This paper presents a nearly ten-year-long process of covering the history of social enterprise development in a small village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, Hungary. The paper covers the hermeneutical interpretation of the process, the role and relationship between the community and the social enterprise developer, the process of development work, and how university education complements this process. The case study provides insights into the theory of community planning, the methodology of social-enterprise development and the issue of empowerment.
We aim to explore whether ongoing digital innovations in Premier League clubs may substantiate a prospective change in their business model and potentially lead to a solution to the financial sustainability issue in professional football. Our exploratory study is to identify ongoing digital innovations and what changes can be foreseen in future years. The empirical analysis is based on information collected from club webpages, their selected social media pages, and top sports business journals. Our results indicate that despite the numerous digital innovations already implemented in the clubs, their utilisation has not reached a level to justify a more complex business model innovation. However, several changes indicate that such a fundamental transformation will likely happen in the foreseeable future. Our work's scholarly contribution is exploring a novel field of study concentrating on the digitally focused business model innovations of professional clubs, unlike most football business model analyses that focus on leagues. We have concluded that clubs can and should apply business innovations to look for more financially sustainable operations, even without necessarily waiting for changes to be made in the generic competitive structure they perform in.
With the increase of international sports events in Hungary, their number, size, coverage, required investments, social impacts, the number of stakeholders, and people's involvement have also grown, while social support has bottomed out. How can we achieve social support? What are the factors that determine the perception of the residents of the organising city, thus, their social support? This question is answered by analysing the case of the European Youth Olympic Festival in Győr. The empirical research used quantitative methods, obtaining residents' opinions of international sports events before and after the event. The paper shows that a general positive opinion of international sports events is positively correlated with high levels of both spectator and participation sports consumption. Also, those who are personally satisfied with their quality of life generally support the organisation of international sports events and think positively of their impact. The level of satisfaction with life is correlated with satisfaction with the city and a positive opinion of its services. The regression model shows that personal involvement (e.g., interest, participation, and volunteering) is positively related to the evaluation of the impacts of sports events.
Entrepreneurship education is a rapidly growing research field, emphasizing the role of education institutions in developing entrepreneurial skills and attitudes. We examined the leading Hungarian business development programmes to explore the prominent educational and technological trends of the programmes from four perspectives: (1) usage of practice-oriented and experimental teaching methods, (2) how the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the digitalization of education, (3) preparation of future entrepreneurs for the digital economy and (4) fostering entrepreneurship through extracurricular offers. We carried out 36 questionnaire-based interviews with professors of the investigated universities, comparing the results to a student survey covering more than 60% of active business development students in master programmes. The results suggest that the investigated programmes are practice-oriented, using practical examples. During COVID-19, different online platforms have been introduced at all three universities, widely used and adopted by both teachers and students and positive changes have been incorporated in teaching after the return to face-to-face. New digital trends and skills are already present in the curriculum, but students are less aware of them, so further development is needed in this area. Also, developments in terms of providing infrastructural, networking and financing-related services would be highly valued by students with entrepreneurial intent.
In this paper, we analyze the integration maturity of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) on its path towards EU membership and the role of institutions in the process. Integration maturity focuses on five main parameters for readiness to make integration successful: macroeconomic stability, functioning market economy, competitiveness, access to foreign finance and convergence. We combine a discussion of BiH's readiness on these parameters with insights from institutional economics, and show how inefficient institutions are major obstacles to BiH achieving sustained economic growth and attaining the necessary integration maturity. The main reasons for the institutional deficiencies relate to BiH being an ethnically divided country, but just as much it reflects corruption and elite capture of institutions. Only by thoroughly rethinking and reforming its institutional framework will Bosnia and Herzegovina be able to move forward.
Our study examines the development of unemployment data from three strong Asian economies, China, Korea, and Japan. The focus is on the impact of the economic crisis caused by COVID-19, as well as an overview of the possible solutions to combat the impact of similar future crises on the labour market, in the hope of mitigating future economic dislocations. Following an overview of the region's economy and the pandemic, we use stochastic modelling of unemployment data of ten years prior to the pandemic, to estimate counterfactual future data without the pandemic. We then compare this estimate with real data during the pandemic. We did this in order to explore ideas and new solutions that could possibly be applied in Hungary, which is presently burdened by a very significant labour shortage.
Before the Coronavirus pandemic, the fitness industry was a growing sector globally, both in terms of the number of members and clubs; even prior to the global pandemic there were online workouts and technological innovations. With COVID-19, revenues plummeted, and many gyms went out of business. Consumers bought equipment for home use and switched to different types of online or outdoor workouts. This paper aims to investigate how the pandemic affected the fitness sector, and the consumer behavior of former gym members. Our assumption was that the preferences of gym-members had changed, and gyms would have prospered if they had changed their business models and moved to a hybrid model. We conducted in depth-interviews with Hungarian club owners and used an online questionnaire survey to collect data from members of gyms in Hungary. We asked them about exercise habits, home exercise methods, planned future exercise locations, the expectations of customers, safety measures, and service quality. Our assumptions were confirmed. The results may represent useful input for Hungarian fitness centers.
This study explored the impact of the COVID-19 career shock to career capital among sports clubs personnel. With this aim, an explanatory mixed-method research was undertaken based on data gathered via a survey among the personnel of sports clubs in Poland (N = 226). The quantitative stage of data analysis (a multivariate analysis of covariance) determined the scale of the changes in career capital and its elements (knowing-how, knowing-why, knowing-whom) across different respondent groups, while the subsequent thematic analysis of the data gathered through open questions explored the sources of these changes. The results show that the shock had a positive impact mainly on knowing-how, and a lesser one on knowing-why, while it was neutral for knowing-whom. Nevertheless, there is an important heterogeneity of the experiences among sports club personnel, even when accounting for the differences in the way that COVID-19 impacted their clubs. By exploring the consequences of a career shock to career capital, this study contributes to career construction theory.
The Central and Eastern European countries have made considerable economic progress since the capitalist transformation. This paper investigates whether there is a co-movement between two factors of well-being, improvement of economic and health status between 1995 and 2018 compared to the six founding European Union (EU) member states. Applying the Pedroni- and Fisher-type cointegration test and a panel vector error correction model, our estimations suggest that there is a mutual causal relationship between economic convergence measured in GDP per capita and health status convergence measured by life expectancy. The long-term bi-directional effects are also proved by impulse response functions. Using the same econometric methods, the examination of the relationship between government health expenditure and life expectancy indicates that governmental health expenditure promotes the health status convergence. This study concludes that the FDI-based, low-wage growth model of the Central and Eastern European countries has not impeded the convergence in both factors of well-being to the founding EU member states. The results demonstrate that the improvement of the healthcare system may be a channel for the acceleration of convergence.