To explore the effect of sesamol on the cognition of APP/PS1 mice, 8-week-old APP/PS1 and wild-type male mice were divided into AD model group, AD + sesamol (50 mg kg−1 bw) group, and Control group. Sesamol was orally administered once a day for 5 months. Morris water maze was used to evaluate the learning and memory ability of mice. The number of synapses in the hippocampal neurons was detected by Golgi staining. Nissl staining was used to observe the changes of Nissl bodies in CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of Aβ, SIRT1, BDNF, and p-CREB/CREB in the hippocampus and cortex. Compared with the model group, sesamol decreased the latency period of APP/PS1 mice (P < 0.05) and increased the total number of neuronal dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA3 region, as well as increased the number of Nissl bodies (P < 0.05). Western blotting results showed that sesamol significantly reduced Aβ protein expression in the hippocampus and cortex, increased SIRT1 expression in the cortex, and increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus (P < 0.05). Sesamol improved the learning and memory abilities of APP/PS1 mice probably through increasing the density of neuronal dendritic spines and upregulating the levels of SIRT1 and BDNF.
The rapid technological development that is still taking place today, with increasingly interconnected IT tools, is introducing dramatic changes. The development of computer programs is rapidly transforming traditional processes and the systems that support them. It is therefore natural that the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) and its impact on Hungarian companies is one of the key topics of our time. We conducted an exploratory quantitative survey, asking 140 managers of Hungarian small, medium and large enterprises about their current situation in the context of Industry 4.0. We sought to find out to what extent the specific R&D and innovation potential of Industry 4.0 is accepted, and whether it has already been introduced in the companies. On a qualitative side, 2 case studies and 3 interviews were conducted, in which structured interviews were used to further explore the issue. We aimed to find out where SMEs stood in terms of digital preparedness and what advantages, possible disadvantages, and goals they managed to identify. Our research showed that an increasing number of companies have already decided to take the first steps towards industrial digitalisation, which will completely transform their internal processes.
Production and consumption of chicken meat has increased considerably with the increasing world population, and will continue to increase, due to its health benefits and its economic value. Chicken meat is a sensitive food due to its characteristics and microbiological load. Traceability is very important to increase food safety and biosecurity. Freshness indicators are often used to monitor the presence of metabolites produced by microorganisms, mostly functioning through the colour change of the indicator. A developed natural, edible, biodegradable, purple coloured pH sensitive sensory pad was put inside a chicken meat package to observe the chicken meat spoilage with colour change due to pH changes in the meat.
In the present study, antibiotic resistance profiles and biofilm forming abilities of 9 Listeria monocytogenes isolates obtained from out of 30 retail meat samples were determined, and the effect of commercial white vinegar on these virulence factors in isolates exposed to subMIC concentrations were investigated. All isolates were found to be resistant to cefotixin and oxacillin, 8 isolates (26.6%) to clindamycin, 1 isolate (3.3%) to rifampicin, and 1 (3.3%) isolate was found to show intermediate resistance against clindamycin. Biofilm formation was determined for all the isolates at 22 °C and 37 °C (24 h, 48 h and 72 h). MIC values of white vinegar samples were determined at 3.12% for all isolates. MIC/2 and MIC/4 concentrations of white vinegar increased the biofilm forming capacity of the isolates by 21.2% and 17.1%, respectively. After exposure to MIC/2 concentration of white vinegar for seven days, the antibiotic resistance status of the isolates to tetracycline, rifampicin, and clindamycin changed, and the biofilm forming abilities significantly decreased at 4 °C and 37 °C for 48 h and at 37 °C for 72 h (P < 0.05). The results showed that the use of subMIC concentrations of white vinegar should be avoided in routine sanitation applications.
Present study aimed to optimise stabiliser concentration and swelling time of oat in the production of oat milk using response surface methodology. The effects of independent variables (stabiliser concentration, swelling time) on dependent variables (rheological and sensory properties) were studied using a central composite rotatable design of experiments. Physico-chemical properties and colour values of samples were not significantly (P > 0.05) correlated to stabiliser concentration and swelling time. While stabiliser concentration affected the consistency index (P < 0.05), swelling time had no effect on the rheological properties. The stabiliser ratio affected the sensory texture of samples (P < 0.05). The sensory scores did not increase with increasing K value, on the contrary, the samples with the highest K value had lower sensory scores (P < 0.05). Considering the K value and sensory scores, the optimum stabiliser concentration and swelling time were determined as 0.102%, and 51.2 min, respectively.
