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Society and Economy
Authors: Edina Berlinger, Judit Lilla Keresztúri, Ágnes Lublóy, and Zsuzsanna Tamásné Vőneki

Abstract

The severity and frequency of operational loss events show high variability across the globe. In this paper, we first examine the extent to which the quality of country-level governance measured by the Worldwide Governance Indicators explains cross-country variation of operational losses. We use the comprehensive database of SAS OpRisk Global for the period of 2008–2019 covering 132 countries and 8,144 loss events with a total loss amount of almost 490 billion USD. Our findings indicate that the governance indicators lost their explanatory power over the past decades, which contradicts the academic consensus and calls for new explanatory variables. To find these variables, we hypothesize that the changes are driven by some important megatrends such as economic development and technological advancement, globalization, and sustainability. Accordingly, we propose an extended model where the number of mobile subscribers, the export to GDP ratio, and the poverty headcount ratio were significant for the frequency. For severity, only GDP is a significant and robust explanatory variable. Investors, regulators, and analysts should, therefore, concentrate on these factors if they wish to model, manage, or mitigate operational risks.

Open access

Abstract

Our aim is to identify periods of restrictive versus expansionary economic policy in the euro area in the last two decades. We firstly conducted the study for identifying the dominant trend in fiscal policies and then in monetary policies. We studied several fiscal outputs, focusing on the cyclical adjusted primary balance. We also analysed the European long-term and short-term interest rates. The study was conducted for several windows, namely for 3-, 4- and 5-year periods. Additional procedures were conducted for robustness checks, namely the study of structural breaks in the analysed time series as well as a study of them recurring to Markov-Switching Regimes models. For most of the analysed periods and subperiods of the series, we concluded for the presence of expansionary policies either in the fiscal or in monetary European domains. Finally, the results and the analysis of dependencies in the euro area economy favour the evidence that economic authorities in the euro area have sought to coordinate monetary and fiscal policy to stabilise the economy.

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Abstract

A set of policy prescriptions based on Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) have been developed that are independent of the monetary model, which are often presented together, in a context that does not require taxation: guaranteed income, job guarantee and full employment. These are enabled by the ability of a government to deficit spend as needed, as long as government controls its sovereign currency.

Here I raise the concern that implementing MMT accounting could cause increases in political power inequality relative to citizens not seen since the medieval era or before. The assumption that spending and tax policy in an MMT system would occur as proponents expect is contradicted by the history of political choices regarding spending and taxation over the past half-century. The record of behaviour by politicians in the nations where foreign aid money “fell from the sky,” thus divorcing national income from the tax base, also contradicts this idea.

With removal of the formal requirement for taxation, politicians operating in an MMT system will have little inherent reason in the short term to treat citizens well except moral suasion. This should provide a foundation for tyranny unparalleled in modern history. Incorporating progressive taxation into MMT’s corpus, for the express purpose of economic and political stability, is suggested in order to achieve the overall aims of the MMT policy advocates. However, this may not be sufficient. In addition, considering increasing the role of governors/leaders of states within the monetary unions may be useful, because those governments do need to follow the old rules of taxation to support spending, and this may provide a counterweight.

Open access

Abstract

Government involvement in the venture capital (VC) market has become an important catalyst of the entrepreneurial ecosystem of young and innovative firms. There is an extensive literature describing the VC model, but the models of its government backed variants are not comprehensively discussed. The article focuses on the model of purely government backed venture capital (GVC) and hybrid venture capital (HGVC). The conclusion of this article is that, by the logic of their models, GVCs are destined to underperform than private VCs. Many articles see HGVCs as a step forward compared to GVCs, as they involve private participants. The novelty of the current article lies in bringing out the drawbacks deriving from the system of hybrid venture capital funding by creating a complex theoretical framework of the HGVC model. We show that due to the crowding in of private participants, this scheme creates a two-goal system where the private profit maximising interests conflict with the economic policy goals. The complex system of HGVC is exposed to increased moral hazard issues that might lead to higher distortions than GVC. The conclusions are especially relevant in the case of developing industries.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to diagnose the cause-and-effect relationships between reinvestment of earnings (RoE) and other components of FDI inflows and GDP in Poland in the years of 2004–2019, using the VECM model**. Changes in the structure of FDI inflows in Poland are in line with the stages of the FDI life cycle. The increase in the share of RoE in the structure of these investments is also accompanied by an increase in the impact and the degree of explanation of changes in GDP. Studies confirmed that changes in the structure of FDI in Poland was adequate to the theoretical cycle of FDI life. The increase in the share of RoE in the structure of FDI inflows is accompanied by a decrease in equities. The VECM model, impulse response function and decomposition analysis confirmed that among FDI components mainly equities, and next, RoE have large participation in the degree of explanation of GDP. In the short-term, mainly equity has the most important impact on GDP, and additionally, RoE. In the long-time, the importance of equity decreases, while increases the impact of RoE, and also, debt instruments. The increase in the share of RoE in the structure of FDI inflows accompanied by the increase in the impact of these investments on GDP changes.

