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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: S. Leon-Cisneros, A. Quirola-Garcés, J. Alvarez-Santana, N. Barriga-Medina, D. Ramirez-Villacís, M. Caviedes, L. Ramirez-Cárdenas and A. Leon-Reyes

Anthocyanins are plants metabolites that are recognized by its red/purple coloration produced in flowers, seeds and leaves. These molecules are potentially important to the industry for its antioxidant capacity, disease prevention and as a natural dye. Currently, the production of anthocyanins is carried out using in vitro culture of Vitis vinifera and its yield is increased by using elicitors or stress factors. Zea mays is relevant due to its high content of cyanidin-3-β-glucoside anthocyanin. In the present study the production of cyanidin-3-β-glucoside was evaluated with different mechanisms of elicitation using in vivo and in vitro culture of purple and white maize varieties. The highest callus induction (85%) for white maize was obtained in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, while for purple maize (93%) was obtained in N6 medium with 2 mg/L of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, using germinated seed as explant for both varieties. Methyl jasmonate was evaluated as an elicitation tool, however no cyanidin-3-β-glucoside was found to be accumulated or produced in vitro. In contrast, using germinated seeds and radicle tissue, elicitation using phosphorus deficiency treatment produced the highest cyanidin-3-β-glucoside accumulation (0.06 mg g−1) in white maize. No elicitation and further production of anthocyanins was found when purple maize were used using this method. Therefore, in vivo elicitation in white maize is a potential method to produce a stable anthocyanin that could be optimized for future applications.

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Cereal breeding programs are interested in increasing the number of generations per year to reduce the time needed to develop new cultivars. A common method to accomplish this is to extend the photoperiod to speed up plant growth. For oat, this method is problematic because the species responds to changes in light and temperature. Current methods of fast generation cycling in oat require embryo rescue, which is labor intensive and has a low success rate. Recently a method was developed using increased photoperiod and foliar mineral supplement to reduce generation time for wheat and barley. We evaluated this newly published method in oat and found that anthesis occurred 15 ± 3 days faster, however there was a 3-fold reduction in seed count and a 2-fold reduction in inflorescence weight. In addition, we measured endogenous ascorbate to evaluate the physiological status of the plants under fast generation cycling conditions. For oat, fast generation cycling would be effective to more rapidly advance populations using single seed descent, but not as useful when seed yield is important.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: D. Huang, H. Zhang, M. Tar, Y. Zhang, F. Ni, J. Ren, D. Fu, L. Purnhauser and J. Wu

Stripe or yellow rust (Yr), caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. (Pst), is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide. New aggressive Pst races can spread quickly, even between countries and continents. To identify and exploit stripe rust resistance genes, breeders must characterize first the Pst resistance and genotypes of their cultivars. To find new sources of resistances it is important to study how wheat varieties respond to Pst races that predominate in other continents. In this study we evaluated stripe rust resistance in 53 Hungarian winter wheat cultivars in China. Twenty-four cultivars (45.3%) had all stage resistance (ASR) and 1 (1.9%) had adult-plant resistance (APR), based on seedling tests in growth chambers and adult-plant tests in fields. We molecularly genotyped six Yr resistance genes: Yr5, Yr10, Yr15, Yr17, Yr18, and Yr36. Yr18, an APR gene, was present alone in five cultivars, and in ‘GK Kapos’, that also had seedling resistance. The other five Yr genes were absent in all cultivars tested.

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Few researches address the compatibility of organic mulching and entomopathogenic (EPN) and slug-parasitic (SPN) nematodes, although organic mulching may provide favourable conditions for these beneficial organisms. Our aim was to examine the effect of different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5%) of aqueous extracts of green waste compost, the dry leaf litters of the common walnut (Juglans regia) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides) on EPN (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae, Steinernema kraussei) and SPN (Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita) species. Experiments were set up in 96-well, flat-bottom microplates. After a 24-hour exposure time, the number of dead animals was counted under a transmission microscope. Green waste compost extracts caused quite low or no mortality in case of all examined species. Mortality caused by the 5% Norway maple leaf litter extract was moderate (34.6%) in the case of S. carpocapsae juveniles, while 100% of juveniles of other species died. The highest (5%) concentration of the common walnut leaf litter extract caused 100% mortality in all species. As a conclusion, green waste compost mulch seems to be more compatible with EPN and SPN species than common walnut or Norway maple leaf litter mulch.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Q. Riaz, K. Ács, F. Békés, R.F. Eastwood, A. Farahnaky, M. Majzoobi and C.L. Blanchard

Grain fructans play an important role in the physiology of wheat plants and also impact on the health of consumers of wheat-based products. Given the potential economic importance of fructan levels, if genetic variability could be identified for this trait, it may be a potentially useful breeding target for developing climate-resilient and nutritionally enhanced wheat varieties. The aim of the current study was to screen 78 genetically diverse Australian wheat varieties released between 1860 and 2015 to determine if historic breeding targets have resulted in changes in fructan levels and to identify potential breeding parents for the development of varieties with specific fructan levels. The impact of seasonal conditions on grain fructan levels were also investigated. Analysis of the varieties in this study indicated that historic breeding targets have not impacted on grain fructan levels. Fructan content in flours varied between 1.01 to 2.27%, showing some variation among the varieties. However, a significant variation in fructan levels was observed between different harvest years (mean values for 2015 and 2016 samples were 1.38 and 1.74%, respectively). While large variations in fructan contents of different varieties were not found, there were some varieties with consistently higher or lower fructan contents which could be used to breed varieties with specific fructan levels.