The aims of the present study were to detect Escherichia coli in chicken distributed in Birjand, to investigate the prevalence of ESBL and AmpC beta-lactamases producers among them, and to identify their antibiotic resistance patterns. The study was conducted on 150 chicken samples, and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined by the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. Phenotypic identification of ESBL and AmpC was performed by the combined disk test (CDT). The specific genes of ESBL and AmpC beta-lactamases were detected using two multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assays. According to our results, 116 out of 150 chicken samples were contaminated with E. coli. Moreover, the highest resistance of E. coli isolates was observed to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (46%), ampicillin (40%), and amoxicillin (29.33%). In the molecular confirmation step, among 17 (11.33%) beta-lactamase producers, five samples contained the blaCTX-M14 gene (3.33%), two samples contained blaDHA (1.33%) and blaCTX-M3 gene (1.33%), and just one sample carried blaCMY-2 gene (0.66%). The blaSHV and blaTEM genes were not detected in any strains isolated from the chicken samples. This study showed the contamination of chicken with antibiotic-resistant E. coli. Therefore, it is recommended that veterinarians be more precautious in prescribing antibiotics.
Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) is an important tree species that grows widely in Türkiye. In this study, Box-Behnken experimental design was created and optimised for ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive components of Turkish red pine waste bark. Extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total concentrated tannin (TCT), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) were determined at experimental points. As a result of the optimisation process, optimum parameter values were found at 34.8 °C temperature, 6.5 min time and 116.3 W ultrasonic power. Under optimum conditions, the extraction efficiency was 13.16%, TPC 103.09 mg GAE/g, TCT 13.29 mg CE/g, FRAP 602.14 mg TEAC/g, and ABTS 624.51 mg TEAC/g activity results were obtained. The extracts obtained showed low in vitro toxicity against healthy cell lines (HEK-293, human embryonic kidney), proliferation of CaCo-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma) and MIA PaCa-2 (human pancreatic adenocarcinoma) cancer cells was significantly reduced. It was also determined that this extract has lower activity against Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated AChE (acetylcholinesterase)-BChE (butyrylcholinesterase) than diabetes disease associated ɑ-glucosidase and ɑ-amylase. The extracts also showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli.
Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary strategy that involves alternating periods of abstention from calorie consumption with periods of ad libitum food intake and has been shown to have beneficial effects in many ways. Recent studies have shown that IF attenuates neurodegeneration and improves cognitive decline, enhances functional recovery after stroke as well as attenuates the pathological and clinical features of epilepsy in animal models. Furthermore, IF induced several molecular and cellular adaptations in neurons that overall enhanced cellular stress resistance, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. In this review, the beneficial effects of IF on central neurological disorders are discussed. The information summarised in this review can be used to help contextualise existing research and better guide the development of future IF interventions.
Nattokinase (NK) is effective in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Cucumber is rich in nutrients with low sugar content and is safe for consumption. The aim of this study was to construct a therapeutic cucumber that can express NK, which can prevent and alleviate cardiovascular diseases by consumption. Because the Bitter fruit (Bt) gene contributes to bitter taste but has no obvious effect on the growth and development of cucumber, so the NK-producing cucumber was constructed by replacing the Bt gene with NK by using CRISPR/Cas9. The pZHY988-Cas9-sgRNA and pX6-LHA-U6-NK-T-RHA vectors were constructed and transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105, which was transformed into cucumber by floral dip method. The crude extract of NK-producing cucumber had significant thrombolytic activity in vitro. In addition, treatment with the crude extract significantly delayed thrombus tail appearance, and the thrombin time of mice was much longer than that of normal mice. The degrees of coagulation and blood viscosity as well as hemorheological properties improved significantly after crude extract treatment. These findings show that NK-producing cucumber can effectively alleviate thrombosis and improve blood biochemical parameters, providing a new direction for diet therapy against cardiovascular diseases.
In this paper, fresh Muzao (Zizyphus jujuba cv. Muzao) at full-red and white-ripe periods were used as raw materials to brew low-alcohol jujube wines directly without cooking or extraction. The results showed that the contents of total acid, total phenolics, and total tannin of white-ripe jujube wines (WRJW) were significantly higher than that of full-red jujube wines (FRJW) under the same ratio of jujube fruit/water (P < 0.05). When the ratio of jujube fruit to water increased from 1:1 to 1:5, the total esters contents of WRJW increased from 2261.56 μg L−1 to 3671.51 μg L−1, but decreased in FRJW. Especially, the contents of ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, and isoamyl caprylate in WRJW (1:5) were significantly higher than in other wine samples (P < 0.05). These three esters with a variety of aroma description characteristics can give jujube wine a more complex flavour. The sensory evaluation also showed that the WRJW (1:5) had the highest score. This wine had the following characteristics: clear and transparent, light yellow, pure elegant fruit and wine aroma, pleasant fragrance, harmonious wine body, fresh taste, sweet and sour, with typical characteristics of jujube wine. The research results can provide a theoretical basis and technical reference for the industrial production of high-quality jujube wine.