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Abstract

The 2008 crisis highlighted the importance of using stress tests in banking practice. The role of these stress tests is to identify and precisely estimate the effect of possible future changes in market conditions on capital adequacy and profitability. This paper seeks to show a possible methodology to calculate the stressed point-in-time probability of default (PD) parameter. The presented approach contains a linear autoregressive distributed lag model to determine the connection between the logit of default rates and the relevant macroeconomic factors, and uses migration matrices to calculate PDs from the forecasted default rates. The authors illustrate the applications of this methodology using the Hungarian real credit portfolio data.

Open access

Abstract

Healthier people contribute more to the development of the economy. Besides, in a better economy, people have a better quality and healthier life. At this stage, one has to ask which one precedes the other: health or wealth? To find the answer, this study aims to investigate the causality relationship between health and inclusive wealth in the European countries for the period of 1990–2015. The causality between health and inclusive wealth scores, which are estimated by cluster and discriminant analyses, is investigated by the panel causality test. The research results indicate bidirectional causality between health and inclusive wealth. A one-way causality is detected in 11 cases as being from inclusive wealth to health and in 8 the other way. Furthermore, a two-way causality is found in 2 countries. Among the results, it is noteworthy that 91% of the countries with causality from inclusive wealth to health are among the healthy countries.

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: Gergely Csurilla, András Gyimesi, Erika Kendelényi-Gulyás, and Tamás Sterbenz

Abstract

We describe a statistical approach for the measurement of the newly defined luck-based noise factor in sports. It is defined as the difference between the actual outcome and the expected outcome based on the model predictions. We raise the question whether some sports exhibit a higher level of noise-factor than others, making investments in that sport riskier. Data from 14 individual sports in six Summer Olympic Games between 1996 and 2016 were included in the analysis. Market shares are predicted by the autoregressive linear and zero-inflated beta regression models with exogenous variables, where the higher Normalized Mean Squared Error indicates a higher noise-factor. Modern pentathlon, tennis and cycling showed the highest noise-factors, whereas swimming, table tennis and athletics were the least noisy. Possible reasons are discussed in the paper. Our analysis indicates that countries with suitable resources producing leading elite Olympic athletes are predicted to achieve higher success in sports with a lower noise-factor such as swimming. In contrast, investments in noisy sports, such as e.g., modern pentathlon, are associated with a higher risk.

Open access

Abstract

Although a number of studies have been conducted over the past decade to understand the factors influencing the willingness of producers to operate in a short supply chain (SSC), the intention to adapt can still be identified as an unexplored area. The main aim of the present study is to determine the extent to which Hungarian fresh sour cherry producers show a willingness to operate in a short supply chain and what investments they would make to do so. The sour cherry producers involved in the study clearly show a willingness to operate in a short supply chain. Some producers approach this in a “complex” manner, so they would even meet individual consumer needs and deliver orders to the consumer. Farmers opting for a “simpler” solution would prefer to sell their products to the consumer at their premises or at farmer’s markets. Further results support the fact that the more producers believe in the viability and future of SSCs and the higher their level of education is, the more willing they are to adapt in terms of resources or production processes in order to achieve complete transition. The results reflect the importance of examining the factors that determine farmers’ intentions to operate in the short supply chain, but it is also worthwhile and justified to explore how willing they are to “sacrifice” and invest in order to completely adapt.

Open access