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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
Marianna I. Zhukovskaya
,
Inna V. Grushevaya
,
Alexander A. Miltsen
,
Oksana G. Selitskaya
,
Anna V. Shchenikova
,
Andrei N. Frolov
, and
Miklós Tóth

Abstract

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), relies on multimodal sensory information to find food, mates, mating and ovipositional grounds. Successful phytosanitary monitoring demands for the bait for the field traps to obtain the most reliable representation of pest abundance. Attraction to light and blend of key components of host plant odor, was tested both in the laboratory and field conditions. Ultraviolet light, which was the most effective in the wind tunnel experiments, was further tested in the field alone and in combination with bisexual lure. Bisexual lure, being attractive in the lab, as well as in the field, did not improve responses to ultraviolet in both experimental designs. All three baits attracted significantly more females than males in the field. Wind tunnel experiments revealed that ultraviolet elicited the shortest response latencies either alone or paired with the odor bait. The lack of synergistic effect between attractive light and odor stimuli is an important issue for pest monitoring. The possible reasons for the observed lack of synergy are the hierarchy of behavioral responses to different stimuli or the intensities of both stimuli are critically important for attractivity of combined stimulus and differ from separately presented ones.

Open access

Abstract

This study aimed to explore the inhibitory effect and mechanism of the total alkaloids of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (DENA) against cholesterol esterase (CE). DENA was characterised by SEM, 1H NMR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The inhibitory effect and mechanism of DENA against CE were investigated through fluorescence chromatography, circular dichroism, and molecular docking. DENA inhibited CE activity (IC50 = 1.08 ± 0.09 mg mL−1), characterised by a non-competitive inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, DENA induced a fluorescence quenching in CE, causing a blue shift in the λmax. This coincided with a transition in the secondary structure of CE from a layered to a helical structure by circular dichroism, indicating a significant reduction in its stability. Moreover, molecular docking confirmed that DENA binds to amino acid residues in the enzyme through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, leading to structural changes and reduced enzyme activity. These results suggest DENA has the potential to lower blood lipid levels by inhibiting CE activity.

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Abstract

Nisin is a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis and it is generally recognised as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The study aimed to determine the presence of nisin-resistant Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, and Listeria spp. in 157 raw milk and 125 cheese samples. As a result of the isolation procedure, a total of 282 bacterial strains were isolated. 83/282 strains showed resistance to 300 ppm nisin concentration and they were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. The two most common species were Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. In both raw milk and cheese samples, nisin-resistant Listeria could not be detected. Generally, enterococci (59/65) showed higher biofilm formation ability than staphylococci (13/18). 38% (25/65) of enterococci and 88% (16/18) of staphylococci were determined to have protease activity in at least one of Skim Milk Agar, Casein Agar, or Milk Agar. In addition, the most common antibiotic resistance in nisin-resistant enterococci was against chloramphenicol. This study revealed that nisin-resistant staphylococci and enterococci are present in raw milk and cheese. In addition, the presence of some virulence factors such as biofilm production, protease activity, and antibiotic resistance in resistant isolates needs to be drawn attention to. Consumption of nisin-resistant microorganisms with virulence factors through food is a food safety risk.

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Abstract

This study aimed to prepare water-in-oil-type gelled protein emulsions. Sorghum, chickpea, and barley proteins were extracted from the seed flours with an alkaline procedure, and 2% protein solutions were used as an aqueous phase with Span 20 emulsifier to create sunflower oil emulsion gels. Prepared gels were analysed for main physicochemical properties, polymorphism, and rheology. Results showed that stable emulsion gels were creamy-greenish in colour and had mechanical stability. They included β and β′ type fat crystals. Rheological analyses indicated that they were soft-gel-like preparates, having certain levels of structural recovery ability after shear. These emulsion gels could be spreadable-fat-like products or shortening alternatives in processed foods. They might provide an extra advantage due to plant protein content. Food application studies are anticipated in future studies.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel
,
Sergio Estrada-Martínez
,
Agar Ramos-Nevarez
,
Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix
,
Sandra Margarita Cerrillo-Soto
,
Gustavo Alexis Alvarado-Félix
,
Carlos Alberto Guido-Arreola
, and
Leandro Saenz-Soto

Abstract

Abdominal pain has been rarely reported in individuals infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). The aim of this study was to determine the association between T. gondii infection and abdominal pain. Two hundred and ninety-nine patients with abdominal pain (cases) and 299 age- and gender-matched people without abdominal pain (controls) were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. Twenty-four (8.0%) of the 299 cases and 12 (4.0%) of the 299 controls were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.02–4.25; P = 0.03). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in women with frequent abdominal pain than in women without this clinical feature (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.06–4.96; P = 0.02). Twelve (4.0%) of the 299 cases and 7 (2.3%) of the 299 controls had high (>150 IU mL−1) anti-T. gondii IgG antibody levels (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 0.67–4.49; P = 0.24). Seven (29.2%) of the 24 cases with anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and 3 (25.0%) of the 12 controls with anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were positive to anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.25–5.97; P = 1.00). Results suggest an association between T. gondii infection and frequent abdominal pain. Further research to confirm this association should be conducted.

