking skills. However, the study also showed that the culture and experience of failure and the capability of learning from failure are missing from these education programs.
This paper focuses on questions of entrepreneurial education's (1) perceived usefulness, (2) effect on developing entrepreneurial competence and (3) potential to increase entrepreneurial intention. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of entrepreneurship education on the development of students' entrepreneurial competences and career plans in the Republic of Moldova. In order to explore this subject, a survey was conducted among young citizens, mainly university students and students of vocational secondary schools, who have studied entrepreneurship-related subjects. The questionnaires were completed by 289 students from 20 educational institutions in the Republic of Moldova. The statistical analysis of their answers allowed conclusions to be drawn about the positive relationship between entrepreneurship education, the development of entrepreneurial competences and the students' entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurial studies are perceived to be useful by students not only in the context of starting a new business, but also for a career as an employee, and even in various social and political situations. Some gender-specific differences were also revealed concerning perceptions of competence development and their usefulness which can be important inputs for further development of entrepreneurship education.
The degree of digitalization and potential of growth in this sector are the new criteria that split the countries into various groups. The aim of this research is to find an easier and faster method of assessing the level of digitalization for countries, over different periods, having a sample 10 countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The research compares and groups these countries, determining the impact of four additional variables on their digitalization level. There were combined multiple analyses including comparative, cluster and panel analysis. As a result, we defined a new standardized indicator, named Digi-Index, which can be adapted for various time ranges, countries or study groups. Academic researchers or business practitioners can use the Digi-Index, the clusters and their characteristics to build development plans for the digital sector, based on each country's conditions, potential and influence factors.