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Abstract

The profound changes in both everyday life and the legal system over the last hundred years have transformed civil law as well. While the notion that civil law concerns relationships of private persons still prevails, the traditional public law–civil law division now seems questionable. This paper points out some of the key changes in civil law within the framework of the transformation of the legal system as a whole, and seeks to outline a different approach that may help better to understand the present situation.

Open access

Abstract

Hate crimes poison societies by threatening individual rights, human dignity and equality. They effect private lives, or even victims’ life and limb. Due to their ripple effect, they terrify whole communities, reinforce tensions between social groups, ultimately jeopardising peaceful coexistence. No society is immune from the signs of hatred, but whether they get tamed or whether prejudices are deepened, depends on the social measures that are applied vis-à-vis the phenomenon. The state’s reaction creates norms and will informs society about the current acceptable standards. European expectations help forming these. Standards developed by the European Court of Human Rights include the obligations to ensure that hate against social groups as a motivation is considered an aggravating circumstance or leads to penalty enhancement. States must also ensure that national investigation authorities show special vigilance to explore and unmask the bias motives behind hate crimes. Such European expectations still leave a wide room of manoeuvre to respond to hate crimes efficiently and dissuasively. But irrespectively of the national codification method, for legal provisions to reach the desired outcome, certain social preconditions must be met. For hate crime laws or provisions to work, states must reach a certain level of maturity from the viewpoint of democracy, fundamental rights in general and the rule of law, where guaranteeing judicial independence is an absolute minimum.

Open access

Az akadémiai-ipari együttműködések szerepe a gyógyszerfejlesztésben pandémia idején

Drug development collaborations between Academia and Industry in Pandemia

Scientia et Securitas
Author: György Miklós Keserű

Összefoglaló. Egészen az ezredfordulóig a gyógyszeripari kutatás-fejlesztés világszerte hagyományosan nagyvállalati keretek között folyt. Az elmúlt évtizedekben azonban ebben a szegmensben jelentős átrendeződések tapasztalhatók, ugyanis a korai kutatási és fejlesztési projektek sok esetben már az egyetemi-akadémiai, illetve kkv-szektorból indulnak. A szervezeti keretek mellett a fejlesztések szakmai tartalma is változott, a hagyományos kismolekulás gyógyszerek mellett egyre meghatározóbb szerep jut a biológiai terápiáknak, valamint a hatóanyagok fejlesztése mára összekapcsolódott a releváns diagnosztikumok fejlesztésével. A projektek finanszírozásában is fontos változások történtek, egyre jelentősebb szerep jut az állami KFI finanszírozásnak és a (kockázati) tőkebefektetéseknek. A gyógyszeripari K+F szakmai, szervezeti és finanszírozási kereteinek változása jelentősen felértékelte és szélesítette a korábban is meglévő akadémiai-ipari kapcsolatokat. Az együttműködések fontos szerepet játszanak a COVID–19 járványra adott válaszokban is, amit a magyar egyetemek, kutatóintézetek, kis- és középvállalatok, valamint gyógyszeripari nagyvállalatok részvételével indult kutatások igazolnak.

