Authors:Patricia Patricio, José Artur Paiva and Luís Miguel Borrego
Sepsis leads to a systemic immune response, and despite the progress of modern medicine, it is still responsible for a high mortality rate.
The immune response to sepsis is dependent on the innate and adaptive immune systems. The first line is the innate system, which requires complex and multiple pathways in order to eliminate the invading threats. The adaptive responses start after the innate response. The cell-mediated arm of CD4+ and CD8+ T and B cells is the main responsible for this response.
A coordinated cytokine response is essential for the host immune response. A dysregulated response can lead to a hyperinflammatory condition (cytokine storm). This hyperinflammation leads to neutrophils activation and may also lead to organ dysfunction. An imbalance of this response can increase the anti-inflammatory response, leading to compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS), persistent inflammation-immunsupression, catabolism syndrome (PICS), and, above all, an immune paralysis stat.
This immune paralysis leads to opportunistic infections, Candida species being one of the emerging microorganisms involved. The host immune response is different for bacterial or Candida sepsis.
Immune responses for bacterial and Candida sepsis are described in this paper.
Authors:J. Vuts, Lohonyai Zsófia, Z. Imrei, Éva Bálintné Csonka, M. A. Birkett and M. Tóth
When applied in funnel traps, the known three-component floral lure of Cetonia a. aurata and Potosia cuprea attracts large numbers of beetles. Further increasing the attractive power of these traps offers the opportunity to develop a more potent mass-trapping tool that directly reduces local scarab populations and, hence, fruit damage. The current study was initiated by the observation of adult beetles aggregating and feeding in large numbers on ripening fruit, accompanied by the presence of fermentation volatiles detectable by the human nose. Addition of apple pieces to the ternary C. aurata aurata / P. cuprea lure resulted in increased catches, but only in traps where the apple fermented as a result of beetle feeding. Volatile extracts collected from fermenting apple were subjected to GC-EAG, and bioactive peaks were identified as 1-hexanol, acetic acid, n-butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid and 3-methylphenol by GC-MS and GC peak enhancement. In preliminary field trials, a synthetic mixture of all identified compounds reduced activity of the ternary lure, indicating that some were inhibitory. As certain individual compounds or their particular combinations enhanced activity of the ternary lure only numerically, further experiments are discussed to optimize a synergistic blend of fruit fermentation and/or beetle-derived volatiles.
Authors:Mughal Qayum, Muhammad Nisar, Abdur Rauf, Imran Khan, Waqar Ahmad Kaleem, Muslim Raza, Nasiara Karim, Munawar Ahmad Saleem, Saud Bawazeer, Sengul Uysal, Gokhan Zengin, Saqib Jahan and Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
Natural products derived from medicinal plants provide beneficial cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. Bioactive constituents from plants are explored for their anticancer properties.
Three known compounds (deacetylbaccatin III, tasumatrol B, and taxawallin J) were isolated from Taxus wallichiana. Compounds were screened against four cancer cell lines, such as eA498, HepG2, NCI-H226, and MDR 2780AD. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated using MTT assay against cancer cell lines.
Tasumatrol B showed good cytotoxic activity conducted for the improvement of inhibiting potential of these compounds against the cancer drug target protein (EGFR tyrosine kinase enzyme). The docking study showed that all compounds have binding affinities and interaction profile with the receptor tyrosine kinase.
The study suggests that these compounds could be used for the discovery of novel inhibitors against the target receptors for the treatment of cancer.
Authors:A. C. Ferreira, C. E. R. D. Alencar and L. E. A. Bezerra
Mangroves are dynamic ecosystems due to influence of abiotic and biotic factors, but the latter are far less studied. Interactions between key invertebrate groups, trees, and soil properties, among others, determine the community structure throughout mangrove stand developing. Covariation among these factors, however, obscures their mutual relationships in shaping mangrove community assemblage patterns. In the estuary of Pacoti River (Ceará State, northeast Brazil), we compared the diversity and distribution of brachyurans and trees among several mid-littoral areas, and their relation with sediment features, to understand their relationships in community assemblage of new mangrove stands in developing. To discriminate the relation among these variables, ordination of data (PCA) and multivariate multiple correlation (PLS) were used. Data show that intertidal establishment of Brachyura was determined primarily by sediment properties, but further spatial distribution and diversity of this key faunal group, and the tree species that establishes, can influence each other. The prop roots habitat of Rhizophora mangle supports a higher brachyuran richness, since it allows the existence of multispecific crab burrow systems underground. Our results show that Rhizophora and brachyurans are key engineer organisms involved in shaping the physical and, hence, the ecological structure of newly established mangrove stands at Neotropics.
