Seedless barberry is a medicinal shrub and has been cultivated in Iran for more than two centuries. It is perishable with short shelf-life. Irradiation has shown to improve microbial safety and expands durability of raw fruits. Undoubtedly, current food processes undesirably affect bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. Fresh barberry fruit was harvested in Birjand city by methods including “cutting branches” and “collecting fallen fruit under shrubs”, which locally are known as “puffy barberry” and “jewel barberry”, respectively. Some of the fresh barberries were treated by osmotic solution and then they have been dried. Untreated dried fruit was processed by freezing. Osmotic and frozen treatments were packed in polyamide film. Some of the dried jewel/puffy barberries packed in polyamide film were irradiated at doses of 0, 3, 5, and 10 kGy. All samples were stored at 4 and 25 °C for 6 months. Effects of barberry types (puffy/jewel), processes, storage time and temperature on chemical, microbial, and pest characteristics of dried barberry fruit were evaluated. Puffy barberry gamma irradiated with 5 kGy after 6 months of storage at 4 °C showed acceptable properties. Irradiation and storage at 4 °C were reported as optimal processing and storage conditions for barberry fruit.
This study aimed to compare and evaluate the effects of different protein coatings on maintaining the quality of eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C. 308 brown table eggs from ISA Brown hens were used for four treatments: uncoated eggs, coated with rice protein concentrate – RPC, soy protein concentrate – SPC, and whey protein concentrate – WPC. Eggs started with Haugh Units (HU) of 82.01 and reduced in proportions of 28.75% (control), 12.82% (RPC), 12.90% (SPC), and 10.54% (WPC) on the last day of storage. Coated eggs showed smaller reductions (P < 0.0001) in this response. Protein coatings can effectively maintain the quality of eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C. However, the WPC coating maintained the highest egg rate and the best yolk index for eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C.
Kutatásunk témája az NCH Magyarország Kft. által forgalmazott baktériumos hígtrágyakezelési rendszer összehasonlító ökotoxikológiai vizsgálata. A kísérletet egy szarvasmarha borjúnevelő telepen végeztük 0–6 hónapos korcsoportú szekcióban. A tabletta formában rendelkezésünkre álló baktérium törzseket egy tartályban felszaporítottuk és hetente adagoltuk az aknában összegyűlő hígtrágyához. A kezelés célja volt, hogy a baktériumok elősegítsék a trágya homogenizációját, a szagcsökkentést és a szerves szennyeződések lebontását. Az ökotoxikológiai vizsgálatokat a trágyakezelés előtt, alatt és után, három mintavételi időben végeztük el.
A kutatásunk eredményeként elmondhatjuk, hogy a hígtrágyakezelés során a beltartalmi értékek jelentősen növekedtek, főként a nitrogénformák, a biológiai oxigénigény és a szárazanyagtartalom. Az ösztrogén hatás megléte számottevő maradt a kezelés végére is. A fitotoxicitási vizsgálat alapján mindegyik növény, szár- és gyökérnövekedésére pozitív hatással volt a trágyakezelés. A talajtoxicitási teszt eredménye bizonyította, hogy magasabb hígítás mellett veszti el a kezeletlen hígtrágya az érzékeny baktériumok élettevékenységére is kiterjedő gátló hatását. A békalencse vizsgálat során összességében elmondható, hogy 150× hígítás fölött megszűnik a hígtrágya gátló hatása mindhárom alkalommal vett minta esetében. Az alga növekedésgátlására a hígtrágya stagnáló-gátló tendenciát mutatott a kezelés alatt.
Eredményeink alapján arra a következtetésre jutottunk, hogy a vizsgált hígtrágyakezelési módszer a homogenitás, szagtalanítás és a szerves anyagok bontása során eredményes volt. Azonban javasolt magasabb hígítási arányban vagy magas talajvíztartalom mellett kijuttatni a földekre. A hormonhatású anyagok eltávolítására vonatkozólag további vizsgálatok szükségesek, melyek alapján majd javaslatokat lehet kidolgozni a gazdák számára.