Summary. Until the turn of the millennium, pharmaceutical research and development worldwide had traditionally taken place in pharmaceutical companies. In recent decades, however, significant rearrangements have been witnessed, as early-stage research and development projects often start at the universities or the academic and SME sectors. In addition to the organizational framework, the professional content has also changed: in addition to traditional small molecule drugs, biological therapies are playing an increasingly important role, and the development of active ingredients is now linked to the development of relevant diagnostics. Important changes have also taken place in the financing of projects, with public RDI financing and (venture) capital investments playing an increasing role. Changes in the professional, organizational and funding frameworks for pharmaceutical R&D have significantly enhanced and broadened existing academic-industrial relations. Collaborations also play an important role in the responses to the COVID-19 epidemic, as evidenced by research involving Hungarian universities, research institutes, small and medium-sized enterprises, and large pharmaceutical companies. The first example is a collaboration of an academic research group and a spin-off company formed from this environment. Researchers of the Eötvös University (ELTE) and others working at the Research Centre for Natural Sciences (RCNS) applied phage display technology to discover new protease inhibitors. They established EvolVeritas Ltd, a spin-off company developing high affinity and high specificity inhibitors of the TMPRSS2 protease that is involved in the SARS-CoV-2 viral entry to host cells. In a parallel research program, the same consortium is working on new inhibitors of the MASP2 protease contributing to the coronavirus mediated activation of innate immunity, particularly the complement system. This latter approach would result in the effective control of microthrombosis events associated with serious COVID-19 infections. Both of the approaches are in the early preclinical phase and further investment would be needed to push these projects into clinical testing. The second example is a collaboration between an academic research group and an SME to reposition of azelastine, an approved antihistamine drug that was found to be effective in blocking SARS-CoV-2 mediated pathogenesis. After successful preclinical studies, the partners have now initiated clinical trials to demonstrate the efficacy of azelastine nasal drops in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infections. The third example is a collaboration of academic research groups, a SME and a pharmaceutical company. This consortium develops an antibody-like fusion protein therapeutics that can neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 virus. One component of the ACE2-Fc fusion protein is the relevant portion of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) produced by recombinant technologies, which binds to the spike protein of the pathogen. The virus thus binds to the fusion protein instead of the ACE2 receptors in human cells. Another component is responsible for the long half-life of IgG, the so-called Fc region. The consortium confirmed that the ACE2-Fc fusion protein inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in cell culture, and prevents disease in experimental animals. Preclinical development and the preparation of the core documentation is ongoing, which will soon be submitted to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to initiate clinical trials. The final example is a joint development project that involved a research group, an SME and two pharmaceutical companies. The objective of this program is process development and pharmaceutical formulation of favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral with a treatment potential against COVID-19. The consortium completed the process development of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and developed finished dosage formulations available for clinical testing. Clinical trials are ongoing that aim investigating safety and efficacy of favipiravir in COVID-19 infected patients. All of the examples described here demonstrate the power of collaborations that helped the participants to give diverse and effective responses to the unprecedented pandemic challenge of COVID-19. We believe that these experiences would encourage the members of the academic and industry community to formulate further collaborations to tackle the unmet medical need in our societies.

Open access

COVID–19 járvány hatása a pszichiátriai megbetegedések gyakoriságára – PTSD

Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of psychiatric illnesses – PTSD

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Mária Zsóka Bellavics, Zsombor Hermann, and József Haller

Összefoglaló. A poszttraumás stressz zavar (PTSD) egy súlyos mentális állapot, amely nehezen gyógyítható, és évtizedeken keresztül fennállhat. Gyakorisága 1–3%-ról világszerte 20% körülire emelkedett a COVID–19 járvány után. Az észlelt gyakoriság nem függött a vizsgált populációk érintettségétől: a gyakoriság közel azonos volt fertőzöttek, karanténba kerültek, pusztán életmódváltozást elszenvedők és egészségügyi szakemberek körében. Ez vetekszik a háborús helyzetekben tapasztaltakkal, azzal a különbséggel, hogy a modern háborúk a világ népességének kis részét, míg a járvány az emberiség tekintélyes részét érintette. A COVID–19 járvány lecsengése után tehát számolnunk kell azokkal a pszichiátriai jellegű károkkal is, amelyeket maga mögött hagy, köztük a PTSD áldozataival.

Summary. Almost 20 years ago McNally (2003) wrote a paper on the Vietnam War with the title “Psychiatric Casualties of War”, outlining that people may suffer psychological injuries in war beyond those that harm them physically. Like wars, epidemics also have “psychiatric casualties” e.g., people who avoid the dangers of the epidemic per se but do not survive the situation without harm. One possible form of impairment is psychiatric in nature; this category includes among others post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study addresses the question of how how much concern the COVID-19 epidemic raises in the long run for an increased incidence of PTSD. PTSD is a severe and difficult-to-treat mental disorder caused by traumatic stress i.e., an event that threatens life and/or physical integrity. It is usually attributed to disasters, war, and interpersonal violence, but it can also be caused by serious illness such as AIDS and cancer. The COVID-19 epidemic conforms to the concept of trauma in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, as the disease it causes is potentially life threatening. Thus, even a purely logical approach suggests that the epidemic may increase the incidence of PTSD, an assumption that is confirmed by numerous targeted studies. The pre-epidemic PTSD morbidity rate of 1-3% has risen to around 20% globally over the past year due to the COVID-19 epidemic. PTSD affected not only those who fell victim to the disease, but also those who have “merely” witnessed the development and spread of the disease, those who have been placed in preventive quarantine, and healthcare workers who have had the burden of treating the epidemic. Behind the global 20%, an uneven picture emerges. In certain populations and at certain times, the frequency was reported to be much lower (e.g., 8%) or much higher (e.g., 96%), depending on the specifics of the study participants, as well as the place and time of the investigation. Overall, however, the post-epidemic prevalence of PTSD appears to rival that observed in war situations, such as the Vietnam War. The difference is that modern wars mostly affect a small portion of the world’s population, while the COVID-19 epidemic affects almost the entire humanity. Recent events suggest that the epidemic will soon recede. However, the epidemic leaves behind a large number of people who have sustained long-lasting and severe mental injuries - including those who have developed PTSD. Tackling this problem is the task for the future, but it must be prepared in advance. To this end, the study also briefly maps the factors of inborn and acquired resilience in a new network science approach.

