The present study offers a speech-act analysis of the phatic interaction taking place within the ritual frame of casual encounters in the elevator. The corpus consists of 70 encounters that took place in Madrid, Spain, between 2020 and 2023. The analysis draws from Edmondson & House's (1981) originally proposed interactional typology of speech acts, also found in House & Kádár (2021a, 2023) and Edmondson, House & Kádár (2022). The main findings show, among other things, that some acts that are not conceived as phatic in the typology can migrate into the phatic slots, and that the speech-act pattern of this type of encounters can be affected by sociopragmatic variables such as the relational history of the interactants, or the co-created humorous episodes in the encounters.
The current interpretive study aimed to characterize the (non-)ritual, phatic clusters of speech acts that conventionally recur around the opening/closing phases of Persian speaking students' social encounters or occur during the core (or ‘business’) phase of natural interactions as small talk in Persian. The study was conducted in Iran's Persian linguaculture where considerable social-cultural-economic changes have taken place over the last decade or so impacting the form and content of phatic interaction in all sectors of the society. The participants of the study were 97 Persian-speaking university students attending a state-run university located in the southwest of Iran. The students were asked to audio-record their natural interactions in four different social encounters varied based on the standard sociolinguistic parameters of Social Distance and Power (+/−SD, +/−P). We adopted House & Kádár's (2022) pragmalinguistic and speech act-anchored model of phatic interaction to code the (non-)ritual realization patterns of small talks around the opening, closing, and core phases of interaction. The results indicate that small talks which are co-constructed by the Persian interactants at the opening and closing phases of their social encounters are highly ritualized in terms of the speech act types and pragmalinguistic structures employed. Further, interpersonal interchanges which involve differential sociolinguistic P and SD values require more tactfulness and care in adhering to the greeting and parting conventions as more face-threat is potentially implicated. In terms of the medial phase, except for a small number of ostensible realizations of different speech acts such as invites, offers, and apologies, core off-topic phaticity was perceived to be non-ritual and discursive in Persian the interpretation of which heavily relies upon shared sociopragmatic knowledge of the linguaculture.
In 2017, Further Research on Khitan Small Script was published, which revised and summarized the phonetic value of 300 glyphs. However, with the discovery of new materials and an increasing number of researchers, new progress has been made in the reconstruction of Khitan small script. This paper aims to introduce the latest research results on the reconstruction of 8 glyphs in Khitan small script.
Ancient Turfan was an important crossroad of languages and scripts on the Northern Silk Road where various languages and scripts coexisted simultaneously. This point is strongly supported by the diversity of languages and scripts attested in the texts discovered in the region and the complex relation between languages and scripts as well as the language use. This paper first examines a colophon to the Chinese premier Qianziwen 千字文 kept in the Berlin Turfan Collection with the shelf number Ch 3716 (T II Y 62) which clearly followed the syntax of Old Uyghur, and then reconstructs the text with the assumption that the text was read in Old Uyghur. After briefly discussing some aspects of Old Uyghur’s use of the Qianziwen, this paper examines another Chinese colophon in the same manuscript. The main aim is to illustrate some aspects of Old Uyghur’s use of Chinese in medieval Turfan.
This article deals with a pre-Sasanian inscription written in Middle Persian script recently published by N. Sims-Williams, who named it ‘Persis 2’. First, some observations on the reading and interpretation of the text are proposed. Then, it is argued that the instances of final -y in this inscription could correspond to a phonetic notation of the oblique singular ending -ē, hitherto only reconstructed for proto-Middle Persian. Finally, a discussion on the origin of heterographic writing with respect to the graphical representation of Iranian morphological endings is proposed, in the attempt to explain why a final -y for the ending -ē is not regularly noted in all the comparable documents from the middle Arsacid period.
Four Proto-Kartvelian words with initial *γw- are traditionally held to be borrowings from either Proto-Indo-European or Proto-Armenian. Based on recent progress in Indo-European and Kartvelian linguistics, this paper argues that all four proposed PIE loanwords in PK are untenable; two out of these cannot be Proto-Armenian loanwords either. The third one, the word for ‘wine’, could be a Proto-Armenian loan in PK, but it has formal problems and the alternative proposed here, a Proto-Zan loan in Proto-Armenian, provides a more regular solution. Combined with the last case (the word for ‘juniper’), which also receives a regular solution only as a Proto-Zan loan, we have two Proto-Zan loans in Proto-Armenian instead of PIE/Proto-Armenian loans in Proto-Kartvelian.
The treatise De vino Tokaiensi (On Tokaj Wine) written by Sámuel Domby of Gálfalva (1729–1807), is a valuable source on Hungarian history of culture and science which has become widely accessible thanks to its facsimile edition. This medical doctoral dissertation published in 1758 in Utrecht presents a study of the medicinal effects of Tokaj wine, mirroring the norms of philosophical-scientific literature in eighteenth century Hungary. It is unequivocally an exceptional document of the intellectual heritage of the educated classes in the early modern age regarding growth habitat, viticulture and winemaking, with specific reference to Tokaj-Hegyalja, a wine region and cultural landscape of historic importance in Northeast Hungary. The present paper aims at identifying the perceptions detailed in the candidate's argument in pedological terms.
A popular trend in 16th-century Hungarian Neo-Latin poetry was the transposition of biblical, especially Old Testament books and texts. Georg Purkircher (Georgius Purkircher) paraphrased the Book of Wisdom, Péter Laskai Csókás (Petrus C. Lascovius) the Song of Songs, János Bocatius (Johannes Bocatius) the Book of Sirach/Ecclesiasticus, and Leonhardus Mokoschinus (Leonhardus Mokoschinus) a part of the Old Testament books (from Genesis to II Kings) in Latin. Internationally, only Mokoschinus' paraphrase of the Old Testament is known to any extent. In the present paper I will attempt to outline the main similarities and differences between the paraphrases of the Old Testament in Germany and in Hungary by means of a detailed philological analysis of the domestic corpus of texts and by highlighting some related parallels in Germany.