Folk art and applied folk art have been constantly shaped by cultural and political actors, as well as social and economic processes and the local society affected by them. In the context of these changes, the definitions of authentic, original, and genuine were given a new interpretation, which can be examined in different contexts. The question of authenticity in material folk art arose shortly after the birth of the concept of folk art and the “discovery” of folk art, and has accompanied the history of the revival of material folk art. Nevertheless, although discourses on the subject have been ongoing for a long time in the fields of folklore, theoretical works dealing with material folk art have not paid much attention to the issue of authenticity. The study first describes the contexts through which the issue of authenticity was articulated in artifact production inspired by folk art. The changed social conditions during the 20th century have also generated, and are still generating, new legal dilemmas in the field of artifact production at both community and individual levels, such as the extent to which folk art is individual or community-owned (taking into account the narrower and wider community), and the copyright of an authentic folk artist or craftsman or a creator recognized as a folk artisan. The questions lead to the evolution of the definition of authenticity and point out, among other things, the role that the issue of authenticity plays in the process of the heritagization of folk art.
Many of the drafts and notes of Ernő Szücs Tárkány are in manuscript, and they can offer valuable clues for European legal ethnography. One of them is a manuscript by Tárkány Szücs, both in Hungarian and English, in the Archives of the Institute of Ethnology of the Research Centre for the Humanities, dated 1982 and titled Administering Justice — without State Courts, which has been awaiting publication for forty years. This study is an important milestone, as it demonstrates, based on a broad international perspective, that even in a field that was monopolized by the state very early on, such as administering justice, legal customs have survived to a great extent; and that legal ethnographic approaches make it possible to arrive at valid conclusions of practical importance through an expert comparison of legal phenomena that are distinct in time and space but have common characteristics. The English-language version of the study is being published verbatim (first publication).
In 1967, Ernő Tárkány Szücs published his article summarizing the results and tasks of European legal ethnography in the columns of Ethnologica Europeana in Paris (under the title Results and Task of Legal Ethnology in Europe). With this, he revived an important tradition of Hungarian legal ethnography: Károly Tagányi published his summary of international research history in German in 1922 (Lebende Rechtsgewohnheiten und ihre Sammlung in Ungarn. Ungarische Bibliothek. Für das Ungarische Institut an der Universität Berlin. Erste Reihe. Vereinigung wissenschaftlicher Verleger. Berlin und Leipzig). At the time of the publication of Ernő Tárkány Szücs's article, he was working as a ministerial official, but in Hungarian academic life he took a backseat. At the same time, however, he was in constant contact with several European representatives of legal folklore. As soon as he had the opportunity, Tárkány Szücs opened up to international scholarship, and became not only an active participant but also a prime mover of the international discourse on legal folk custom research. His recognition was indicated by the fact that throughout Europe, not only his studies published in various world languages but also his papers exclusively in Hungarian were often cited. Although the science policy in his country was not able to integrate the specifically interdisciplinary scientific research of Ernő Tárkány Szücs, or only haltingly, his international recognition was unquestionable all along.
Ernő Tárkány Szücs (1921–1984) was a researcher who created a synthesis of Hungarian legal ethnography, a mediator of his results for European legal ethnographic research, and his scientific work is still an essential part of Hungarian research history. During the most intensive period (1939–1948) of Hungarian legal folklore research — which was delayed compared to European legal customs research — he became a lawyer and a researcher of Hungarian legal ethnography along with legal history professor György Bónis from Kolozsvár (nowdays Cluj-Napoca). Although in the next phase of his life (1950–1975), during the decades of socialism in Hungary, as a practicing lawyer, he could not professionally engage in legal ethnographic research, when he finally had the opportunity to do so in 1975 in the Ethnographic Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, he presented a series of results of Hungarian legal ethnography. One of the most important of these was the publication of a monograph (Tárkány Szücs 1981), which is still considered to be the fundamental work of Hungarian legal ethnography, the conceptual and methodological foundation of the research field, the summary of research findings and at the same time its legitimation. Although the institutionalization of legal ethnographic research had not yet taken place at that time, Hungarian ethnography recognized Ernő Tárkány Szücs's research on legal folk customs as a “one-man” research field. During his research career, Tárkány Szücs continued to take an active role in international scientific life. He always considered it his task to make the findings of European legal ethnography known throughout Hungary, as well as to publish the findings of Hungarian legal ethnographic research in international scientific forums. The 2021 jubilee professional programs and publications of the Tárkány Szücs Ernő Legal Cultural Historical and Legal Ethnographical Research Group — an interdisciplinary research workshop established in 2011 with the aim of processing and enriching his research legacy and publications — were an opportunity to publish new research findings and formulate the ongoing tasks of Hungarian legal ethnography, beyond the evaluation of his research career and Hungarian legal ethnography from the dogmatic and methodological perspective.