Open access

Demencia prevenció: A korai diagnózistól a személyre szabott intervencióig

Dementia Prevention: From Early Diagnosis to Personalised Intervention

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Annamária Manga, Menta Havadi-Nagy, Orsolya Székely, and Zoltán Vidnyánszky

Összefoglaló. Az elmúlt évtizedekben a várható élettartam emelkedésével drámai mértékben nőtt a demencia előfordulásának gyakorisága, melynek hátterében leggyakrabban az Alzheimer-kór áll. A rendkívül ígéretes, biomarkereken, agyi képalkotáson és mesterséges intelligencián alapuló megközelítéseknek köszönhetően egyre szélesebb körű információink vannak a betegség kialakulásáról és lefolyásáról, új kapukat nyitva ezzel a demencia korai diagnózisa és a személyre szabott terápia felé. Míg az új kutatási irányzatok előnye vitathatatlan, a nagy mennyiségű kutatási adat kezelése, illetve a betegség korai szakaszban történő azonosítása több biztonsági kérdést felvet. A korai diagnózis mellett egyre nagyobb hangsúly helyeződik az intervencióra, a demenciára hajlamosító tényezőkbe történő beavatkozás által.

Summary. As a consequence of increasing life expectancy, the number of those living with dementia is rising. While Alzheimer’s disease (AD) constitutes the most common cause of dementia, the origin of AD is unknown. Furthermore, in the absence of effective treatment, therapy focuses on the cognitive and behavioural symptoms of the disease, and the wellbeing of the patient. AD is characterised by a pronounced impairment experienced in one or more cognitive domains, and the criterion of the diagnosis is the presence of aggregated proteins in the brain leading to neuron death, and eventually to the loss of cognitive abilities.

As a result of the latest technological advances, several biological markers (biomarkers) of AD pathology were identified. The biomarkers can be obtained using positron emission tomography or measured from cerebrospinal fluid, and lately from blood serum and plasma as well. Magnetic resonance imaging provides an important measure of brain atrophy, a biomarker of neurodegeneration and neuronal injury. The structure of the brain shows significant alterations as a function of neuronal loss, with cortical thinning and tissue density changes, mainly starting from the medial temporal lobes (also including the hippocampus playing a prominent role in memory functions), and extending to the temporoparietal regions, with observed changes in the activity of the different functional brain networks as well.

A major challenge in defeating AD is that in most cases, the disease is recognised subsequent to the appearance of the decline in cognitive abilities, hampering everyday life. Previous studies identified a preclinical stage of AD, where the biomarkers indicative of the disease are present in the absence of detectable cognitive symptoms. This early, preclinical stage – with the use of artificial intelligence-based techniques – has been suggested to be a promising window for the early detection of the disease, and also for the prediction of individual disease trajectories, allowing for the thorough planning of patient management. While the benefit of the early diagnosis is unequivocal, it raises a number of important ethical and safety issues.

Besides the tremendous effort of developing effective medical treatments, the importance of intervention stands in the centre of scientific interest. The proposed prevention and intervention methods target the potentially modifiable risk factors of dementia, encouraging engagement in stimulating everyday activities and healthy lifestyle, to preserve longevity.

