Authors:Zhihan Zheng, Xiaobin Li, Huitao Liu, and Yuan Gao
This study establishes a method for rapid detection of clonidine and cyproheptadine in foods of animal origin. In order to obtain the best detection method, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), large volume sample stacking (LVSS), and sweeping-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) were used respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) of clonidine and cyproheptadine by LVSS-CZE were 0.028 μg mL−1 and 0.034 μg mL−1, and those by sweeping-MEKC were 0.023 μg mL−1 and 0.031 μg mL−1, respectively. Compared with the CZE method, the two online pre-concentration technologies have greatly improved the detection sensitivity and achieved good enrichment results. However, compared with the sweeping-MEKC system, the LVSS system consumed a longer time and was greatly affected by the actual sample matrix. The sweeping-MEKC method was proved to be suitable for real sample analysis. Under the best sweeping-MEKC conditions, clonidine and cyproheptadine could be well separated within 8 min and good linear relationships in the range of 0.1–1.0 μg mL−1 (r2 > 0.99) were obtained. This method was successfully applied to the determination of clonidine and cyproheptadine in animal-derived foods with the recoveries of 82.3%–90.1% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 3.11%. The sweeping-MEKC method is simple to operate and has great potential in the rapid detection of clonidine and cyproheptadine in animal-derived foods.
Authors:Csaba Csutoras, Levente Giran, Orsolya Hudak, and Laszlo Racz
Potential functional food bakery products were developed and characterized based on White Lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Nelly) flour. Analytical properties of the seeds resemble to previously described Lupinus species, with significantly high protein content (45%). The high protein and dietetic fiber content of the seeds makes Lupin flour suitable to develop potential functional food products with high nutritional values. Results of the development of sweet biscuits and salty crackers enriched with Lupin flour are presented. Sensory evaluation of the bakery products was carried out by 15 panelists using the nine points hedonic scale. Heat stability of White Lupin proteins were investigated by gel-electrophoretic analysis, White Lupin proteins are quite stable at 140°C, after 35 min heating the biscuits still contain 69% of the original amount of proteins. Baking conditions were optimized also based on gel-electrophoretic experiments, the optimal baking time was 30 min at 140°C. Gluten-free Lupin-based biscuits and crackers were produced by completely omitting wheat flour from the recipes.
Authors:Hadid Sukmana, Naoufal Bellahsen, Fernanda Pantoja, and Cecilia Hodur
Wastewater issues became a complex challenge in the world. There are several methods in wastewater treatment, such as chemical, physical, biological, and the combination of each method. However, each process has advantages and disadvantages. The physicochemical methods are common methods used in wastewater treatment, such as adsorption and coagulation. Adsorption and coagulation are excellent methods to remove pollutants. The adsorption process is greatly influenced by pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, and contact time. Coagulant dose, settling time, and pH are the main factors in the coagulation process. Chemical material as an adsorbent and coagulant has been studied in previous research, but recently, to substitution chemical materials is a challenging subject. Natural substances are potential new materials in wastewater treatment and became popular due to their efficiency and environment friendly characteristics. This review investigated the role of adsorption and coagulation in wastewater treatment and the utilization of natural materials as adsorbents and coagulants.
Authors:Albert Fekete, Máté Sárospataki, and Szabolcs Vajda
Built elements and structures are a prominent component of our historic gardens, both in terms of function and artistic composition and garden scenery. The surveys of historic garden structures are important research tasks, which also underpins and validates restoration work.
In most cases, the neglected state of historic gardens and sites and the unavailable archival materials do not allow an authentic restoration of historic gardens to their original state. Nevertheless, there is a real need to reconstruct our historic gardens, based not only on historical authenticity but also on a systematic reinterpretation of the relationship between society and landscape.
The objective of this article is to present a general methodology for renewal of historic gardens through examples of specific garden reconstructions. The case studies are the authors' own design works, which demonstrate the application of different design approaches, highlighting details of the reconstruction of specific built garden elements.
A sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous determination of oryzalin and ethofumesate residues in pantnagar soil and water was validated. The compounds were extracted by LLE with dichloromethane from water, and acetone:methanol mixture from soil followed by SPE cleanup. Detection and quantification was done by RP-HPLC using mobile phase methanol:water (70:30, v/v) at 280 nm. The developed method showed satisfactory validation results with linearity (0.99), relative standard deviations (1.55 and 1.73%), and limit of quantification (0.002 μg g−1 and 0.005 μg g−1) for ethofumesate and oryzalin, respectively. Recoveries ranged for oryzalin and ethofumesate from 79.80–90.52, 75.58–86.04% (soil) and 83.50–95.92, 82.28–94.60% (water), respectively. The method could be used for routine high-throughput detection and determination of these compounds.
