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Abstract

With the increase of international sports events in Hungary, their number, size, coverage, required investments, social impacts, the number of stakeholders, and people's involvement have also grown, while social support has bottomed out. How can we achieve social support? What are the factors that determine the perception of the residents of the organising city, thus, their social support? This question is answered by analysing the case of the European Youth Olympic Festival in Győr. The empirical research used quantitative methods, obtaining residents' opinions of international sports events before and after the event. The paper shows that a general positive opinion of international sports events is positively correlated with high levels of both spectator and participation sports consumption. Also, those who are personally satisfied with their quality of life generally support the organisation of international sports events and think positively of their impact. The level of satisfaction with life is correlated with satisfaction with the city and a positive opinion of its services. The regression model shows that personal involvement (e.g., interest, participation, and volunteering) is positively related to the evaluation of the impacts of sports events.

Open access

Abstract

The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC, proposed by Levesque, Davis & Morgenstern 2012) is considered to be the novel Turing Test to examine machine intelligence. Winograd schema questions require the resolution of anaphora with the help of world knowledge and commonsense reasoning. Anaphora resolution is itself an important and difficult issue in natural language processing, therefore, many other datasets have been created to address this issue. In this paper we look into the Winograd schemata and other Winograd-like datasets and the translations of the schemata to other languages, such as Chinese, French and Portuguese. We present the Hungarian translation of the original Winograd schemata and a parallel corpus of all the translations of the schemata currently available. We also adapted some other anaphora resolution datasets to Hungarian. We aim to discuss the challenges we faced during the translation/adaption process.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aim

A continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) helps the user stay continuously informed about blood glucose levels and reach the right target range. This study aimed to compare glycemic control and mental health of adults with type 1 diabetes with or without CGM and to examine their experiences using it.

Methods

Patients were included in the survey, whether or not they had used a CGM. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health, problems with disease management, hypoglycemia attitudes and behavior, as well as glucose monitoring satisfaction.

Results

277 people participated in the study. CGM users (61.3%) had a more favorable glycemic control than those who were not. No differences were observed between the 2 groups in mental health and in response to hypoglycemic events; however, users reported more disease-related problems. CGM users reported they felt more open and free about diabetes, however, the pain and skin irritation caused by the device was disturbing and it was difficult to cope emotionally with the constant thought and worrying about diabetes.

Conclusions

CGM did not show clear satisfaction among users, however, less fear of hypoglycemia, fewer depression symptomology and improved glycemic control indicate better clinical status, which is one of the most important goals of disease management.

Open access
Physiology International
Authors:
V. Fazekas-Pongor
,
M. Fekete
,
P. Balazs
,
D. Árva
,
M. Pénzes
,
S. Tarantini
,
R. Urbán
, and
J.T. Varga
Restricted access

Abstract

Recognition of Hungarian conversational telephone speech is challenging due to the informal style and morphological richness of the language. Neural Network Language Models (NNLMs) can provide remedy for the high perplexity of the task; however, their high complexity makes them very difficult to apply in the first (single) pass of an online system. Recent studies showed that a considerable part of the knowledge of NNLMs can be transferred to traditional n-grams by using neural text generation based data augmentation. Data augmentation with NNLMs works well for isolating languages; however, we show that it causes a vocabulary explosion in a morphologically rich language. Therefore, we propose a new, morphology aware neural text augmentation method, where we retokenize the generated text into statistically derived subwords. We compare the performance of word-based and subword-based data augmentation techniques with recurrent and Transformer language models and show that subword-based methods can significantly improve the Word Error Rate (WER) while greatly reducing vocabulary size and memory requirements. Combining subword-based modeling and neural language model-based data augmentation, we were able to achieve 11% relative WER reduction and preserve real-time operation of our conversational telephone speech recognition system. Finally, we also demonstrate that subword-based neural text augmentation outperforms the word-based approach not only in terms of overall WER but also in recognition of Out-of-Vocabulary (OOV) words.

Open access

Abstract

This study aimed to develop and characterise emulgels based on aqueous γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic framework (γ-CD-MOF) solutions with sunflower oil in the presence of Tween 20, 40, and 60 emulsifiers. The main physical, structural, and rheological properties of γ-CD-MOF emulgels were investigated. The emulgels prepared with 5% and 10% γ-CD-MOF were durable. The X-ray diffraction patterns proved the existence of β polymorph type lipid crystals. The rheological analyses showed that the gel strength increased with increased γ-CD-MOF concentration, and thixotropic behaviour was observed depending on the gel strength at 10 °C. In addition, the samples were heat resistant proved by rheological temperature ramp tests. Finally, addition of the emulsifiers did not cause any change in the centrifuge stability and colour properties of the emulgels. These samples could be used to prepare different emulsion type food products.

Restricted access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
C.Y. Zhou
,
Q.W. Cheng
,
T. Chen
,
L.L. Meng
,
T.G. Sun
,
B. Hu
,
J. Yang
, and
D.Y. Zhang

Abstract

To study the feasibility of evaluating the quality characteristics of banana based on the browning area. The texture characteristics, total soluble solids (TSS), ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, relative conductivity, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities in banana peels were detected during storage. A linear model was made by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression between the banana browning area and characteristic indices. The results showed that the changes in the physiological characteristics of bananas were significantly different during different storage periods. The main factors that affected the banana browning area were relative conductivity, PAL, TSS, and MDA, indicating that lipid peroxidation, respiration, and metabolism of phenylpropanoids had significant influence on the banana browning area during storage. Thus, it is feasible to predict banana quality based on changes in browning area, which could be a rapid and non-destructive detection of banana quality during storage.