Authors:M. F. Hassan, F. M. Momen, S. S. Moawad and M. Lamlom
The predatory mites Neoseiulus barkeri, Amblyseius swirskii and Cydnoseius negevi are native phytoseiid mites in Egypt. The biology of these predators was studied using Achroia grisella eggs as food source. Tested phytoseiids were succeeded to develop to adulthood and sustain oviposition on A. grisella eggs. For Cydnoseius negevi, the development was slower and fecundity was lower than for Neoseiulus barkeri and Amblyseius swirskii. The predation rate during immature stages of Cydnoseius negevi was higher than those of Neoseiulus barkeri and Amblyseius swirskii. During oviposition period, N. barkeri consumed more eggs than other phytoseiids did. The higher mean fecundity was recorded for Neoseiulus barkeri and Amblyseius swirskii as opposed to the lower mean for Cydnoseius negevi. When Amblyseius swirskii fed on Achroia grisella eggs, the oviposition period, female longevity and mean generation time were longer than for Cydnoseius negevi and Neoseiulus barkeri. Feeding on eggs of Achroia grisella resulted in the lowest mean fecundity, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase, finite rate of increase and gross reproductive rate for Cydnoseius negevi. The sex ratio of all predators' progeny was in female-biased. Consequently, the moth egg was alternative food for Neoseiulus barkeri and Amblyseius swirskii, while it considers as survival prey for Cydnoseius negevi.
Authors:N. von Allmen, K. Gorzelniak, O. Liesenfeld, M. Njoya, J. Duncan, E. M. Marlowe, T. Hartel, A. Knaust, B. Hoppe and M. Walter
Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization status facilitates isolation and decolonization and reduces MRSA infections. Liquid but not dry swabs allow fully automated detection methods. However, the accuracy of culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using liquid and dry swabs has not been analyzed. We compared different swab collection systems for routine nasal–throat MRSA screening in patients admitted to a tertiary care trauma center in Germany. Over 3 consecutive months, dry swabs (month 1), ESwabs (month 2), or MSwabs (month 3) were processed using Cepheid GeneXpert, Roche cobas and BD-MAX™ MRSA tests compared to chromogenic culture. Among 1680 subjects, the MRSA detection rate using PCR methods did not differ significantly between dry swabs, ESwab, and MSwab (6.0%, 6.2%, and 5.3%, respectively). Detection rates using chromogenic culture were 2.9%, 3.9%, and 1.9%, using dry, ESwab, and MSwab, respectively. Using chromogenic culture as the “gold standard”, negative predictive values for the PCR tests ranged from 99.2–100%, and positive predictive values from 33.3–54.8%. Thus, efficient and accurate MRSA screening can be achieved using dry, as well as liquid E- or MSwab, collection systems. Specimen collection using ESwab or MSwab facilitates efficient processing for chromogenic culture in full laboratory automation while also allowing molecular testing in automated PCR systems.
Authors:H. Mahmoudi, M. Salari, M. Ghayeb Zamharir and M. Ghorbani
A safflower disease was observed in the fields of South Khorasan (Iran) in 2017–2018. Affected plants had extensive fasciation, bushy growth, small leaves, phyllody and shortened internodes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed using universal phytoplasma primers pairs P1/P7, R16mF1/mR1 and M1/M2 to detect putative phytoplasma (s). Nested PCR analyses showed that all symptomatic plants were positive for phytoplasma infection, while asymptomatic plants were negative. Nucleotide sequence analysis and RFLP analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequences indicated that safflower fasciation in Iran was associated with a phytoplasma that belonged to the peanut witches' broom group (16SrII). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that safflowers fasciation phytoplasma (SaP) must be classified in ‘Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia’ (16SrII) taxonomic group. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a phytoplasma associated with safflower fasciation in Iran and the world.