In the Káli Basin in the Balaton Uplands, four of the eight settlements bordering each other (Balatonhenye, Köveskál, Kővágóörs, Monoszló) were inhabited by petty nobles belonging to the gentry, living in curial villages, with a great deal of autonomy, self-governance, and within the framework of their established legal norms and legal customs. They lost most of their privileges in the mid-19th century, but some of their old and new legal customs survived until the mid-20th century. The study reviews part of their extensive living conditions, essentially from the last third of the 18th century. The way of life in this region, known for high-quality grapes and livestock, has changed a lot in the more than 200 years. The study describes each typical component of this life in view of the provisions of established law, customary law, and legal customs. Considering legal distinctions, it addresses secular and ecclesiastical administration, legal relationships regarding vineyards, certain work customs, succession laws, and the vestiges of petty nobility that survived into the 20th century. The role of certain legal customs contrary or complementary to the laws (contra legem, praeter legem) is also mentioned. The study provides a brief overview, or at least a taste, of the special (petty noble) legal folklore of the Káli Basin, which is rich in legal customs.
Zurich scholar Konrad Clauser's translation of Chalkokondyles was printed in 1556 at Oporinus' publishing house in Basel. The present paper reconstructs the circumstances of the formation of that translation, provides a detailed account of the publication, attempts to establish which manuscript may have served as the basis for the translation, and presents an outline of the immediate reception of the translation.
In the scope of this research, we aim to give an overview of the currently existing solutions for machine translation and we assess their performance on the English-Hungarian language pair. Hungarian is considered to be a challenging language for machine translation because it has a highly different grammatical structure and word ordering compared to English. We probed various machine translation systems from both academic and industrial applications. One key highlight of our work is that our models (Marian NMT, BART) performed significantly better than the solutions offered by most of the market-leader multinational companies. Finally, we fine-tuned different pre-finetuned models (mT5, mBART, M2M100) for English-Hungarian translation, which achieved state-of-the-art results in our test corpora.
Ancient classical culture usually links gambling (plays with knucklebones, dice, pawns) with divination and love's matters. It is noteworthy, to examine playing by knucklebones (Greek astragaloi). The connection between astragals, games and the erotic sphere clearly appears in Eros-Ganymede episode in the 3rd Book of Apollonius' Argonautica. A fragment of Callimachus also deals with knucklebones. Many Greek lyric and epigrammatic poets echo this topic. In sum, Apollonius allows us to discover a usual imagery: Eros as a player with knucklebones shows that Love masters the human life. It is thus an evident symbol of fate.
One of the most important NLP tasks for the industry today is to produce an extract from longer text documents. This task is one of the hottest topics for the researchers and they have created some solutions for English. There are two types of the text summarization called extractive and abstractive. The goal of the first task is to find the relevant sentences from the text, while the second one should generate the extraction based on the original text. In this research I have built the first solutions for Hungarian text summarization systems both for extractive and abstractive subtasks. Different kinds of neural transformer-based methods were used and evaluated. I present in this publication the first Hungarian abstractive summarization tool based on mBART and mT5 models, which gained state-of-the-art results.
In a lesser known mythological tradition Eros is the son of Iris and Zephyros. His mother, Iris, belongs to a lineage of winged beings who are connected to a pre-cosmic dimension that precedes the historical reality ruled and guaranteed by Zeus. His father, Zephyros, is a wind and also a winged being whose story is linked to the birth of other superhuman beings who contribute to the foundation of a reality not yet fully established. Equally, Eros is a primordial superhuman being, whose nature at a mythical level is that of preceding the foundation of the cosmos. The purpose of this work is to investigate – through the meanders of mythological heritage – which elements of the narratives referring to these characters are relevant to classical Greek culture.
