Proper gluten quantitation is essential for providing safe gluten-free food for patients living with celiac disease (CD). However, gluten quantitation faces several challenges: the lack of a reference method and certified reference materials, the variability of methods and the effects of genetic and environmental factors on gluten. Among all these challenges our research group focuses on gluten reference material development. Gluten content is determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to obtain comparable data for the selection of cultivars used in our reference material development efforts. As ELISA methods are developed for determining low gluten concentrations, application for these special research purposes requires a 10,000-fold dilution. The formerly performed process was a post-extraction liquid dilution that proved to be sufficient for wheat samples. However, gluten contents of rye and barley samples were found to be overestimated by ELISA methods. One of the suggested reasons is the structural and solubility changes of gluten proteins during the dilution process. Therefore, our present study focuses on the comparison of the original dilution method and a revised version using solid-phase dilution in a gluten-free matrix.
Jerusalem artichoke tuber extracts (JAE) bioactivity including anticancer, antimicrobial, and digestion-inhibiting properties were investigated. The findings showed that the extracts were able to inhibit cancer growth in the HT-29 colon cancer cell line (HT-29 cc cell line) in a dose-dependent form. The suppression of cell proliferation rose to about 78.05 ± 3.9 percent at a dose of 250 μg mL−1. The Annexin V assay showed dose-dependent DNA fragmentation and detected late apoptotic induction in the HT-29 cc cell line. Depending on the concentration, the extract was able to stop the cell cycle in the HT-29 cc cell line at the G1 phase. Also, JAE prevented the HT-29 cc cell line growth, which resulted in programmed cell death. Additionally, the extracts are potential antibacterial agents and may inhibit lipase and α-amylase.
Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) production is growing worldwide so the treatment and utilization of Rambutan by-products has become a concern of manufacturers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential application of rhizobacteria to decompose Rambutan peel for organic fertilizer production. After the rhizospheric soil samples were selectively proliferated and preadded on agar medium containing only Rambutan peel, the rhizobacterial colony isolates were screened based on their ability to grow on this agar medium and then to degrade cellulose in Rambutan peel. The LD7.3 isolate from the Rambutan rhizosphere showed the highest efficiency in degrading Rambutan peel with 5.6% degraded cellulose content and was identified by the MALDI-TOF technique as belonging to Klebsiella. Klebsiella sp. LD7.3 grew well and maintained the same degrading activity after three times of subculturing in liquid medium. Notably, the supplementation of grinded Rambutan fruit peel to the liquid medium had a positive effect on the growth and the degrading activity of Klebsiella sp. LD7.3. This was the primary report on the application of rhizobacteria to degrade Rambutan peel and the results showed that this was a potential approach to reuse this waste source.
The experiment was conducted within a framework of a two-factor long-term trial at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation, in Szarvas, Hungary. This was a special field experiment, in which lysimeters have been installed in the middle of 32 m2 field plots. The main factor was the water supply with 4 levels: i1: non-irrigated control; i2: irrigated with one third of the optimal water supply; i3: irrigated with two thirds of the optimal water supply; i4: optimum irrigated plot, according to the requirement of sweet corn test plant. The amount of released irrigation water was 0, 54, 106 and 158 mm per year on average over 5 years. Within every water supply treatment there were 4 nutrient supply rates (N): N1, N2, N3, N4 = 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg ha−1 NPK fertiliser substance in ratio 2:1:1. The number of replications was 4, and the experiment was arranged in split-plot design. In the studied years, the amount of precipitation varied between 92 and 264 mm from sowing to harvesting.
The effect of fertiliser was less in the non-irrigated treatments compared to that of the irrigated ones, and the yield was increased only up to 200 kg ha−1 NPK treatment level. The NPK dose of 300 kg ha−1 proved to be optimal in the irrigated treatments in which the utilization of fertilizer doses increased parallel to the improving water supply. In addition, the ratio of first class products (cobs longer than 20 cm) increased to a greater extent than the yield as a result of irrigation and fertilization. Water requirement of sweet corn proved to be between 400–450 mm resulting in an average yield of 20–24 t ha−1, of which 18–20 t ha−1 came from marketable cobs. The amount of evapotranspiration fluctuated between 270–440 mm during the five years, depending on the quantity of water supply, but it changed to a lesser extent than the amount of the yield. Increasing the fertilizer dose practically did not affect ET in non-irrigated plants, but increased it by 20–30 mm in irrigated ones. The change was not significant.
The productivity of ET was only 30–45 kg ha−1 mm−1 in the non-irrigated treatment, while it was 50–55 kg ha−1 mm−1 in the irrigated treatments, with higher values at the higher fertiliser rates. The productivity of irrigation water exceeded far over the productivity of ET at adequate nutrient supply. The yield increase per 1 mm of irrigation water was on average 60 kg ha−1 mm−1, which was considerably higher than the productivity of ET of non-irrigated plants (39 kg ha−1 mm−1). There was a positive correlation between the yield and ET, and a negative correlation between the yield and specific water consumption. Irrigation and fertilization increased the average yield to a greater extent than evapotranspiration, so as the average yield increased, the ET per unit of yield decreased, i.e. the productivity of evapotranspirated water increased.