Open access

Előszó

Foreword

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Valéria Csépe
Open access

Erőművek életciklus-elemzése a fajlagos anyagfelhasználás tükrében

Life-cycle analysis of power plants in the light of specific material use

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Zoltán Korényi

Összefoglaló. A dolgozat témája a különböző erőműfajták életciklusra vonatkozó fajlagos anyagigényének a vizsgálata. Az elemzések a nemzetközi szakirodalmi források felhasználásával történtek. Módszere, a bázisadatok elemzése, majd az anyagigényeknek az erőmű beépített teljesítményére és az életciklus alatt megtermelt villamosenergiára vonatkoztatott fajlagos értékek meghatározása. Az eredmények azt mutatják, hogy a nap- és szélerőművek elterjedésével a hagyományos erőművek által felhasznált fosszilis energiaforrások (pl. a szén) bent maradnak ugyan a földben, de cserébe az új technológia legyártásához a hagyományos anyagokból (beton, acél, alumínium, réz stb.) fajlagosan jóval nagyobb mennyiségekre lesz szükség. Emellett megnő a ritkán előforduló fémek (gallium, indium stb.) felhasználása, ami Európában, a lelőhelyek hiányában, új kockázatokkal jár.

Summary. The topic of the study is to determine the material use of different power plant types. This is a part of the known life cycle analysis (LCA). The aim of LCA is to determine the impact of human activity on nature. The procedure is described in the standards (ISO 14040/41/42/42). Under environmental impact we mean changes in our natural environment, air, water, soil pollution, noise and impacts on human health. In the LCA, the environmental impact begins with the opening of the mine, continues with the extraction and processing of raw materials, and then with the production of equipment, construction and installation of the power plant. This is followed by the commissioning and then operation of the power plants for 20-60 years, including maintenance. The cycle ends with demolition, which is followed by recycling of materials. The remaining waste is disposed of. This is the complex content of life cycle analysis. Its purpose is to determine the ecological footprint of man.

The method of the present study is to isolate a limited area from the complex LCA process. This means determining the amount of material needed to build different power plants, excluding mining and processing of raw materials. Commercially available basic materials are built into the power plant’s components.

The research is based on the literature available in the international area. The author studied these sources, analysed the data, and checked the authenticity. It was not easy because the sources from different times, for different power plants showed a lot of uncertainty. In overcoming the uncertainties, it was a help that the author has decades of experience in the realisation of power plants. It was considered the material consumption related to the installed electricity capacity of the power plant (tons/MW) as basic data.

The author then determined the specific material consumptions, allocated to the electric energy generated during the lifetime, in different power plants.

The calculation is carried out with the help of the usual annual peak load duration hours and the usual lifetime of the power plants.

The results show that with the spread of solar and wind energy, the fossil energy sources previously needed for conventional power plants will remain inside the Earth, but in exchange for the production of new technological equipment from traditional structural materials (concrete, steel, aluminium, copper and plastic), the special need multiplies. If we compare the power plants using renewable energy with the electric energy produced during the life cycle of a nuclear power plant, the specific installed material requirement of a river hydropower plant is 37 times, that of an onshore wind farm it is 9.6 times, and that of an outdoor solar power park is 6.6 times higher.

Another important difference is that wind turbines, solar panels and batteries also require rare materials that do not occur in Europe (e.g. gallium, indium, yttrium, neodymium, cobalt, etc.). This can lead to security risks in Europe in the long run.

Open access
Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Mónika Lakatos, Zita Bihari, Beatrix Izsák, and Olivér Szentes

Összefoglaló. A WMO 2021 elején kiadott állapotértékelője szerint a COVID–19 miatti korlátozások ellenére az üvegházhatású gázok légköri koncentrációja tovább emelkedett. A tengerszint emelkedés a közelmúltban gyorsult, rekordmagas volt a jégvesztés Grönlandon, az Antarktisz olvadása is gyorsulni látszik. Szélsőséges időjárás pusztított, élelmiszer-ellátási gondok léptek fel, és 2020-ban a COVID–19 hatásával együtt nőtt a biztonsági kockázat több régióban is. Az éghajlatváltozás felerősíti a meglévő kockázatokat, és újabb kockázatok is fellépnek majd a természeti és az ember által alkotott rendszerekben.

Az éghajlatváltozás hatása a hazai mérési sorokban is megjelenik. Az Országos Meteorológiai Szolgálat (OMSZ) homogenizált, ellenőrzött mérései szerint 1901 óta 1,2 °C-ot nőtt az évi középhőmérséklet. Két normál időszakot vizsgálva egyértelmű a magasabb hőmérsékletek felé tolódás, a csapadék éven belüli eloszlása megváltozott, az őszi másodmaximum eltűnőben van. Nőtt az aszályhajlam, gyakoribbá váltak a hőhullámok, intenzívebb a csapadékhullás, emiatt az éghajlatvédelemi intézkedések mellett a jól megalapozott alkalmazkodás is indokolt. A biztonsági kockázatok csökkenthetők az OMSZ és Országos Katasztrófavédelmi Főigazgatóság közötti együttműködés által.