This article is about Ildiko Enyedi's film “Testről és lélekről”. It proposes a semiotic analyse. Its thematic frame is a theory of the fantastic literature and film and refers to Tzvetan Todorov (part 1). Following Roand Barthes “S/Z” it discusses the codes in the film, the sequences and spaces in the film (part 2). In the next part the composition of the film comes into play (e. g. repetition, analogy). The fourth part is dedicated to the uncanny and fantastic element that are created by a lack of knowledge about the world in the and the figures of the movy. The article refers to Freud's “Traumdeutung”. Part 5 analyses the funktion of silence in the film on several levels (level of narrating, communication of the figures in the film). The film is seen in a post-romantic tradition which is in-written in “classical modernism”.
In this paper, we argue that the very convincing performance of recent deep-neural-model-based NLP applications has demonstrated that the distributionalist approach to language description has proven to be more successful than the earlier subtle rule-based models created by the generative school. The now ubiquitous neural models can naturally handle ambiguity and achieve human-like linguistic performance with most of their training consisting only of noisy raw linguistic data without any multimodal grounding or external supervision refuting Chomsky's argument that some generic neural architecture cannot arrive at the linguistic performance exhibited by humans given the limited input available to children. In addition, we demonstrate in experiments with Hungarian as the target language that the shared internal representations in multilingually trained versions of these models make them able to transfer specific linguistic skills, including structured annotation skills, from one language to another remarkably efficiently.
Although the name of Ferenc Hunyadi is known in Hungarian literary history mainly for his Hungarian-language historical song about the peril of Troy, there also exist more than five thousand lines of Latin poetry by him which have not been collected or published since the 16th century. Another eleven of his poems are known from a manuscript written by a Unitarian pastor in the early 17th century. A further, one-distich poem was recorded by István Szamosközy. The date of composition of his poems in manuscript can be placed roughly between the end of 1586 and 1599. In addition to these, there is also a manuscript kept in Oxford in which Hunyadi gives prescriptions for febrile diseases. As a starting point for further research, this paper summarises what is currently known about Hunyadi and his works.
Hungarian has a prolific system of complex predicate formation combining a separable preverb and a verb. These combinations can enter a wide range of constructions, with the preverb preserving its separability to some extent, depending on the construction in question. The primary concern of this paper is to advance the investigation of these phenomena by presenting PrevDistro (Preverb Distributions), an open-access dataset containing more than 41.5 million corpus occurrences of 49 preverb construction types. The paper gives a detailed introduction to PrevDistro, including design considerations, methodology and the resulting dataset's main characteristics.
Nowadays, it is quite common in linguistics to base research on data instead of introspection. There are countless corpora – both raw and linguistically annotated – available to us which provide essential data needed. Corpora are large in most cases, ranging from several million words to some billion words in size, clearly not suitable to investigate word by word by close reading. Basically, there are two ways to retrieve data from them: (1) through a query interface or (2) directly by automatic text processing. Here we present principles on how to soundly and effectively collect linguistic data from corpora by querying i.e. without knowledge of programming to directly manipulate the data. What is worth thinking about, which tools to use, what to do by default and how to solve problematic cases. In sum, how to obtain correct and complete data from corpora to do linguistic research.
The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC, proposed by Levesque, Davis & Morgenstern 2012) is considered to be the novel Turing Test to examine machine intelligence. Winograd schema questions require the resolution of anaphora with the help of world knowledge and commonsense reasoning. Anaphora resolution is itself an important and difficult issue in natural language processing, therefore, many other datasets have been created to address this issue. In this paper we look into the Winograd schemata and other Winograd-like datasets and the translations of the schemata to other languages, such as Chinese, French and Portuguese. We present the Hungarian translation of the original Winograd schemata and a parallel corpus of all the translations of the schemata currently available. We also adapted some other anaphora resolution datasets to Hungarian. We aim to discuss the challenges we faced during the translation/adaption process.
Recognition of Hungarian conversational telephone speech is challenging due to the informal style and morphological richness of the language. Neural Network Language Models (NNLMs) can provide remedy for the high perplexity of the task; however, their high complexity makes them very difficult to apply in the first (single) pass of an online system. Recent studies showed that a considerable part of the knowledge of NNLMs can be transferred to traditional n-grams by using neural text generation based data augmentation. Data augmentation with NNLMs works well for isolating languages; however, we show that it causes a vocabulary explosion in a morphologically rich language. Therefore, we propose a new, morphology aware neural text augmentation method, where we retokenize the generated text into statistically derived subwords. We compare the performance of word-based and subword-based data augmentation techniques with recurrent and Transformer language models and show that subword-based methods can significantly improve the Word Error Rate (WER) while greatly reducing vocabulary size and memory requirements. Combining subword-based modeling and neural language model-based data augmentation, we were able to achieve 11% relative WER reduction and preserve real-time operation of our conversational telephone speech recognition system. Finally, we also demonstrate that subword-based neural text augmentation outperforms the word-based approach not only in terms of overall WER but also in recognition of Out-of-Vocabulary (OOV) words.
