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Abstract

Serious risks to human health are posed by acute campylobacteriosis, an enteritis syndrome caused by oral infection with the food-borne bacterial enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Since the risk for developing post-infectious autoimmune complications is intertwined with the severity of enteritis, the search of disease-mitigating compounds is highly demanded. Given that benzoic acid is an organic acid with well-studied health-promoting including anti-inflammatory effects we tested in our present study whether the compound might be a therapeutic option to alleviate acute murine campylobacteriosis. Therefore, microbiota-depleted IL-10−/− mice were perorally infected with C. jejuni and received benzoic acid through the drinking water from day 2 until day 6 post-infection. The results revealed that benzoic acid treatment did not affect C. jejuni colonization in the gastrointestinal tract, but alleviated clinical signs of acute campylobacteriosis, particularly diarrheal and wasting symptoms. In addition, benzoic acid mitigated apoptotic cell responses in the colonic epithelia and led to reduced pro-inflammatory immune reactions in intestinal, extra-intestinal, and systemic compartments tested on day 6 post-infection. Hence, our preclinical placebo-controlled intervention trial revealed that benzoic acid constitutes a promising therapeutic option for treating acute campylobacteriosis in an antibiotic-independent fashion and in consequence, also for reducing the risk of post-infectious autoimmune diseases.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Reyzov
,
M. Eftimov
,
S. Gancheva
,
M. Todorova
,
M. Zhelyazkova-Savova
,
M. Tzaneva
, and
S. Valcheva-Kuzmanova

Abstract

This study evaluated the effects of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) on the liver in a model of high-fat, high-fructose (HFHF) diet-induced metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifty rats were allocated to five groups – Control, MS, MS+AMFJ2.5, MS+AMFJ5, and MS+AMFJ10. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other groups were provided a HFHF diet. During MS induction, daily oral treatment was performed. Control and MS groups received 10.0 mL kg−1 distilled water, while the other three groups received AMFJ at doses of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mL kg−1, respectively. After 10 weeks, liver samples were collected and inspected histologically as well as immunohistochemically to determine the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and MAC387. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was calculated. In MS rats, steatotic, inflammatory and degenerative alterations of the liver were detected, Bax and MAC387 were markedly elevated, while Bcl-2 was non-significantly reduced. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio significantly increased. The histopathological alterations were prevented by the AMFJ treatment. Compared to MS group, Bax and MAC387 values were significantly lower and Bcl-2 value was higher resulting in significantly lower (P < 0.001) Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in all AMFJ-treated groups. AMFJ, administered during MS induction in rats, prevented the occurrence of inflammatory, steatotic, degenerative, and pro-apoptotic changes in the liver.

Restricted access

Abstract

The article evaluates how well the goals of the European Green Deal are justified, especially considering the risks to energy and food security arising from the conflict between Russia and Ukraine. We agree with the objectives of the European Green Agreement as a whole, but whether some of the objectives which feature in the EASAC study can be achieved by 2030 is questionable, and the description of the tools necessary to achieve the objectives is incomplete. Among other things, there is hardly any mention of the role played by precision farming with digitalization, which is a revolutionary change from an ecological and economic point of view, in reducing the use of synthetic inputs, in regenerating the original state of the soil, in reducing GHG emissions, thus in increasing biodiversity, and at the same time in intensifying production, and finally in expanding the application of biotechnology. We examine these areas in our analysis. Some of the objectives of the EASAC study to be achieved by 2030 are subject to debate, and the description of the information and communication conditions necessary to achieve the objectives is incomplete. The IoT (Internet of Things) responds to global and local challenges: it integrates the precision technologies, WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks), artificial intelligence, mobile field (Smart Small Robots) and remote data loggers (UAVs: Unmanned Air Vehicles and satellites), Big Data, and cloud computing. Consequently, decision support is increasingly developing into unmanned decision making. IoT (Internet of Things) is the basis of “Farm to Fork” and “Lab to Field” monitoring approaches.

This article evaluates the implementation of European Green Agreement objectives in light of energy and food security risks arising from the Russia-Ukraine conflict. While overall support for the agreement exists, the feasibility of certain EASAC study objectives by 2030 is called into question due to insufficient tools specifications. Notably absent is the emphasis on precision farming with digitalization, which is a transformative ecological and economic practice. Our analyses look into its function in reducing synthetic inputs, soil regeneration, GHG emission reduction, biodiversity enhancement, production intensification, and biotechnology development. Debates surround EASAC study objectives for 2030, despite limited information and communication restrictions. The Internet of Things (IoT) arises as a solution, combining precision technology, WSNs (wireless sensor networks), AI (artificial intelligence), smart small robots, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles), satellites, big data, and cloud computing. As a result, decision support turns toward unmanned decision-making, with IoT laying the groundwork for “Farm to Fork” and “Lab to Field” monitoring systems.

