Introduction: Beta-lactams are among the most commonly used
antibiotics. Their efficacy is time-dependent, thus the European Society of
Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) recommends that their
plasma concentrations should remain above the minimal inhibitory concentration
(MIC) of the pathogenic bacteria throughout the dosing period (100%fT>MIC).
However, according to several studies, it appears that the plasma concentrations
of beta-lactam antibiotics can be suboptimal in critically ill patients.
Objective: The aim of our study was to determine the
pharmacodynamic target achievement of beta-lactam antibiotics (meropenem,
piperacillin/tazobactam, and ceftriaxone) among critically ill adult patients
admitted to an intensive care unit. Method: We conducted a
prospective, observational single-centre study in a teaching hospital.
Critically ill patients who were prescribed meropenem, piperacillin or
ceftriaxone were enrolled. Trough antibiotic plasma concentration was measured
using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid
chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) to assess the achievement of
the pharmacodynamic target of 100%fT>MIC. The target concentration was
determined based on the definitions of the European Committee on Antimicrobial
Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), depending on the pathogen. The primary endpoint
was the proportion of patients not achieving therapeutic plasma concentrations.
Results: A total of 60 antibiotic level measurements were
performed in 28 patients. The median age of the patients was 64.5 ± 28,7 years,
80% (n = 22 patients) were male. The reason for admission was medical in 35.7%
(n = 10), surgical/trauma in 53.5% (n = 15) and burns in 10.7% (n = 3) of
patients. The therapeutic target was not achieved in 39.3% (n = 11) of patients,
66.6% (n = 6) in the meropenem group, 41.6% (n = 5) in the piperacillin group
and 12.5% (n = 1) in the ceftriaxone group. Discussion: A
significant proportion of critically ill patients receiving beta-lactam
antibiotics did not achieve their target concentration, particularly
piperacillin and meropenem. Conclusion: Our pilot study
confirms the importance of therapeutic drug monitoring in critically ill
patients receiving beta-lactam therapy. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(48): 1904–1911.
One of the most common dentoalveolar surgical procedures, with the most
difficulties and complications, is the surgical removal of wisdom teeth. The
topic is very topical, both because of its frequency and its diversity. It is
diverse because its diagnostic evaluation in relation to the root canal
mandibulae requires great expertise, the surgical technique is not standardised
in the majority of the cases and the surgeon is often forced to improvise. The
complications, the treatment of which is part of our daily tasks, are relatively
frequent and sometimes require a strong institutional background. The literature
on the subject is vast and the guidelines proposed often change from year to
year. The authors review the indications, contraindications, diagnostics,
surgical management, complications associated with the surgical removal of the
wisdom teeth and their management. The authors present an overview of the
protocols of the different international schools and formulate current
recommendations for general practitioners, dentists and dentoalveolar surgeons
in Hungary. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(48): 1887–1894.
Schistosomiasis, a worm infection known as bilharziasis or blood fluke, typically
occurs in tropical regions. In temperate climates like Hungary, only imported
cases are reported. The disease can affect the skin, gastrointestinal tract, or
bladder, depending on the subtype of the worm. We present the case of a
32-year-old male of African origin who visited the urology clinic with
macroscopic hematuria. Despite initial antibiotic therapy, the hematuria
persisted. A cystoscopy revealed polyp-like lesions in the bladder, which were
resected. Histological examination excluded bladder cancer and described a
granulomatous and eosinophil granulocyte-rich inflammation. On top of that, the
presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs and sexually mature
parasites in the venules was confirmed. After that, antihelmintic therapy was
administered, leading to the resolution of symptoms. Notably, this case is the
first documented instance of bladder schistosomiasis diagnosed in Hungary. Our
paper aims to raise awareness of this rare condition while providing insights
into its development, treatment, and potential complications. Orv Hetil. 2023;
Introduction: The association of chronic diseases with eating
disorders requires increased attention due to the potential for serious
complications and increased risk of mortality. Eating disorders and sub-clinical
eating disorders are associated with maladaptive emotion regulation, which may
be both triggers and maintaining factors of the disease. To our knowledge, the
role of cognitive emotion regulation in eating disorders in adolescents with
inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus has not been
investigated to date. Objective: We analysed the relationship
between cognitive emotion regulation and symptoms of eating disorder in
adolescents aged 14 to 18 years, focusing on young people with type 1 diabetes
mellitus and inflammatory bowel disease. Our research aimed to identify the role
of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies in eating disorders in
patient populations with chronic disease. Method: In our study,
300 adolescents completed the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and the
Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents after
informed consent. The four study groups consisted of 157 physically healthy
adolescents, 51 adolescents diagnosed with IBD, 61 adolescents diagnosed with
type 1 diabetes mellitus and 31 adolescents diagnosed with anorexia nervosa.