It is necessary to estimate the number of animals slaughtered outside slaughterhouses in countries like Türkiye, where slaughterings in non-slaughterhouses are relatively high. This paper presents the estimation of red meat production including all slaughterings both in slaughterhouses and in non-slaughterhouses by using a re-established model based on change in the inventory of animals including imported and exported animals, slaughtering rate for the slaughtered animals raised domestically in Türkiye, and total red meat consumption per capita per year in Türkiye. Total red meat production in Türkiye was estimated as 1 million 952 thousand 38 tonnes, bovine meat production was estimated as 1 million 471 thousand 550 tonnes, sheep and goats meat production was estimated as 480 thousand 488 tonnes in 2021. Total red meat human consumption per capita in Türkiye was estimated as 23 kg carcass weight per capita per year and 17 kg retail weight per capita per year. 17 kg of total red meat human consumption came from bovine meat, and 6 kg came from sheep and goats meat. According to the result of cluster analysis of European countries, Türkiye was clustered in the group of lowest total red meat consumption with Albania, Ukraine, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Moldova, North Macedonia, Czech Republic, and Serbia.
The research aim was to evaluate the Portuguese honey consumers’ profile, their attitudes, perceptions, and trends towards the product, production, and consumption, to allow the development of marketing strategies. With this purpose, a questionnaire was developed in accordance with the Ajzen's Planned Behaviour Theory and was then completed by 784 interviewees to retrieve quantitative and qualitative data. These included demographic, consumption pattern, and behavioural pattern variables collected in a Likert scale. Spearman correlations were performed between ordinal and continuous variables, and chi-squared tests of independency applied to contingency tables between nominal variables. A positive correlation was found between age and frequency of purchasing. Men consume honey more frequently than women. Portuguese honey has a good reputation, and it is preferred in relation to imported honey. The Portuguese consumer is not completely aware of the different floral characteristics of honey, other hive products, and positive externalities associated with beekeeping. By filling the marketing gap identified, production and consumption of honey could be increased in Portugal. Marketing campaigns promoting the health benefits of honey and other hive products, as well as the externalities of beekeeping may be advantageous.
Reducing sugars are known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly by means of the glycation reaction. The hydroxyl radical, a prominent entity of ROS, is known to alter cellular DNA and induces damage to DNA, and plays a role in diseases such as diabetes mellitus. In this study, the oxidative damage of DNA induced by the lysine/Fe3+/MG reaction was investigated. Silybum marianum seeds extract (SlyE), standard silymarin (Sly), and vitamin B6 derivatives, pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine (PM), and pyridoxine (P) in reversing glycation-induced damage in DNA were evaluated. In addition, different sugars and sugar phosphates were incubated with plasmid pBR 322 DNA to control and compare their harmful effects. Our results revealed that SlyE protected lysine/Fe3+/MG induced oxidative DNA damage more effectively than Sly. Vitamins, on the other hand, prevented this DNA damage in the order of PLP>P>PM. The DNA altering and damaging intensity of sugars and sugar phosphates tested increased considerably in the following order: Ribose-5-phosphate > fructose-6-phosphate > ribose > fructose > fructose-1,6 biphosphate > glucose-6 phosphate > glucose. The results show that the lysine/Fe3+/MG glycation reaction can cause oxidative damage of DNA through a mechanism involving hydroxyl radicals. It also provides evidence that ribose-5-phosphate and fructose and its phosphate metabolites can alter DNA more rapidly in vitro than glucose and its phosphate metabolites.
In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to identify bacteria from environmental matrices. The aim of this work was to determine the efficacy of this rapid technique and the bacterial community of agricultural samples. Environmental samples included the collection of irrigation waters and manures, and bacteria from the surface of vegetables were also investigated. From food safety point of view, the investigation of these microbial communities is inevitable considering their potential hazardous impact on the food production chain. Altogether 235 bacterial isolates were identified with the most frequent genera being Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Aeromonas. Our results indicated that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to identify causative agents of foodborne illnesses, food spoilage and common plant pathogens. However, limitations of the rapid identification technique were also encountered as we obtained correct identification at species level for 30.2% and at genus level for 69.8% of the isolates.
Carrageenan-induced paw oedema is a widely used model of acute inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the flavonoid fustin on carrageenan-induced acute paw inflammation in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were distributed equally between three groups – control, F10, and F20. In the course of 1 week, animals were treated once daily by intragastric gavage as follows: control group – with distilled water (10 mL kg−1) containing 50 μL Tween 80; groups F10 and F20 – with 10 mL kg−1 suspensions containing fustin in two doses (10 mg kg−1 and 20 mg kg−1, respectively) and 50 μL Tween 80. After the treatment period, carrageenan was injected in the left hind paw and paw oedema was evaluated 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 min after the injection using a plethysmometer. In the control group, paw oedema increased gradually and peaked at the 180th minute. Fustin treatment reduced the oedema in all time intervals and the effect was significant on the 30th and 60th minute after the injection. The present study indicated that fustin could suppress acute inflammation.