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Maulbertsch öröksége és a szombathelyi székesegyház mennyezetképei 1. Winterhalder mint Maulbertsch legjobb tanítványa – a szentély Angyali Üdvözlet-kompozíciója

The Legacy of Maulbertsch and the Ceiling Frescoes of Szombathely Cathedral 1. Winterhalder as Maulbertsch's Best Pupil – The Annunciation Composition of the Chancel

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
János Jernyei Kiss

Abstract

The author devotes a series of articles to the iconographic and pictorial specificities of the perished ceiling frescoes of Szombathely cathedral. The frescoes were painted on the basis of Franz Anton Maulbertsch's sketches after his unexpected death by Joseph Winterhalder jr. and after the latter's death, by Anton Spreng between 1798 and 1808. Each of the three great frescoes has a different relationship with Maulbertsch's sketches and his concept of ceiling decoration, and in the course of the execution of the work Winterhalder, “the best pupil of Maulbertsch” also changed his attitude to the ongoing work.

The present paper introduces the first piece of the cycle, the Annunciation in the chancel. After Maulbertsch's death Bishop János Szily asked Maulbertsch's father-in-law the engraver Jakob Schmutzer to find a competent fresco painter. He recommended Winterhalder, reporting in enthusiastic terms about the striking resemblance of his style with Maulbertsch's. As the sources reveal, the client did not want to find a Maulbertsch imitator at first and would have respected the artistic originality of the new painter. He was not aware that Winterhalder's successes as a fresco painter were largely due to his ability to reproduce and vary the formal and compositional solutions learnt from his master. After arriving in Szombathely, the painter assured the bishop to continue the original concept of Maulbertsch and not to work after own invention.

When Winterhalder began decorating the chancel ceiling, he had a lot of work ahead on the basis of the bozzetto he received. It was exceptionally rare that Maulbertsch elaborated a detailed design corresponding exactly with the final composition. Usually he only determined the foci of the composition and the protagonists, adding the details ad lib on the ceiling, drawing them in free hand with the brush. Having learnt this method working in Maulbertsch's workship, experienced Winterhalder seems to not have been perplexed by the job of filling the huge vault with a rich composition whereas the sketch only contained the chief motifs. Apart from the bozzetto, another source of the Maulbertschian motifs was a work in Moravia, the central ceiling fresco in the nave of the church of Dyje (Mühlfraun). Winterhalder, too, had been involved in the execution of the fresco and – just like in many other places – he probably made ricordi of Maulbertsch's composition and figural groups, which he must have found appropriate to be used in Szombathely as well. The figure of the adoring angel leaning over a cloud or Saint Michael sitting in contrapposto are exact borrowings from Dyje, and the basic concept of the composition also derives from there. The female figures of the Old Testament in the window zone are also based on another Maulbertsch work, the figures of the Carmelite church in Székesfehérvár.

Winterhalder also relied on his own imagination. It is to the credit of his inventiveness that he turned a biblical scene of meagre external features into a dramatic scene filling a whole vault. On the basis of the Tridentine representations of the Annunciation, he fully exploited the possibilities of the theological metaphors with a huge host of angels, an array of different symbols to enrich the iconographic arsenal of the scene. The foundation for this was Winterhalder's great theological culture and ability to invent symbols, which are obvious in other works of his as well.

Thus, in the first phase of the commisson – the decoration of the ceiling of the chancel – Winterhalder apparently acted as the talented pupil of Maulbertsch in confirmation of his fame. He eminently rehearsed what he had learnt about the elaboration of a sketch and the incorporation of pictorial panels. He dazzled his client – like so many times earlier – by creating a “real” Maulbertsch work. The next phase of the work – the decoration of the central dome – was a more taxing task confronting the painter with a new challenge.

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Central European Geology
Authors:
Edit Borbás
,
József Kovács
,
Katalin Fehér
,
Gábor Vid
, and
István Gábor Hatvani

Abstract

Water was observed in the sediment of Baradla Cave, located in Northeast Hungary. In order to investigate its characteristics wells were drilled. Hydrochemical samples were taken directly from the wells and from the cave stream on several occasions between November 2009 and April 2010. In February 2010 there was an opportunity to observe how the chemical composition of the waters of the creeks and the sediments altered during the snow melt. Several chemical parameters of the samples were analyzed. Based on the results of the hydrochemical analyses cluster analysis was applied to define the relationship between the sampling points. Discriminant analysis was conducted to verify the classification. As a result of the classification, the water of the observation wells in the sediment proved to be distinct from the water of the cave's creek and the springs on the surface.

Research shows that there is no permanent connection between the water in the cave sediment and the water of the cave creek in the cave water system.

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Abstract

The study examines some questions concerning interpretations of Slovak art in the 1960s, employing the analysis of essays by the writer Dominik Tatarka (1913–1989) on fine art. I have chosen these texts, which tie into the tradition of irrational, emphatic writing and the interpretation of artworks, because their analysis unveils the workings of the national myth on visual art. Reliving the myths linked to popular narratives marks out the cultural space of Central Europe. Put in more general terms, I will address the specific relation between modernism and anachronism, particularly between progressive humanist thinking on modern culture on the one hand and national mythology on the other hand.

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Abstract

Jordan is situated on the northwestern side of the Arabian Plate, along the eastern flank of the ancient Tethys Ocean on the western side of the Dead Sea Transform. The country hosts huge phosphate deposits. The deposits at Eshidiya are comprised of overburden, four phosphate beds (A0, Al, A2 and A3), a coquina/marl waste bed, and two silicified phosphate chert interwaste beds. Eshidiya ore beds are treated separately through beneficiation and upgrading, as they produce products of different grade; they are subdivided into three classes. A 65% TCP (tricalcium phosphate) sub-commercial product is also produced. The detrimental impurities are considered to be among the lowest in the world. Chemical analyses of major oxides, organic matter and some traces in the product, which indicate almost similar chemical signature, are discussed herein.

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Summary

The article discusses an enigmatic, anonymous painting deposited in the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest. On grounds of style and with regard to the figures' attire it can be dated to the first third of the 17th century. Its master is supposedly German, who was both inspired by Italian Renaissance portraiture and the art of his 16th century German predecessors, Hans Holbein the Younger and Hans von Aachen. The painting can be regarded a double portrait coupled with a still life. It depicts possibly the painter himself, who, assuming the century-old role of the fools, mocks a man for his obesity. Taking also in consideration the frugal meal before him and the inconsistency of his clothes, it expresses the dichotomy between temperance and intemperance, Christian moderation and earthly abundance, vitaactiva and vitacontemplativa.

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