This paper investigates the underlying structure of exceptive constructions with the Arabic exceptive marker ’illā and reveals the existence of two types of constructions: r(estrictive)-exceptives and s(ubtractive)-exceptives. The underlying factor that distinguishes these two constructions relates to the existence of a subtraction domain in s-exceptive constructions and its absence in r-exceptives. This distinction suggests that the exceptive marker ’illā ‘except' has a different syntactic function in these two constructions. Furthermore, this difference in the functional status of ’illā suggests a different internal and external structure of the ’illā-XP in each of these constructions. I argue that while the ’illā-XP in r-exceptive constructions projects a R-ExP, involving a covert antecedent in the form of the NPIs ’aḥad ‘one' or shay’ ‘thing’ and is a nominal adjunct, in s-exceptive constructions the ’illā-XP forms an S-ExP and can be classified into connected and free exceptives.
This paper develops a syntax-pragmatics interface analysis of imperative clauses overtly marked by two grammatical categories of qing ‘please’ in Mandarin and refines the division of labor among directive force, clause typing and deontic modality jointly computing the interpretative properties of qing imperatives. We present a cluster of properties to differentiate between the two categories of qing and observe that qing1 denotes obligation imposed on the addressee by the speaker, while qing2 denotes permission with which the addressee is allowed to perform an action or make true a state of affairs according to a set of norms. It is argued that qing1 is an imperative mood head, while qing2 is an imperative adverb, but both are endowed with a similar internal composition and extent of the phrasal hierarchies of the CP periphery, and their disparate imperative properties can be ascribed to the addressee-oriented and subject-oriented deontic modality (Tsai & Portner 2008). Following Haegeman & Hill's (2013) version of the Speech Act Phrase, we claim that a speech act layer externally merges to the topmost position of ForceP to drive the syntax-pragmatics interface computation of the speaker-addressee relation and to mediate the imperative mood and clause typing represented in the CP layer.
A debate has emerged on whether the fifth-century Huns evolved into foot soldiers or remained the same horse archers of the steppes as they had been in the fourth century. So far, the debate has focused on ecological and literary evidence. This paper approaches the argument from an angle neither side has considered: the distances Attila travelled. By examining how far the Huns covered on their longest raid and adducing comparative evidence of pre-modern armies on the march, this paper argues that Attila's Huns remained horse warriors.
This investigation explored the effects of time duration and bilingualism/trilingualism on speakers' language production. A word-naming task was conducted under three conditions—700 ms, 1,000 ms, and unlimited time. The results showed that the participants incurred fewer errors and successfully corrected errors at 1,000 ms and unlimited time; the bilingual/trilingual advantage was identified in error self-repairs at 1,000 ms; and trilinguals were more strategic in correcting errors than monolinguals and bilinguals. This suggests that unlimited time did not ensure higher accuracy in lexical production and efficient error correction, and that 1,000 ms was the optimal timeframe for processing single monosyllabic Chinese characters.
The Ovidian story of Baucis and Philemon can be divided into shorter sections based on the structure of the narrative, and several parallelisms and analogies can be perceived between these sections. In one section the number of vegetables and other edibles corresponds with the number of the edibles in the other, as well as with the arrangement of divine names in the text creating a palistrophe, thus showing the individual parts of the whole strory. The aim of this article is to present the Ovidian structure of the narrative of the story and make possible emendations of the widely accepted text utilising the most important medieval codices and this supposed structural framework.
This study consists of a correlational and regression analysis of certain factors involved in the practice of translator training, as perceived by translator trainees. More precisely, our aim is to examine the relationships between translator trainees' strategic competence (as the dependent variable), and autonomy support, amotivation and critical thinking (as the independent variables) in the translation classroom. Building upon recent advances in educational and social psychology, we have relied on Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2011) as an interpretative frame of reference. After revising the concept of translators' strategic competence, the main contributions in the field of translators' motivation are also reviewed and the notions of autonomy support and critical thinking are approached from the perspective of both psychology and translatology. Our findings seem to point to the fact that autonomy support and critical thinking can play a facilitating role in the development of strategic competence in undergraduate translator students, who may also benefit from both when they encounter new challenges in real professional settings. Finally, the implications for translator training are discussed.