Restricted access
Physiology International
Authors:
András Végh
,
Anita Csorba
,
Ákos Koller
,
Behnam Mohammadpour
,
Petra Killik
,
Lilla István
,
Márton Magyar
,
Teréz Fenesi
, and
Zoltán Zsolt Nagy

Abstract

Introduction

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in a worldwide pandemic, due to its great capacity to invade the human body. Previous studies have shown that the primary route of invasion of this virus is the human respiratory tract via the co-expression of ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2, a serine protease on the cellular surface. Interestingly, this condition is present not only on the respiratory epithelium but on the conjunctival mucosa, as well. Thus, we hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 is present on the conjunctival mucosa.

Aim

To prove that SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the conjunctiva.

Methods

Previously nasopharyngeal swab-sample based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive COVID-19 infected patients were selected at the COVID Care Centers of Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. The study was approved by the ethical committee of Semmelweis University. During their recovery, both nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swab-samples were taken and PCR method was used to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed.

Results

The study population consisted of 97 patients, 49 females (50.5%) and 48 males (49.5%), with a mean age of 67.2 ± 11.9 years. During recovery, with nasopharyngeal swabs, the PCR test was positive in 55 cases (56.70%), whereas with conjunctival swabs it was positive in 8 cases (8.25%). Both tests were positive in 5 cases (5.15%). In some patients, ocular symptoms were observed as well. The rest of the patients (29 cases) had negative nasopharyngeal PCR tests during recovery.

Conclusions

Although only in few cases, the data of the present study provides a proof of concept that SARS-CoV-2 can be present on the conjunctival mucosa even in nasopharyngeal negative patients, a finding, which can have clinical importance. Also, on the basis of these findings one can hypothesize that - in addition to the respiratory tract – the conjunctiva can be an entrance route for SARS-CoV-2 to the human body. Thus, in high-risk conditions, in addition to covering the mouth and nose with mask, the protection of the eyes is also strongly recommended.

Open access
Resolution and Discovery
Authors:
Tibor Novák
,
Dániel Varga
,
Péter Bíró
,
Bálint Barna H. Kovács
,
Hajnalka Majoros
,
Tibor Pankotai
,
Szilárd Szikora
,
József Mihály
, and
Miklós Erdélyi

Abstract

Localization based superresolution technique provides the highest spatial resolution in optical microscopy. The final image is formed by the precise localization of individual fluorescent dyes, therefore the quantification of the collected data requires special protocols, algorithms and validation processes. The effects of labelling density and structured background on the final image quality were studied theoretically using the TestSTORM simulator. It was shown that system parameters affect the morphology of the final reconstructed image in different ways and the accuracy of the imaging can be determined. Although theoretical studies help in the optimization procedure, the quantification of experimental data raises additional issues, since the ground truth data is unknown. Localization precision, linker length, sample drift and labelling density are the major factors that make quantitative data analysis difficult. Two examples (geometrical evaluation of sarcomere structures and counting the γH2AX molecules in DNA damage induced repair foci) have been presented to demonstrate the efficiency of quantitative evaluation experimentally.

Open access

Az életminőséget meghatározó tényezők Raynaud-szindrómában

Factors determining the quality of life in patients with Raynaud’s syndrome

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Réka Krisztina Hajnal
,
László Csatári
,
Balázs Fábián
, and
Zoltán Csiki

Bevezetés: A Raynaud-szindróma egy acralis területeket érintő vasospasticus jelenség, amely jellegzetes színváltozásokban nyilvánul meg. A tüneteket befolyásolják olyan hétköznapi hatások, mint a stressz vagy a hőmérséklet. A nem, az életkor, az egészségkárosító magatartások (például dohányzás) és a foglalkozás tekintetében is találhatók különbségek a betegség jelenlétét és alakulását illetően. Célkitűzés: A kutatás célja a szakirodalomban feltételezett rizikótényezők életminőségre kifejtett hatásának vizsgálata volt Raynaud-szindrómás betegek körében. Módszer: Betegségspecifikus, életminőségre és rizikótényezőkre vonatkozó kérdőívet töltött ki 110, Raynaud-szindrómával diagnosztizált személy. Eredmények: Szignifikáns különbség volt a jó és a kevésbé jó életminőséggel leírható csoportok között az életkor (p<0,001), az iskolázottság (p<0,01), a diagnózis típusa (p<0,001), a betegség időtartama (p<0,001), a fejfájás gyakorisága (p<0,01), a hideg (p<0,05) és az érzelmek (p<0,01) befolyásoló hatása alapján. A jelenleg dolgozó (p<0,01), a kávét gyakrabban fogyasztó (p<0,05), illetve az érzelmeknek (p<0,001) és a hidegnek (p<0,01) kisebb hatást tulajdonító csoportok jobb életminőséggel rendelkeztek. A változók interakciós hatását figyelembe vevő regressziós elemzés szerint a diagnózis típusa, a betegség időtartama, illetve az érzelmek és a hideg szerepe a legfontosabb befolyásolói a Raynaud-specifikus életminőségnek. Következtetés: Eredményeink felhívják a figyelmet az életminőség hosszú távú alakulását potenciálisan befolyásoló tényezők szerepére, kijelölve ezáltal a prevenció lehetséges fókuszait. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(47): 1880–1885.

Open access