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The revival of comparative economic systems research

Reflections inspired by the recent publication of the collected works of Domenico Mario Nuti

Acta Oeconomica
Author:
László Csaba

Abstract

This essay offers an overview of the state and perspectives of comparative economics in Europe. The starting point is the publication of the collected works of Mario Nuti, but the overview covers several Handbooks and collections as well as individual contributions. The big picture of the post-transition period highlights the relevance of “old” comparative economics, especially when interpreting illiberal practices in the post-communist Europe and the debate on the nature and limitations of the Chinese market socialism.

Open access

Abstract

The potency of economic sanctions imposed on nations depends on demand and supply adjustment possibilities. Adverse GDP impacts will be maximal when import, export, production, distribution and finance are inflexible (universal non-substitution). This paper elaborates these conditions, and quantifies the maximum GDP loss that Western sanctions could have inflicted on Russia in 2022–2023. It reports the World Bank's predictions, contrasts them with results and draws inferences about the efficiency of Russia's workably competitive markets. The paper shows that Russia's economic system exhibits moderate universal substitutability and is less vulnerable to punitive discipline than Western policymakers suppose. The likelihood that the Kremlin will restore Ukraine's territorial integrity, ceteris paribus, is correspondingly low. The authors also observe that unintended adverse side effects from sanctions and counter-sanctions were excessive because policymakers chose to maximize GDP-damage to Russia instead of optimizing Western and third-party net benefits. Given moderate substitutability, Western policymakers can switch to smart net benefit maximizing sanctions that enhance Western and third-party welfare without significantly bolstering Russia's military industrial productivity and war-waging capabilities by retaining embargoes on weapons, technology and critical components, while selectively softening other restrictions. Smart sanctions might facilitate a negotiated settlement of the Russo–Ukrainian war.

Restricted access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Anita Birinji
,
Kristina Pogrmić-Majkić
,
Željko Mihaljev
,
Marija Marin
, and
Dušan Lalošević

Abstract

In this study, we evaluated the cumulative effects of arsenic (III) oxide on the number of mouse offspring over three consecutive generations and monitored changes in levels of the reproductive hormones, oestradiol and progesterone in female mice during the dioestrus phase of the cycle. The control group received water from the mains. In two experimental groups, mice were given drinking water containing dissolved arsenic (III) oxide at concentrations of 10.6 mg L−1 and 106 mg L−1, respectively. These concentrations represent the values converted from a human model to an animal model (mice) thus correspond to the arsenic content of the groundwater in the southern part of the Pannonian Basin, in the province of Vojvodina, in the Banat region, in particular in the town of Zrenjanin. The average number of newborn mice in both experimental groups decreased for three consecutive generations. The total arsenic content of day-old mice did not show significant differences between the experimental groups. Arsenic (III) oxide affected the reproductive hormone levels of female mice at both concentrations.

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Abstract

Plant protection products (PPP), crucial for agricultural production, are experiencing increased global demand, particularly with the growing need for food production. To meet this demand, robust analytical methods are essential for confirming the presence and determining active substance concentrations in PPP. This study introduces an analytical method utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) for determination of acetamiprid in water-soluble powder formulations. The method, validated according to SANCO/3030/99 rev.5, demonstrated exhibited adequate accuracy and precision, with repeatability expressed as the ratio of the standard deviation (% RSD) to the relative standard deviation (% RSDr) being lower than 1. Recoveries for the active substance at concentrations above 10% ranged from 97% to 103%. The developed method is also characterized by suitable linearity, confirmed by a correlation coefficient >0.99. Specific chromatographic profiles were generated, and acetamiprid content in 180 formulations was analyzed, including reference products. The developed method aligns with “green chemistry” principles, minimizing solvent use and emphasizing energy efficiency. Overall, it offers a comprehensive approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis, ensuring the reliability of PPP quality control.

Open access

The Liye excavation, commenced in 2002, yielded a significant document: the No. 8-461 ‘wooden tablet of nomenclature changes’ (gengming fang 更名方) from the Qin unification era. With 54 entries outlining the nomenclature changes, it complicates the traditional view of the First Emperor’s ‘unification of Chinese script.’ This paper examines this earliest direct evidence pertaining to the writing standardisation project, focusing on terminology analysis and deciphering previously puzzling entries. This study also evaluates the effectiveness of the language reform by analysing character frequency in contemporaneous documents. It also contextualizes this artefact’s significance within the broader historical context of the newly established ruling order in the Qin Empire.