In this work, production of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) herbal tea was studied. Purple basil is a medicinal and aromatic herb with many health benefits; it is commonly used for seasoning foods. Semi-shade and tray drying methods were used for drying purple basil for tea production. Physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of samples were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents of samples increased with drying processes and were between 9.55 and 14.18 mg GAE/g. Colour values decreased with drying. Volatile composition of samples was determined using the SPME/GC-MS system. 2-Propenoic acid, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), and eugenol were the predominant volatile compounds in all samples. In sensory evaluation, samples produced by tray drying with added citric acid had the highest general acceptance. In conclusion, purple basil was evaluated as a suitable plant for herbal tea production due to its easy preparation, pleasant flavour and colour.
Enterococcus spp. were isolated from sausage and yogurt line production. The genomic assay was performed by PCR, and distinct enterococci (n = 28) were identified. Testing revealed that 10.7% of the isolates had a resistant phenotype, 7.1% were resistant to erythromycin (Enterococcus faecium) and 3.5% were resistant to tetracycline (Enterococcus gallinarum). Enterococci cells and biofilm formation in 24 well polystyrene plates and the effect of sanitisation procedures in these biofilms were determined. The sanitisers were chlorinated alkaline H (CAH), chlorinated alkaline A (CAA), quaternary ammonium D (QAD), quaternary ammonium M (QAM), chlorine dioxide (CD), sodium hypochlorite (SH), and peracetic acid (PA). A total of 7 isolates (25%) moderately and the others poorly formed biofilms. The best reduction results were 61 and 55% of the cells with the CAH sanitiser in BHI and water, respectively. The PAA, SH, and CD sanitisers showed low efficiency on Enterococcus planctonics, and the other had an effect on cell growth. The sanitisers CAH, QAD, QAM, PAA, and SH showed efficiency in reducing the cell viability of Enterococcus in biofilms, and values obtained from CAA and CD suggested low biofilm removal capacity. Enterococcus spp. form biofilms and have become a problem in the food industry.
Oleogels have been extensively investigated in the food processing in recent years, and they have become one of the healthier alternative. The possibility of constructing oleogel material in a manner similar to hydrocolloid gel has now been gradually becoming a reality. In this regard, this review provides coverage of the latest developments and applications of oleogels in terms of preparation strategies, physicochemical properties, health aspects, and potential food applications. Both solid fat content and crystallisation behaviour are discussed for oleogels fabricated by gelators and under different conditions. Oleogels could replace hydrogenated vegetable oils in food product, reduce the fatty acid content, and be used to prepare food products such as meat, ice-cream, chocolate, bread, and biscuits with desirable properties. The aims were to assess the formation mechanism, construction methods of oleogels and the advance on the application of oleogel structures in the food field, as well as the further exploration of oleogels and in complex food systems in the future.
Effect of microwave drying on milling, cooking, and microstructure characteristic of paddy rice in comparison to hot air drying was assessed in the present study. Results revealed that modified microwave drying significantly (P < 0.05) affected the milling quality of paddy. Raw paddy had head rice recovery of 49.63%, while after microwave drying, the head rice recovery increased by 6.73% in comparison to hot air drying. Microwave drying brought significant changes in the colour characteristic of rice as it had total colour change of 13.50 in comparison to 10.93 by hot air drying. Cooking time and water uptake ratio after microwave drying increased to 31.46 min and 3.16%, in comparison to 27.05 min and 2.65% for hot air dried samples, respectively. Scanning Electron Microscope images revealed that both hot air and microwave dried rice had a coarse surface and large starch particles, while starch structure was more damaged in hot air drying, however, agglomeration of protein-starch matrix was more uniform in microwave dried samples due to modification of the microwave applicator that prevented thermal decomposition. It was recommended that paddy may be dried using a modified microwave applicator with a shorter duration and a better quality.
This study aimed to develop and characterise emulgels based on aqueous γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic framework (γ-CD-MOF) solutions with sunflower oil in the presence of Tween 20, 40, and 60 emulsifiers. The main physical, structural, and rheological properties of γ-CD-MOF emulgels were investigated. The emulgels prepared with 5% and 10% γ-CD-MOF were durable. The X-ray diffraction patterns proved the existence of β polymorph type lipid crystals. The rheological analyses showed that the gel strength increased with increased γ-CD-MOF concentration, and thixotropic behaviour was observed depending on the gel strength at 10 °C. In addition, the samples were heat resistant proved by rheological temperature ramp tests. Finally, addition of the emulsifiers did not cause any change in the centrifuge stability and colour properties of the emulgels. These samples could be used to prepare different emulsion type food products.