Open access

The rice plant is sensitive to soil salinity. Calcium (Ca) acts as an ameliorative agent that helps plants induce salt tolerance. This study was carried out with a comparison of the ameliorative effect of calcium on salt-stressed rice seedlings, the determination of the role of salt-responsive protein groups, and the analysis of their genetic expressions in 21-day-old rice seedlings of ten locally cultivable varieties of West Bengal. For this study, 15-day-old seedlings were treated with 200 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions along with 10 mM of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) treatment. The determination of the relationship between the salt-responsive proteins and the analysis of the gene expression of those corresponding proteins were not carried out earlier on the selected ten locally cultivable rice varieties of West Bengal. The NaCl crystals were visible on the abaxial leaf surface of salt-stressed rice seedlings. The superoxide dismutase activity was increased in rice varieties, and a similar result was also expressed with calcium treatment. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection spectral result gave strong evidence for the presence of several salt-tolerant proteins and their genetic expression. STRING database results have suggested that the calcium treatment, coupled with the expression of the CBL4 protein, has regulated the P5CR protein of proline biosynthesis for better salt tolerance and osmotic protection. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis analysis showed that salt-tolerant varieties, Chinsurah_nona_1, and Jarava had high calcium signaling mechanisms and osmo-protection abilities.

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Abstract

Introduction

Over the past decade, enterococcal bloodstream infection (BSI) shows increasing incidence globally among the elderly and in patients with comorbidities. In this study, we aimed to assess microbiological and clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of BSIs caused by Enterococcus spp. in adult patients with and without active onco-hematological malignancies hospitalized at a national referral institute.

Methods

A prospective analysis of consecutive enterococcal BSI cases was conducted in the National Institute of Hematology and Infectious Diseases (Budapest, Hungary) between December 2019 and April 2022. We compared characteristics and outcomes at 30-days and 1 year after diagnosis among patients with and without onco-hematological malignancies.

Results

In total, 141 patients were included (median age 68 ± 21 years, female sex 36.9%), 37% (52/141) had active onco-hematological malignancies. The distribution of species was as follows: 50.4% Enterococcus faecalis, 46.1% Enterococcus faecium, 1.4% Enterococcus avium and Enterococcus gallinarum, and 0.7% Enterococcus raffinosus. No statistically significant differences in all-cause mortality rates were observed between patient subgroups at 30 days (32.7 vs. 28.1%; P = 0.57) and 1 year (75.0 vs. 60.7%; P = 0.09).

Conclusion

Enterococcal bloodstream infections yielded a relevant burden of morbidity, but with no statistical difference in long-term outcomes of adult patients with and without active onco-hematological malignancies.

Open access

Abstract

This study attempted to optimize pectin extraction from queen pineapple (Qp) peels using microwave-assisted method. A three-factor factorial experimental design was employed to test the interaction of moisture content of pineapple peel, pH of the citric acid solution and extraction time. The three-way interaction among the factors has a significant effect on pectin recovery. Two-way interaction between moisture content and pH level, as well as pH level and extraction time caused significant difference in the pectin recovery. Pectin recovery increases with lower moisture content while longer extraction time does not significantly increase pectin recovery. The optimum combination of the parameters is 12% moisture content, pH level 2 of the citric acid solution, and extraction duration of 2 min, which yielded 1.01 ± 0.01% pectin recovery. This is lower than the results from previous studies on pineapple with 3.88–13.06% pectin recovery using acid extraction method. Hence further optimization is recommended.

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Abstract

In recent years, the incidence of food-borne bacterial enteric diseases has increased worldwide causing significant health care and socioeconomic burdens. According to the World Health Organization, there are an estimated 600 million cases of foodborne illnesses worldwide each year, resulting in 420,000 deaths. Despite intensive efforts to tackle this problem, foodborne pathogenic microorganisms continue to be spread further. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find novel anti-microbial non-toxic compounds for food preservation. One way to tackle this issue may be the usage of polyphenols, which have received increasing attention in the recent years given their pleotropic health-promoting properties. This prompted us to perform a literature search summarizing studies from the past 10 years regarding the potential anti-microbial and disease-alleviating effects of plant-derived phenolic compounds against foodborne bacterial pathogens. The included 16 studies provide evidence that polyphenols show pronounced anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species. In addition, synergistic anti-microbial effects in combination with synthetic antibiotics were observed. In conclusion, phenolic compounds may be useful as natural anti-microbial agents in the food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries in the combat of foodborne infections.

Open access

Abstract

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. There are five human pathogenic species, of which Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum are the most prevalent worldwide and cause the greatest burden of disease in terms of mortality and morbidity. In addition, hybrid schistosomes have been identified through molecular analysis. Human infection occurs when cercariae, the larval form of the parasite, penetrate the skin of people while bathing in contaminated waters such as lakes and rivers. Schistosomiasis can cause both urogenital and intestinal symptoms. Urogenital symptoms include haematuria, bladder fibrosis, kidney damage, and an increased risk of bladder cancer. Intestinal symptoms may include abdominal pain, sometimes accompanied by diarrhoea and blood in the stool. Schistosomiasis affects more than 250 million people and causes approximately 70 million Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), mainly in Africa, South America, and Asia. To control infection, it is essential to establish sensitive and specific diagnostic tests for epidemiological surveillance and morbidity reduction. This review provides an overview of schistosomiasis, with a focus on available diagnostic tools for Schistosoma spp. Current molecular detection methods and progress in the development of new diagnostics for schistosomiasis infection are also discussed.

Open access