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Maize samples collected in Serbia during a period of seven years were investigated on the presence of fumonisins. Concentration of fumonisins was determined by validated direct competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. This method was in accordance with European Union requirements, therefore accredited and performed in the Serbian accredited official laboratory. Summary analysis of all obtained results revealed fumonisins contamination in 82% of the total of 291 maize samples with average contamination being 1.515 mg/kg. An increase in the percentage of contaminated samples (from 51 to 100%), as well as an increase in mean fumonisin concentration in positive samples (from 0.227 to 3.281 mg/kg) and median values in positive samples (from 0.070 to 2.140 mg/kg) was noticed during the observation period. Although in Serbia there is no regular control of fumonisins in corn for animal feeding, long-term results indicate their wide distribution in this grain. Since the data on climate elements show change in temperature and precipitation in relation to multiannual average on the territory of Serbia, further research on the effects of climate change on the development of mold, the appearance of insects and the production of toxins are necessary in order to check the resistance of currently grown hybrids in the territory of Serbia on fungal growth and fumonisins production.

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Wheat endosperm storage proteins are the major components of gluten. They play an important role in dough properties and in bread making quality in various wheat varieties. In the present study, the different alleles encoded at the 5 glutenin loci were identified from a set of 38 tetraploid wheat germplasm obtained from interspecific crosses between durum wheats (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) and their relatives (T. dicoccum Schübl. and T. polonicum L.) using SDS-PAGE. At Glu-A1 and Glu-B1, encoding high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), 2 and 4 alleles were observed, respectively. Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) displayed similar polymorphism, as 3, 5 and 3 alleles were identified at loci Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-B2, respectively. One new allele was detected at Glu-B3 locus and appeared in nine accessions obtained from five crosses. This allele codes for five subunits (2 + 8 + 9 + 13 + 18), encoded by the Glu-B3b without subunit 16 plus subunits 2 and 18. A total of 38 patterns resulted from the genetic combination of the alleles encoding at the five glutenin loci. This led to a significantly higher Nei coefficient of genetic variation in Glu-1, Glu-3 and Glu-B2 loci (0.54). The germplasm analyzed exhibited allelic variation in HMW and LMW glutenin subunit composition and the variation differed from that of tetraploid wheats of other countries. The presence of high quality alleles in glutenin loci have led the accessions to be considered as an asset in breeding programs aimed for wheat quality.

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Abstract

In gravel pits, a mosaic of habitats with various environmental conditions created during mining has a great potential for persistence of many species. We focused on such a mosaic in a gravel pit surrounded by agricultural landscape. We investigated which habitats within sludge deposits in different successional stages (from bare sands to secondary forest) and agriculturally reclaimed area enhanced diversity, species richness and abundance of carabids and supported occurrence of threatened species. Since some of these habitats were extensively managed while others were invaded by the alien plant Solidago gigantea, we also tested the effect of management and the cover of S. gigantea on carabid assemblages. We found a gradient in carabid assemblages from psammophilous ones in bare sandy soils towards similar assemblages in plots with well-developed vegetation cover. Here, carabid assemblages were represented predominantly by common species of agricultural and forest lands without higher habitat requirements. Contrarily, plots with bare sand could serve as a refuge for rare psammophilous carabid species, which cannot occur in surrounding landscape due to vanished suitable habitats. Therefore, keeping some of habitats in early plant successional states is important for maintaining habitat mosaic and for persistence of such species as well. Management of grasslands and cover of S. gigantea had no effect on carabid assemblage. We presume that carabids were likely more affected by vegetation structure and density than species composition.

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The present research endeavor was undertaken to depict the response of different generations viz., F1, F2, BC1F1, BC1F2, BC1F3, BC1F4 and BC1F5 of triticale × wheat and wheat × rye hybrids towards the different parameters of haploid induction. The experimental material included the different generations obtained utilizing five genotypes of triticale (DT-123, DT-126, TL-2900, TL-2908 and TL-9335), four genotypes of Himalayan rye (Karoki rye, shanoor rye, tino rye and triloki rye) with various elite bread wheat genotypes as parents in wide hybridization programme. The triticale × wheat and wheat × rye recombinants were further subjected to Imperata cylindrica-mediated chromosome elimination approach of doubled haploidy breeding. The variability in the haploid induction parameters was observed to be under genetic control for embryo formation and regeneration, while pseudoseed formation was only affected by auxin treatment. Among the different generations, the backcross generations viz., BC1F1 and BC1F2 were found to exhibit significant positive response towards haploid induction parameters in both triticale × wheat and wheat × rye hybridization. Knowledge of effective generation for haploid induction in triticale × wheat and wheat × rye hybridization not only saved the time and energy but also enhanced the efficiency of haploid induction.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: J.L. Zárate-Castrejón, C.L. Aguirre-Mancilla, E. Solís-Moya, J.E. Ruiz-Nieto, J.C. Raya-Pérez, J.G. Ramírez-Pimentel and V. Montero-Tavera

Yellow rust is a wheat disease caused by Puccinia striiformis, this pathogen causes economic losses in susceptible materials, which represent up to 70% of wheat varieties. Currently, the incorporation of genetic resistance through molecular tools, is a process used in the generation of new varieties resistant to this pathogen. A strategy employed to identify genes involved in the resistance to yellow rust is to screen differential EST obtained by suppressive subtractive hybridization. In this research, cDNA was extracted from healthy and inoculated plants from the resistant line V-26 from INIFAP. A set of 200 differentially expressed EST were cloned and sequenced, and 31 of them were selected for expression profile analysis by RT-PCR; additionally, with the aim of validate RT-PCR results, five genes were selected for RT-qPCR analysis in genotypes inoculated by P. striiformis. The results showed high levels of expression of selected genes in genotypes classified as resistant in the field conditions (21, 143, 230, 242, 261 and 277), while in the susceptible genotype 16, few genes were induced by the rust. Expression profiles confirmed significant differences between resistant and susceptible lines.

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