In this opinion piece we propose the investigation of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD is a psychiatric disorder characterised by appearance-based preoccupations and accompanying compulsions. While safe and effective treatments for BDD exist, non-response and relapse rates remain high. Therefore, there is a need to investigate promising new treatment options for this highly debilitating condition. Preliminary evidence suggests safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy of psychedelic treatments in disorders that share similar psychopathological mechanisms with BDD. Drawing on this evidence, as well as on relevant qualitative reports and theoretical proposals, we argue that it would be worthwhile to conduct a phase 2a study aimed at assessing the safety and feasibility of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy in BDD. We also offer some suggestions for how future research ought to proceed.
Absolute pitch (AP) is an interdisciplinary phenomenon that has been the subject of research in the field of genetics, neuroscience, musicology, and psychology. Individuals with AP are able to identify the pitch of an isolated sound (passive AP) or to produce that sound (active AP) without a reference point. The aim of the authors is to give a literature review on AP, with special regard to psychological and Hungarian aspects. The phenomenon of AP was already known in the 18th century, but it was only in the last decades of the 19th century that it became the focus of research. Relatively small number of epidemiological studies have been carried out on AP. On the basis of study results, AP is very rare, its prevalence is given over a wide range, between 0.01 and 1% in the general population, and between 3.4 and 20% among trained musicians. AP is more prevalent among blind persons, Asian musicians, and those with autism spectrum disorder. Several forms of AP are distinguished; the relationship between AP and relative pitch is under the scope of studies. Implicit AP is a remarkable phenomenon. The cause of AP and the process of its development have not yet been explored. However, the interaction of genetic, environmental and neural factors seems to be crucial. There are strong evidences for the role of genetic factors and early music training. Neural correlates of AP, structural and functional differences in the nervous system of people with and without AP have been demonstrated, and the performances of these groups in musical tasks also differ.
In the 21st century, generativity has become an increasingly important concept in terms of the individual's well-being. It represents a general attitude of commitment towards a broader community and contribution to improving the world. The study aimed to create the Hungarian version of the Loyola Generativity Scale (LGS-18).
In the first stage of the adaptation we tested the factor structure of the LGS scale, in the second and the third stages we examined the validity and the test-retest reliability of the scale. The study involved N = 624 participants (Mage = 50.09; SDage = 8.58), who filled out the following questionnaires: Loyola Generativity Scale (LGS), Satisfaction with Life (SWLS-H), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES-H), Sence of Coherence (SOC), Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS), Schwartz's Value Survey (SVS).
The confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis approved the 18-items version of LGS with excellent reliability and stability. The constructs inserted into the validation showed consistency with the LGS-18 scale according to our expectations and to the data from the international literature.
The 18 item version of the Hungarian Loyola Generativity Scale (LGS-18) is proved to be a reliable and valid questionnaire for measuring adults' generativity.
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is an umbrella term which comprises several kinds of behaviors (e.g., cutting, hitting, biting, scratching, burning). Over the last decade, lifetime prevalence of NSSI acts has showed a dynamic increase among young people. Furthermore, NSSI could associated not only with mental disorders, but might appear in nonclinical samples. This urges the detailed and complex exploration of the etiology, functions, processes and removal of NSSI. Multidimensional nature of the etiology of NSSI makes difficult to develop a comprehensive model. The existing explanatory models are diverse, integrative approach much less likely could be discovered. Our study gives an overview of the spectrum of the models of NSSI. We summarize the biological, the psychological, the interpersonal, and the psychodynamic models, as well as the developmental pathways of NSSI. Finally, the cultural and the system perspectives are also incorporated into the explanations of NSSI. Empirical results provide evidence of the presented models.
The high dropout rates (generally 30–40%) in higher education is causing serious problems. Computer science education is particularly affected, with the first two semesters of undergraduate education being the most critical period in most countries. The institutes may lose 60% of their students. The aim of our study is to analyse how effective the educational reform was: how many students could we prevent from dropping out since 2016.
A sample of academic performance of computer science students was analyzed between 2010 and 2017 using IRT model analysis. The study includes data from 3,673 university students.
According to our results, after the educational reform, most subjects became more achievable and students with lower abilities also tried to take the exams. Mathematics-related subjects became achievable at a lower level of difficulty, and lower ability students also tried to take the exams, and did not see the attempt as a potential failure.
Programming/professional subjects became more difficult, and they were differentiating students at a higher level than mathematic related subjects. Educational reform to support students' academic progress has made it possible to improve students' academic performance. We conclude that intervention programs are worthwhile to consider in order to retain students.
Storytelling during childhood provides many benefits, such as a positive effect on the development of the imagination, visualization of spoken words and communication skills. In addition to cognitive benefits storytelling improves the parent-child relationship. Developmental theories suggest that a tale have to reflect on the whole personality of the children and help them to solve their internal conflicts. The aim our research was to find out the formal and structural differences between classical fairy tales and their shortened version.
In our study we used the character types and functions identified by Vladimir Propp to compare and contrast the two group of tales. We considered developmental psychological and narratological aspects. Furthermore, we determined story functions which have a key role from the developmental aspect, such as “the Hero leaves home”, “the Hero acquires the use of a magical agent” or “the Villain is punished”. The comparison of these functions in the classical and shortened tales was the main focus of our research.
Our results suggest that there is a significant difference between the functions applied in classical fairy tales and their shortened versions. The functions which have an important role from developmental aspect occur statistically fewer in the shortened tales.
These findings indicate that the shortened versions of classical tales could not help the children as much as their original version in solving their internal conflict and could not fill in the same developmental role in their inner life.