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Nem lehet mindenhol mindent, de mindenhol lehet valamit – Geotermikus energia hasznosítás lehetőségei a hazai ellátás diverzifikálása érdekében

Not everything anywhere, but something everywhere – geothermal to diversify the domestic energy supply

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Judit Mádlné Szőnyi
,
Ábel Markó
, and
Tamara Tóthi

Összefoglalás

Magyarországon az energiaválság kapcsán előtérbe került a kedvező geotermikus adottságok kihasználásának szükségessége. A cikkben az európai geotermikus viszonyokból kiindulva mutatjuk be a hazai adottságokat, alkalmazható technológiákat. Az adottságok villamos áram termelésre csak sporadikusan, magas kockázatok és technológiai fejlesztések mellett alkalmazhatók. Ugyanakkor az ország szinte teljes területén van lehetőség sekély geotermikus és hidrotermás készletek, valamint a hulladékhő további hasznosítására. A jövőben a termálvizek települési szintű, kaszkád rendszerű teljeskörű hasznosítása lenne kívánatos. A fenntarthatóság kulcsa a lefűtött termálvizek nagyarányú visszasajtolása. A felszínalatti térrész, a különböző fluidumok és a bennük rejlő nyersanyagok hasznosítása kutatást és új, komplex szemléletet igényel.

Open access

The main feature of the extant Old Uyghur manuscripts is their fragmentary state of preservation and the predominant lack of dating. Catalogues and editions of the Old Uyghur fragments reveal a great diversity in the size and format of the discovered manuscript folios and the fragments from them. This study aims to promote the reconstruction of the scope of the Old Uyghur book forms from preserved fragments as an important part of the Old Uyghur manuscript culture. Which book forms were utilized, who participated in their production, and where? Studies on the papers and inks employed are obtainable. This study focuses on the Buddhist scrolls of the Säkiz Yükmäk Yaruk.

Open access

Abstract

In recent years, the incidence of food-borne bacterial enteric diseases has increased worldwide causing significant health care and socioeconomic burdens. According to the World Health Organization, there are an estimated 600 million cases of foodborne illnesses worldwide each year, resulting in 420,000 deaths. Despite intensive efforts to tackle this problem, foodborne pathogenic microorganisms continue to be spread further. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find novel anti-microbial non-toxic compounds for food preservation. One way to tackle this issue may be the usage of polyphenols, which have received increasing attention in the recent years given their pleotropic health-promoting properties. This prompted us to perform a literature search summarizing studies from the past 10 years regarding the potential anti-microbial and disease-alleviating effects of plant-derived phenolic compounds against foodborne bacterial pathogens. The included 16 studies provide evidence that polyphenols show pronounced anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species. In addition, synergistic anti-microbial effects in combination with synthetic antibiotics were observed. In conclusion, phenolic compounds may be useful as natural anti-microbial agents in the food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries in the combat of foodborne infections.

Open access

Abstract

In August 216 BC, Hannibal offered Rome a chance to ransom 10,000 POWs (prisoners of war), but the Senate, even though it was desperate for manpower, rejected his offer and instead purchased and freed 8,000 slaves to enlist in the army. The message was that Rome preferred newly freedmen who would fight for Rome over the men who had not fought their way out of the enemy's grasp. Hannibal sold the POWs into slavery. Thereafter, disdain for prisoners became a permanent feature of the Roman war machine. Diodorus, Livy, Plutarch, and Dio acknowledge that the Romans used to ransom and exchange POWs just like everyone else, but after Cannae they stopped. Cannae revived traumatic memories of how Rome had surrendered to Brennus and ransomed the city in 387 BC and surrendered to the Samnites in 321 BC at Caudine Forks and signed an unfavorable peace. Although Romans invented stories of salvation and exacting revenge in both cases, these humiliating events left deep scars in the Roman psyche, which never completely healed.

The defeat and capture of Atilius Regulus in Africa in 255 directly relates to the above-mentioned disasters. Although Romans transformed Regulus into a hero and martyr for integrity, claiming that he returned to Rome in 250 BC (five years after his death!) and denounced a prisoner exchange he had promised to endorse, the legend obscured the fact that Rome did exchange prisoners out of necessity in 249.

Restricted access

Abstract

A new series expansion-based method, the Combined Geoelectric Weighted Inversion (CGWI) procedure is presented and tested by using synthetic and in-field measured datasets. The method is an improved version of the Combined Geoelectric Inversion (CGI) robustified by involving Cauchy-Steiner weights in an Iteratively Reweighted Least Squares technique. The new procedure is compared to the Fourier series expansion-based 1.5D and the CGI methods as well as to the broadly applied RES2DINV inversion procedure. The field measurements are performed during stone exploration in an active quarry on the south-western slopes of the Mátra mountains, in northern Hungary. It is shown that the CGWI method gives stable and robust parameter estimation with acceptable accuracy. The comparison with other inversion methods is based on data distances, estimation errors and correlation parameters calculated on the base of the parameter correlation matrix.

Open access