Results: The results of our study showed that rumination
and positive reframing were significantly associated with symptoms of eating
disorders in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease, and self-blame and
rumination were significantly associated with symptoms of eating disorders in
adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus diagnosis, through an indirect
pathway. Discussion: Our results suggest that cognitive emotion
regulation strategies are indirectly related to symptoms of eating disorders
among adolescents with the chronic illness studied. More frequent use of
negative emotion regulation strategies of self-blame and rumination increases
the incidence of eating disorder symptoms, and less frequent use is associated
with fewer eating disorder symptoms. Greater use of positive reappraisal is
associated with fewer eating disorder symptoms. Conclusion: We
recommend the incorporation of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the
complex care of chronically ill adolescents, both in screening and in
interventions. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(48): 1895–1903.
Introduction: Knowledge and prejudices of medical students
regarding marginalised patient groups can influence their interactions with
patients. Objective: The perceptions of medical students from
the point of view of which social groups they would be less likely to accept as
patients. Method: Medical students of the University of Szeged
completed a voluntary, anonymous questionnaire (n = 410) in 2021, which included
several groups of questions (sociodemographic characteristics, family
background, career choice motivations, shaping of medical identity, future
professional plans, working during university; warmth and competence, social
distance, own experiences among 19 social groups). Results:
Students were least likely to meet abusers, vaccine deniers and prisoners in
their future work. Female medical students were more reluctant to meet abusers,
while their male counterparts homeless, alcoholic, AIDS and psychiatric
patients, and senior students the vaccine denial group and AIDS patients. Their
experiences with different social groups also varied widely. Most of them
personally knew Romani people, drug users, psychiatric patients and alcoholics.
In clinical practice, they encountered Romani people, alcoholics and psychiatric
patients the most. During their education, they heard most often about vaccine
deniers, alcoholics, Romani people, homeless people, AIDS patients.
Discussion: Overall, the students were accepting patients
from different social groups. However, their personal and educational
experiences behind their prejudices were very diverse.
Conclusion: It would be important to strive to meet and get
to know different social groups during university studies in behavioural
sciences and public health as well as during clinical work, so that students can
learn to communicate with them appropriately. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(48):
This analysis of current and historical research and clinical reports observes that the relationship between psychedelics and schizophrenia is complex and there are reports of psychedelics benefiting this population. Specifically, lower doses of psychedelics (mostly LSD) appear to have a potential beneficial impact on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Accurate identification of Mitis group streptococci especially Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae seems difficult due to the lack of specific and sensitive tests. We performed an approach for the identification of atypical pneumococci in pediatric Tunisian population. In this study, 49 streptococcal isolates that were considered as atypical S. pneumoniae were analyzed by: optochin susceptibility in ambient and 5% CO2 atmosphere, oxgall disk sensitivity, PCR targeting several genes and antimicrobial susceptibility.