Earlier studies have corroborated that human translation exhibits unique linguistic features, usually referred to as translationese. However, research on machine translationese, in spite of some sparse efforts, is still in its infancy. By comparing machine translation with human translation and original target language texts, this study aims to investigate if machine translation has unique linguistic features of its own too, to what extent machine translations are different from human translations and target-language originals, and what characteristics are typical of machine translations. To this end, we collected a corpus containing English translations of modern Chinese literary texts produced by neural machine translation systems and human professional translators and comparable original texts in the target language. Based on the corpus, a quantitative study of discourse coherence was conducted by observing metrics in three dimensions borrowed from Coh-Metrix, including connectives, latent semantic analysis and the situation/mental model. The results support the existence of translationese in both human and machine translations when they are compared with original texts. However, machine translationese is not the same as human translationese in some metrics of discourse coherence. Additionally, machine translation systems, such as Google and DeepL, when compared with each other, show unique features in some coherence metrics, although on the whole they are not significantly different from each other in those coherence metrics.
Co-location is a crucial precondition for simultaneous interpreters' teamwork. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to secure amid the COVID-19 pandemic, as conference interpreters across the world are forced to embrace distance interpreting due to anti-covid public health measures. This article aims to examine how the disruption to co-location during the pandemic has changed interpreters' teamwork. Drawing on the analytic framework of Pre-process, Peri-process, In-process, and Post-process proposed by Sylvia Kalina (2002), the study explores changing reality in China by combining micro- and macro analysis in a case study involving 136 conference interpreters in the country. Results show that the pandemic has unleashed unprecedented disruption to interpreters' teamwork in spite of their proactive efforts to maintain it. More specifically, a new teamwork pattern featuring major shifts in collaboration themes, division of roles, and fewer benefits is emerging. Findings from the research may shed light on changing realities not only in China, but possibly in the wider world. Practical suggestions and future research needs are also identified.
Interpreting is a highly stressful activity and interpreters are accordingly expected to be stress-resistant. The stress-coping trait of personality hardiness predicts attainments in domains of the military, sport and so on. Adopting a mixed-methods approach, the present study was an attempt to explore whether personality hardiness facilitates interpreting performance in a sample of Chinese postgraduate student interpreters (n = 149) as it does in the aforementioned high-stress contexts. Based on the Hardiness Model, this study positioned interpreting anxiety as a mediator. Analysis of quantitative data suggested that personality hardiness not only correlated to but also predicted interpreting performance. Meanwhile, interpreting anxiety played a mediating effect on the link between personality hardiness and interpreting performance. Follow-up semi-structured interviews provided additional information regarding interviewees' perceptions and behavior during stressful interpreting situations, helping to explain and expand upon the initial quantitative results. Implications of the findings were also discussed.
This paper explores relationships between consecutive interpreting (CI) performance on the one hand, and interpreters' note-taking effort, note-taking product and note-reading effort, on the other hand. 20 professionals and 29 students consecutively interpreted two easy segments and two difficult segments in an English (L2) speech, with their eye fixations on the notes and handwriting on the digital pad being registered through eye-tracking and pen-recording methods. Both groups' CI performance showed positive but weak correlations with their note quantities in the easy segments, but not in the difficult ones. Almost no significant correlations were found between the students' interpretation quality and effort of note-taking, whereas the professionals' CI performance was negatively correlated with their cognitive effort of note-taking. Significant but weak correlations were observed in both groups between their note-reading effort and interpreting performance, but the students' correlations were mainly found in the difficult segments, and the professionals' correlations were mostly detected in the easy ones. Overall, the interpreters' note-taking behaviour was not closely associated with their interpretation quality, and the associations varied across interpreter groups and task difficulties. These findings suggest that note-taking should be taught more judiciously in interpreter training programs and applied more prudently in interpreting practice.