Open access

The use of organic fertilization is declining in Hungary due to the sharp fall of livestock stand since the middle of the 1980s. Most farmers are forced to use solely chemical crop enhancers. A bifactorial small plot experiment was carried out between 10 May 2023 and 19 October 2023 in Keszthely, in order to examine the effects of farmyard manure (M), green manure (GM) and stem residues (SR) on the nutrient uptake and nitrogen utilization efficiencies of maize at equidistantly increasing (0–70–140–210–280 kg N ha–1) nitrogen doses. The relationship between some vegetative traits (dry biomass weight, Leaf Area Index (LAI)) and yield, furthermore leaf relative water content (RWC) was also examined. According to the results, organic fertilizer substitution significantly increased the N content both in whole plant and grain samples of NPK+M and NPK+GM+SR treatments, compared to the chemically fertilized control (NPK). In case of P and K only slight differences were observed. Whole plant K contents of NPK+M were significantly higher than in the other treatments (P = 0.045; P = 0,005), furthermore P contents in grain samples were significantly higher in NPK+M (P = 0.004) and NPK+GM+SR (P = 0.05) than in control. Harvest index (HI [%]) of NPK+M and NPK+GM+SR were 1.06 and 1.05 times higher than in NPK. Depending on the treatment, P0023 maize hybrid absorbed 58.7–74.64% of total N uptake in the grain (HIN%), and the utilization of 1 kg N fertilizer for the extra yield above the yield of the individual control was 0.39–1.38 kg (AREN). Significant positive correlations were observed between dry biomass weight and yield (NPK: r = 0.937, P = 0.019; NPK+M: r = 0.971, P = 0.006; NPK+GM+SR: r = 0.88, P = 0.049), furthermore LAI and yield (NPK: r = 0.9, P = 0.037; NPK+M: r = 0.983, P = 0.003; NPK+GM+SR: r = 0.784, P = 0.117). Highest RWC values – which may be related to better soil aggregate stability – were measured in NPK+GM+SR treatment, therefore there may be a great potential in this treatment among drought conditions. The effect of organic amendments is particularly noticeable with smaller nitrogen doses so they should be used to reduce inorganic fertilizer application and the resulting environmental risks.

Open access

Abstract

Steviol glycosides (SGs) are natural sweeteners derived from stevia leaves, which have various applications in food and beverage products. The extraction efficiency of SGs depends on several factors, such as solvent type, solid to solvent ratio, centrifugal force, and temperature. This study aimed to compare the effects of different solvents (ethanol and water) and leaf moisture (dry and fresh) on the extraction efficiency of major steviol glycosides (SGs) of rebaudioside A (Reb A), stevioside (ST), and rebaudioside C (Reb C) in stevia (var. Levent 93) plant. A Box–Behnken design was used to optimise the extraction parameters for each extraction type. The results showed that ethanol was a more effective solvent than water, however, aqueous extraction was more environmentally friendly and low-cost, and could also yield high concentrations of SGs when fresh leaves were used. The major SGs had similar concentrations in ethanolic extraction, but Reb A was twice as high as ST in aqueous extraction. Reb C was influenced by the solid to solvent ratio in both extraction types, but more so in water extraction. Temperature had a positive effect on ST and Reb C in water extraction of fresh leaves, but not in water extraction of dry leaves or ethanolic extraction. The results of this study contribute to the optimisation of SGs extraction from stevia leaves and provide insights for future research on the effects of different solvents and extraction parameters on the quality and purity of SGs.

Restricted access

Abstract

Both onion and shallot are the most common ingredients to use for many recipes. Consuming onion and shallot provide health benefits including antidiabetic effects. However, the benefits of onion and shallot mixture at different ratios have not been studied in terms of total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, and antidiabetic effects. Our study revealed that shallot significantly increased total phenolic content in the mixture from 492 ± 32 μg mL−1 (100% v/v onion) to 803 ± 24 μg mL−1 (100% v/v shallot) depending on the ratios of shallot in the mixture. Shallot also significantly enhanced total antioxidant capacity, SOD-like activity, α-amylase inhibition, and α-glucosidase inhibition in the mixture. Shallot juice exhibited the highest percentage inhibition of α-amylase activity (40.51 ± 1.57%) and α-glucosidase activity (89.61 ± 2.85%) in comparison to those of onion juice and the mixture. In addition, significant positive correlation between phenolic compound and different variables was observed (P < 0.05). Phenolic compounds present in onion and shallot are probably responsible for many health benefits including antidiabetic effects.