Authors:Nariman A. El-Ragehy, Maha A. Hegazy, Samia A. Tawfik, and Ghada A. Sedik
Sulfacetamide sodium is a widely prescribed sulfonamide drug due to its topical antibacterial action on eye and skin. Four impurities are stated in the British Pharmacopoeia among which are sulfanilamide and dapsone. This work presents two specific, accurate and precise chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of a mixture of sulfacetamide sodium, sulfanilamide and dapsone. The first method is an isocratic RP-HPLC where the separation of components was achieved on C18 column. A green mobile phase was used consisting of methanol:water (60:40, v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and effluent was monitored at 273 nm. The second method is a TLC-spectrodensitometric one where good separation was achieved by using silica plates and a mobile phase consisting of chloroform:dichloromethane:acetic acid (6:2.5:1.5, by volume). Determination was done by densitometry in the absorbance mode at 273 nm. Both methods were validated in compliance with ICH guidelines. They were also successfully applied for the determination of sulfacetamide sodium and its impurities in Ocusol® ophthalmic solutions. The obtained results were statistically compared to the results obtained by applying the official methods of analysis of each component where no significant difference was found with respect to accuracy and precision.
Authors:Zheng Yu, Fan Chen, Yinan Jin, Minyue Zhou, Xianqin Wang, and Xiuwei Shen
In this study, a UPLC-MS/MS method was developed to measure the concentrations of the flavonoids oroxin A, oroxin B, oroxylin A, oroxyloside, chrysin, chrysin 7-O-beta-gentiobioside, and guaijaverin in the blank mouse blood, and the method was then used in the measurement of the pharmacokinetics of the compounds in mice. Oroxin A, oroxin B, oroxylin A, oroxyloside, chrysin, chrysin 7-O-beta-gentiobioside, and guaijaverin were administered intravenously at a dose of 5 mg kg−1, and the mouse blood (20 μL) was withdrawn from the caudal vein 0.08333, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h after administration. The mobile phase used for chromatographic separation by gradient elution was composed of acetonitrile and water (0.1% formic acid). The analytes were detected by operating in electrospray ionization (ESI) positive-ion mode using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM). The intra-day and inter-day accuracy ranged from 86.2 to 109.3%, the intra-day precision was less than 14%, and the inter-day precision was less than 15%. The matrix effect ranged from 85.3 to 111.3%, and the recovery of the analytes after protein precipitation were all above 78.2%. This method had the advantages of high sensitivity, accuracy, and recovery, and it had excellent selectivity, which enabled it to be applied to measuring the pharmacokinetics of the analytes in mice.
Authors:Bingying Hu, Yingying Sun, Min Wang, Zhisheng He, Shanshan Chen, Dake Qi, Zhen Ge, Lingling Fan, Jingfang Chen, and Yang Wei
A reliable LC-MS/MS method for the determination of five bioactive constituents (bilobalide, BLL; ginkgolide A, GLA; ginkgolide B, GLB; ginkgolide C, GLC; rutin) of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts (GBE) in rat plasma was established, fully validated and applied to an intragastric pharmacokinetic study of a preparation of GBE in rat. Samples were extracted with ethyl acetate. C18 column was selected as analytical column in this method. Mobile phase was water with 0.01% formic acid and acetonitrile. Quantification was performed in negative multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Matrix instability of terpene lactones was noticed and hydrochloric acid was used as a stabilizer. This method showed good precision and accuracy, recovery was reproducible and matrix effect was negligible. Among four terpene lactones, BLL had the highest exposure and the shortest terminal half-life, GLA and GLB had lower exposure and longer terminal half-life, the exposure of GLC was lowest and its terminal half-life was the maximum, and all of them showed rapid absorption. This study provides a reference for determination of terpene lactones and flavonol glycoside prototypes in GBE and offers pharmacokinetic data of flavonol glycoside prototype in GBE.
Authors:Ishita A. Basera, Aboli Girme, Vijay P. Bhatt, Ganesh Saste, Sandeep Pawar, Lal Hingorani, and Mamta B. Shah
A validated UHPLC-PDA with an ESI-MS/MS method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of six bioactive alkaloids (magnoflorine, berbamine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine and berberine) in the different extracts of the roots of Berberis aristata DC (Family:Berberdiaceae). It is an important medicinal herb native to Northern Himalaya and commonly known as ‘daruharidra’, ‘daruhaldi’, ‘Indian barberry’ or ‘tree turmeric’. An insight into the research literature uncovered reports on isoquinoline alkaloids like magnoflorine, berbamine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, and berberine as major bioactives in B. aristata roots, possessing different pharmacological and therapeutic effects. In the present study, these aforementioned alkaloids were separated on Phenomenex Luna®, 5 µm-C8 analytical column. The HPLC-MS analysis was performed at a flow rate of 0.90 mL min−1. Each alkaloid that is resolved was characterized by precursor ions and fragment ions with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in both positive and negative ionization using scan mode. The limit of detections (LODs) were 0.087, 0.727, 0.035, 0.124, 0.782 and 0.794 μg mL−1 for magnoflorine, berbamine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine and berberine, respectively. The proposed UHPLC-PDA method was fully validated according to international (ICH) guidelines and was found to be selective, sensitive and highly accurate for the concomitant estimation of the aforementioned symbolic bio-markers of B. aristata roots.