Authors:A. Bachir, I. Selmi, A. Lehad, M. Louanchi and N. Mahfoudhi
Rugose wood disease constitutes one of the major grapevine disease complexes causing significant economic damage worldwide. It is widely distributed in all grapevine growing areas of the world and comprised of four individual syndromes, which may be caused by different viruses. These syndromes are Corky bark, LN 33 stem grooving, Kober stem grooving and Rupestris stem pitting (RSP). The present study focuses on the prevalence of three viruses associated with rugose wood complex (RWC) in Algeria.
Field inspections and collection of symptomatic samples were conducted on autumn 2012 in the table wine and autochthone accession in the western and central regions of Algeria. A total of 202 samples were tested by RT-PCR using specific primers for Grapevine virus A (GVA), Grapevine virus D (GVD) and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV).
The results of RT-PCR indicated the presence of the viruses GVA, GVD and GRSPaV with 68,81% (139 out of 202 infected samples) total average infection rate. The results also indicated the predominance of GRSPaV compared to the prevalence of GVA and GVD with an infection rate of 57,92% vs. 36,63% (74 out of 202) and 2,97% (6 out of 202), respectively. Mixed infections of these three viruses were not observed in any of the samples analysed, however the mixed infection of GVA and GRSPaV was noted with a high rate of 26.73%. The grapevine cultivars; Kings Rubi, Carignan and Mersguerra were the most infected, while the Alicante Bouschet cultivar presented the lowest infection rate. To the best of our knowledge, the present study reports for the first time on the presence of GVD in Algeria.
Authors:Hagen Frickmann, Andreas Hahn, Stefan Berlec, Johannes Ulrich, Moritz Jansson, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Philipp Warnke and Andreas Podbielski
Introduction: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are important causes of severe diseases like blood stream infections. This study comparatively assessed potential differences in their impact on disease severity in local and systemic infections.
Methods: Over a 5-year interval, patients in whom either E. coli or S. aureus was detected in superficial or primary sterile compartments were assessed for the primary endpoint death during hospital stay and the secondary endpoints duration of hospital stay and infectious disease as the main diagnosis.
Results: Significance was achieved for the impacts as follows: Superficial infection with S. aureus was associated with an odds ratio of 0.27 regarding the risk of death and of 1.42 regarding infectious disease as main diagnosis. Superficial infection with E. coli was associated with a reduced duration of hospital stay by −2.46 days and a reduced odds ratio of infectious diseases as main diagnosis of 0.04. The hospital stay of patients with E. coli was increased due to third-generation cephalosporin and ciprofloxacin resistance, and in the case of patients with S. aureus due to tetracycline and fusidic acid resistance.
Conclusions: Reduced disease severity of superficial infections due to both E. coli and S. aureus and resistance-driven prolonged stays in hospital were confirmed, while other outcome parameters were comparable.
Authors:E. Feoli, P. Ganis, J. J. Ibáñez and R. Pérez-Gómez
In this paper, we want to support the idea of using a family of indices of similarity, that we call the Simpson's family indices or nestedness-based similarity functions (NBSF) for comparing operational geographic units (OGUs) (phytosociological relevés, animal traps, watersheds, administrative units, industrial areas, islands etc.). In these cases, similarity-dissimilarity depends, in addition to factors that induce replacement, also on factors that produce reduction or increment in the number of features within the same typology of OGUs (e.g., extent, reduction of fertility, anthropogenic pressure etc.). To keep into consideration this aspect, the indices are defined to be equal to 1 when the OGUs are completely nested. The results of the application to four simulated data sets prove that, when the data set does not show clear nested pattern, the use of NBSF produces results similar to the nestedness-free similarity functions, however since NBSF clearly detect nested situations, we should prefer their use in the circumstances where we think important to put in evidence nestedness. In conclusion, we support the idea of using both types of indices in order to improve the knowledge about the structure of any data set.