Summary. The first part of the article gives an overview of the state of the global climate in 2020 based on the report compiled by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO, 2021) and network of partners from UN. According to this report, the 2020 was one of the three warmest years on record, despite a cooling La Niña event. The global mean temperature for 2020 (January to October) was 1.2 ± 0.1 °C above the 1850–1900 baseline, used as an approximation of pre-industrial levels. The latest six years have been the warmest on record. 2011-2020 was the warmest decade on record. The report on the “State of the Global Climate 2020” illustrates the state of the key indicators of the climate system, including greenhouse gas concentrations, increasing land and ocean temperatures, sea level rise, melting ice and glacier and extreme weather. It also highlights impacts on socio-economic development, migration and displacement and food security. All key climate indicators and associated impact information published in this report highlight continuing climate change, an increasing occurrence and intensification of extreme events, and severe losses and damage, affecting people, societies and economies. Extreme weather events triggered an estimated 10 000 000 displacements in 2020. Because of COVID-19 lockdowns, response and recovery operations were leading to delays in providing assistance. After decades of decline, the increase in food insecurity since 2014 is being driven by conflict and economic slowdown as well as climate variability and extreme weather events. Climate change will amplify existing risks and create new risks for natural and human systems. Risks are unevenly distributed and are generally greater for disadvantaged people and communities in countries at all levels of development.

The global changes have local effects in Hungary as it is shown in the second part of the article. The climate monitoring at the Hungarian Meteorological Service is based on measurements stored in the Climate data archive. We apply data management tools to produce high quality and representative datasets to prepare climate studies. The data homogenization makes possible to eliminate inhomogeneities due to change in the measuring practice and station movements. Applying spatial interpolation procedure for meteorological data provide the spatial representativeness of the climate data used for monitoring. The surface temperature increase is slightly higher in Hungary than the global change from 1901. The annual precipitation decreased by 3% from 1901, although this change is not significant statistically. The monthly temperatures shifted to warmer monthly averages in the most recent normal period between 1991 and 2020 comparing to the 1961–1990 in each months. The annual course of the monthly precipitations changed, especially autumn. The monthly sum in September and in October increased substantially. The frequency of heatwave days increased by more than two weeks in the Little Plain and in the southern part of the Great Hungarian Plain from 1981, which is the most intense warming period globally. The intensification of the precipitation in the recent years is obvious in our region. The cooperation of the Disaster Risk Management and the Hungarian Meteorological Service could expand the adaptive capacity of the society to climate change.

Open access

A gyógyszerkutatás új irányzatai: hatékonyság és biztonságosság

New directions in drug discovery: safety and efficiency

Scientia et Securitas
Author: András Kotschy

Összefoglaló. A betegségek mögött meghúzódó biokémiai, sejtbiológiai változások molekuláris szintű megértése a korszerű gyógyszerkutatás alapját képezi. A kiválasztott biológiai célpont, leggyakrabban egy fehérje, működésének gátlásától vagy fokozásától azt reméljük, hogy elősegíti a gyógyulást. A hagyományos gyógyszerkutatási megközelítések molekuláris alapját a kiválasztott fehérjével való közvetlen kölcsönhatás jelentette. Ugyanakkor a sejten belüli molekuláris biológiai folyamatok részletesebb megértése több új megközelítést nyitott a gyógyszerkutatás számára. A közlemény ezeket a gyógyszerkutatási irányzatokat mutatja be, külön kitérve biztonságosságukra.

Summary. Human diseases originate from and are accompanied by changes in the biochemistry of cells. The molecular level understanding of these deviations from normal functioning is key to the curing of the diseases, therefore a principal objective of drug discovery. The key-lock principle postulated by Emil Fischer serves well the understanding of most enzymatic processes and has been helping researchers both in academia and industry to discover new drugs. The binding of a small molecule to the target protein and inhibiting or activating its function is the basis for the efficient functioning of a long list of current drugs. Sometimes the desired biological effect comes from the selective action on a single protein, in other instances it is the combined effect on the working of several proteins. The appropriate selectivity profile is key to the safety and efficiency of the drug in both cases.