The combined results of biochemical and molecular methods showed the presence of 23 S. pneumoniae, 7 S. pseudopneumoniae, and 19 other mitis group. Among S. pseudopneumoniae, all isolates were collected from respiratory tract samples and showed a high level of resistance to β-lactams with a MIC90 of 32 mg L−1. Two isolates of S. pseudopneumoniae showed the typical phenotype of optochin resistance described in the literature. All isolates could be identified only by molecular tests. Among Streptococcus pneumonaie, all strains harbored the lytA gene and the Spn9802 fragment. But only 14 strains were encapsulated.
This study describes several assays for the identification of atypical pneumococci in order to gain insights on the nature of isolate and raise alert about the presence of these strains in the pediatric Tunisian community.
The aim of the study was to analyse the use of digital devices among children.
A specially designed questionnaire was distributed to 249 schoolchildren to assess their use of digital devices both in school and outside school. The questionnaire was used before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. The children were asked about the extent of their use of digital devices, as well as about ophthalmic and general health complaints. Their responses were assessed statistically.
Regarding age distribution, 145 children were between seven and 10 years old when they started to use digital devices. Most of the children used a digital device for between one and two hours a day. The majority preferred using smartphones. The second most popular devices were laptops and tablets, and the third most popular was the desktop computer. Fifty-six children wore glasses, 14 to correct hyperopia and 42 to correct myopia. 97 children spent between one and two hours a day outdoors; 99 children spent more than two hours outdoors; and 51 spent less than one hour outdoors. 71 children reported eye problems; 48 reported other general health problems (back and neck pain); and 43 mentioned blurred vision while using a digital device.
The use of digital devices can be regarded as general among schoolchildren, and most children use a digital device for longer than the recommended time. Excessive use of digital devices may contribute to an increase in the prevalence of myopia and other general eye and back problems.
Simulated gambling products, like loot boxes and social casino games, contain gambling elements, but are not classified as gambling. They are available to minors, raising concerns about a “gateway effect” into gambling. This study examined the time course of young people's engagement in simulated and monetary gambling, and associations between simulated gambling and gambling problems and harm. A necessary, although not sufficient, condition for simulated games leading to real money gambling is that simulated play must come first.
Participants were 1,026 young adults (aged 18–25 years) who played video games in the last year. They reported the age at which they first took part in seven simulated and twelve monetary gambling products, and current gambling problems and harm.
First use of loot boxes and video games with gambling content tended to precede monetary gambling. Forms where gambling is a core gameplay element, such as social casino and demonstration games, tended to follow some monetary gambling forms. Engagement in most simulated gambling products was associated with greater harm from monetary gambling.
The findings leave open the possibility of a catalyst pathway from youth engagement in loot boxes and games with gambling content to later monetary gambling, but causal psychosocial mechanisms remain unclear. However, a pathway from social casino and demonstration games to monetary gambling appears less likely, which may instead reflect containment or substitution effects. Simulated gambling disproportionately attracts youth who are vulnerable to gambling problems and harm, indicating the need for consumer protection measures.
The Sonoran Desert Toad (Incilius alvarius) is the only vertebrate known to produce the powerful psychedelic, 5-MeO-DMT, which is easily-accessible form the animal's exterior glands. This paper seeks to present the biocultural (ecological and cultural) history, and conservation concerns of I. alvarius. Discovery of 5-MeO-DMT in I. alvarius was first reported in 1965 and 1967 (Erspamer et al.), and eventually led to the popular psychedelic use of this species after a pamphlet was published in 1984 (Most). Its mostly unmitigated use in for-profit spirituality, wellness, and adventurism has driven erroneous, coerced, and exploitive narratives of ancient Indigenous use – increasing: exploitation of I. alvarius, biocultural erosion, and malpractice of 5-MeO-DMT. Reconciliation of diverse needs is intellectually and financially challenging. It must be careful of approaches that are implicitly biased by a demand that extracts, appropriates, and trades in Indigenous and wellness motifs – but can be reached from the reconciliation and intersection of Indigenous and Western science and priorities. Few conservation-oriented studies and outreach elements concerning I. alvarius exist, and most have been supported by crowdfunding.