Restricted access

Abstract

Chinese onion (Allium chinense G. Don) is an edible vegetable as well as a traditional Chinese medicine. It is rich in steroidal saponins and possesses broad health benefits. In this study, the optimal extraction protocol of the total saponins from Chinese onion (ACS) was explored, and the content of the total steroidal saponins in ACS reached 56.62%. Network pharmacology was applied to predict the related signalling pathways and targets between the main phytochemicals in ACS and hypercholesterolaemia. Enrichment analysis showed that ACS might intervene hypercholesterolaemia through the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway. Meanwhile, cholesterol-lowering effects were verified by ACS intervention in high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia in Kunming mice. Compared with the model group, the TC and LDL-C levels of mice were decreased and the HDL-C level increased significantly after administration of ACS at a dose of 200 mg kg−1 day−1. The body weight gain, liver index, and atherosclerosis index all decreased dramatically. ACS could significantly reduce the fat content in the liver and reduce the number of fat droplets from the haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of mouse liver. The immunohistochemical staining indicated that ACS could up-regulate the expression of PI3K protein in the liver, thus playing an anti-hypercholesterolaemic role. This study indicated that ACS exhibited significant therapeutic and preventive effects on hypercholesterolaemia, and exerted anti-hypercholesterolaemia through the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway.

Open access

Abstract

Nutritional problems can be seen in children living separated from their families. This cross-sectional pilot study aimed to evaluate intuitive eating, diet quality, and nutritional status of children living separated from their families. A total of 55 adolescent girls aged 12–18 years participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical data, and 24-h dietary recall data were collected. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) and the Turkish version of the Healthy Lifestyle-Diet (HLD-TR) index were used. Participants were divided into two groups according to their scores on the diet quality index using the 50th percentile. Group 1 consisted of participants with a score of 25 points or less, and Group 2 consisted of participants with a score above 25 points. Waist circumference (72.0 (66–83), 65.0 (60–77)) was significantly higher in Group 1 (P < 0.05). IES–2 score (3.05 (2.85–3.40), 3.30 (3.12–3.90)) and two sub–factors; reliance in hunger and satiety cues (2.80 (1.80–3.40), 4.00 (2.60–4.60)) and body–food choice congruence (2.50 (2.00–3.50), 3.50 (3.00–4.50)) were higher in Group 2 (P < 0.05). After adjustment for body mass index, age, and energy intake, there was a significant positive correlation between IES-2 and HLD-TR scores (P = 0.029). In conclusion, it may be advantageous to resort to strategies that promote intuitive eating to reduce obesity and associated problems in this vulnerable group.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Navid Dashti
,
Forough Golsaz-Shirazi
,
Haleh Soltanghoraee
,
Amir-Hassan Zarnani
,
Mehdi Mohammadi
,
Danyal Imani
,
Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani
,
Mohammad Mehdi Amiri
, and
Fazel Shokri

Abstract

Background

Waning immunity and emergence of new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), highlight the need for further research in vaccine development.

Methods

A recombinant fusion protein containing the receptor-binding domain (RBD) fused to the human IgG1 Fc (RBD-Fc) was produced in CHO-K1 cells. RBD-Fc was emulsified with four adjuvants to evaluate its immunogenicity. The RBD-specific humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed by ELISA. The virus neutralizing potency of the vaccine was investigated using four neutralization methods. Safety was studied in mice and rabbits, and Antibody-Dependent Enhancement (ADE) effects were investigated by flow cytometry.

Results

RBD-Fc emulsified in Alum induced a high titer of anti-RBD antibodies with remarkable efficacy in neutralizing both pseudotyped and live SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant. The neutralization potency dropped significantly in response to the Omicron variant. RBD-Fc induced both TH2 and particularly TH1 immune responses. Histopathologic examinations demonstrated no substantial pathologic changes in different organs. No changes in serum biochemical and hematologic parameters were observed. ADE effect was not observed following immunization with RBD-Fc.

Conclusion

RBD-Fc elicits highly robust neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses, with no adverse effects. Therefore, it could be considered a promising and safe subunit vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.

Open access

Abstract

Acquired benign tracheoesophageal fistulas and bronchoesophageal fistulas (TEF) are typically associated with granulomatous mediastinal infections, 75% of which are iatrogenic. Candida albicans and Actinomyces are commonly occurring organisms, but are uncommon etiologies of TEF. Normal colonization and the slow growth characteristics of some species of these agents rarely result in infection, mycetoma, and broncholithiasis, and thus, delays in diagnosis and treatment are likely. Few reports describe C. albicans or Actinomyces spp. as the etiology of TEF or broncholithiasis. Herein, we report a case of benign acquired TEF secondary to coinfection of Candida and Actinomyces complicated by the formation of an actinomycetoma and broncholithiasis and a comprehensive literature review to highlight the unique nature of this presentation and offer a diagnostic algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of TEFs. Following a presentation of three months of productive cough, choking sensation, night sweats, and weight loss, a bronchoscopy revealed a fistulous connection between the esophagus and the posterior right middle lobe. Pathology identified a calcified fungus ball and a broncholith secondary to the co-infection of Candida and Actinomyces. This unique presentation of Candida and Actinomyces co-infection and the associated diagnostic algorithm are presented as education and a useful tool for clinicians.

Open access