The completion of the Human Genome Project, in parallel with a significant improvement in the performance of the analytical instrumentation, increased our molecular and systemic level understanding of diseases immensely. Analysis of the differences between healthy and diseased cells and tissues led to the identification of new targets, a lot of which are not classical enzymes but proteins exerting their effect through molecular interactions with other proteins or nucleic acids. Although these proteins were considered undruggable some decades ago, their disease modifying potential led to the discovery of new approaches and modalities to target them. The inhibition of protein-protein interactions, for example, requires the selective targeting of hydrophobic surfaces, sometimes with very high affinity. Drug candidates acting through this molecular mechanism are typically beyond the size of classical drugs that might complicate their development.

Besides interacting directly with the protein of interest we might also impact its working through manipulating its quantity within the cell. Interference with the proteasomal degradation of cellular proteins, blocking its working, or hijacking it to selectively increase the degradation of our protein of choice are promising new modalities that are transitioning from research into clinical practice. Alternatively, one might also interfere with the transcriptional machinery. Selective blocking of the messenger RNA responsible for carrying the sequence information of the targeted protein by using so called antisense oligonucleotides, small interfering RNAs, or micro RNAs can result in a decreased synthesis of the protein. Appropriately designed oligonucleotides can also enhance protein synthesis or lead to an alteration of the sequence to synthesize for a given protein. Finally, we might also target the epigenetic regulatory machinery, which is in charge of unpacking the DNA double helix from its storage form and making it available for transcription. This interference typically leads to a more complex change, the parallel modulation of the level of several proteins at the same time.

Open access

Gyorsreagálás a pandémiára, ellátásbiztonság

Rapid response to pandemia, supply security

Scientia et Securitas
Author: István Greiner

Összefoglaló. A tavalyi évben kitört COVID–19 pandémia jelentős kihívások elé állította a világot. Nem pusztán a kormányok és az egészségügyi rendszerek szembesültek új, békeidőben eddig még nem gyakorolt feladatokkal, de a tudományos világnak is át kellett tekinteni mind a régi, mind a legmodernebb eszközöket ahhoz, hogy a vírus terjedésének, a betegek szenvedéseinek, a tömeges halálozásoknak végre véget lehessen vetni. Habár a járványnak még messze nincsen vége, és egyre újabb és újabb mutánsok ütik fel a fejüket a világ legkülönbözőbb részein, mégis azokat a tanulságokat, melyek már összegyűltek a gyógyszeripar területén, érdemes összefoglalni. Talán még ennél is fontosabb azonban, hogy azokat a hiányokat, amelyeket még be kell pótolni, szintén megemlítsük, hogy ezzel is segítsük az újabb hullámok vagy járványok leküzdését.

Summary. During the last 12 months the most serious issue was the SARS-CoV-2 virus generated pandemia around the world. There is no country which could be more or less intact and a huge amount of resources was sacrificed to rescue people from the fatal outcome of this disease. When it started a year ago or more, there were doubts about its future but later it was realised that this is an epidemic occurring worldwide, crossing international boundaries, and affecting a large number of people. According to the WHO, today the number of confirmed cases is about 157.8 million, confirmed deaths are 3.3 million and 1.2 billion vaccine doses have been administered. These numbers clearly show how important it is to elaborate the reaction of the pharma industry and investigate how to ensure safe drug supply for patients in every country. The topics discussed below are the basic and unique features of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the pandemia generated by it, and the role of the Hungarian pharma industry, especially Gedeon Richter plc, during this critical period. On one hand the author explains how the spread of virus can be decreased in general and at a production facility like Richter, and on the other hand R&D activity of the Company aiming to cure patients suffering from COVID-19 infection. Consortia including universities, academia and industrial entities made a substantial impact on handling this terrible epidemic. Gedeon Richter plc, the biggest and only independent Hungarian pharma company, in keeping with its roots started small molecule R&D to make favipiravir and remdesivir available to clinics. The latter production is a very difficult one but using its background in chemistry Richter was able to manage all R&D and industrial scale up activities in six months. Moreover, it has filed two patent applications about its new, more feasible and economical process steps justifying its innovative attitude. As a final conclusion it is stated that for the safe supply of necessary medication one critical step is missing from the capabilities of the Hungarian pharma industry, the vaccine R&D and production.

Open access