The primary aim of the article is to present a different approach in the critic of sources concerning the reconstruction of „late Hunnic” and „early Bulgaric” period of steppe history. In the last half century it became a main narrative in research, that the Bulgars, appearing around the 480's on the Balkan Peninsula, are identical with those Oguric tribes (Saragur, Ogur, Onogur), that – according to Priscus rhetor – arrived to the eastern part of the European steppe circa 463. Also it is assumed by certain authors, that in the years following the battle at Nedao river (455) the Hunnic tribes, overrun by the newcomers, fled behind the Moesian borders of the East-Roman empire and lost all the continuity of their political and ethnic existense. Analyzing however the sources providing information on this period – Jordanes' Getica, the works of Cassiodorus, Ennodius, Malalas, Procopius and others –, we can let ourselves to assume differently. Although in this article I do not deal with the questions related to early Hungarian history, it is clear enough, how important the above mentioned problem is in view of these questions as well.
The present article offers some reflections on Werner Eck's translation and interpretation of chapter 11 of the lex Troesmensium regulating the municipal embassies: (1) not the future, but the former magistrates were forbidden to be ambassadors; (2) not the ordo decurionum, but the duumvir sent the ambassadors – according to the decision of the decurions, of course; and (3) the future ambassador had to be informed not five days after the decision, but five days before the departure.
Canvassing views through a questionnaire-based online survey of 25 lawyers and 85 interpreters working in Australia, the present study investigates the approaches to interactional management employed by both lawyers and interpreters in interpreter-facilitated legal aid interviews. Specifically, the study examines lawyers' and interpreters' efforts at coordination before and during interpreted interviews, as well as interpreters' success in complying with ethical principles, and lawyers' knowledge of how to work with interpreters. The findings show that lawyers had a good understanding of their responsibilities when working with interpreters and played the role of coordinator by actively managing turn-taking and monitoring interpreting quality. Although most of the interpreter respondents performed to the ethical standards expected, some knowingly violated ethical principles by engaging in side conversations with the clients or by summarising rather than interpreting fully. The study further found statistically significant correlations between interpreters' level of professional qualifications and their competence in managing interactions and following ethical principles, which highlights the importance of training and professional accreditation for maintaining professional standards among interpreters.
In the Egyptian–Greek legal practice the “fictitious loan agreements” are known as specific constructions of deferred purchase contracts of the ancient legal practice. While Roman law is well known from its consensual contracts, such as the sales contract (emptio venditio), furthermore it acknowledged constructions of sales contracts with deferred payment as valid sale, Greek law always adhered to the prompt sale and besides this, only additional solutions were applied. One of these solutions was the so-called “fictitious loan agreements” (συγγραφὴ δανείου), where – as Fritz Pringsheim emphasized – if the seller provided the purchase price and “disguised” the sale as a loan, he had no claim on the basis of the sale, but could only sue on the basis of the loan. There remained several documents of this kind, however, in light of recent papyrological research, new evidence suggests a revision on how we are regarding these documents.
The investigation of elite girls' burials in the Italian peninsula is part of a broader doctoral research project that aims to outline the territorial distribution of Early Mediaeval elite women and girls in the Italian peninsula and analyse the strategies of their funerary self-representation in a short but significant period. Altogether 24 elite girls' burials have been identified in Roman-Byzantine and Lombard territories between the second half of the sixth and the end of the seventh centuries AD. Our analysis focuses on the most significant elements: find context, burial topography, the quality of the funerary goods, and funerary construction. In Byzantine territories, elite children were given ad sanctos burial, but with significant differences in purchasing power between the cities and the countryside. The urban elite was willing to spend huge amounts of money for the burial of their girls inside churches, while the same level of wealth has not been detected in the countryside so far. On the other hand, in the Lombard Kingdom and the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento, funerals given to elite Lombard girls did not differ from those of older age groups and involved handing over important family brooches between generations. By the mid-seventh century AD, elite girl's burials were frequently near or inside churches and rural oratories, contributing in a significant way to a gradual narrowing of the cultural gap between Lombards and the local population.
The investigation of a 8.1 m long peat sequence from Tăul fărăfund (“Bottomless Lake,” Transylvanian Basin, Northern Romania) offers a series representing wetland development since the Middle Holocene. The most striking feature of the sequence is a cca. 900 year-long hiatus caused by peatcutting in the 14th century AD. An artificial reservoir was constructed there in the Late Middle Ages by the excavation of the uppermost peat layer, afflicting a significant environmental impact on this remote location. One of the oldest documented Hungarian settlements from the time of the Hungarian Kingdom (11th century AD, presumably with previous history) in Transylvania was discovered in the vicinity of the former reservoir by an archaeological field survey. By harmonising historical data and the exact chronological sequence of the borehole, the creation of the reservoir was inserted into the local history of the developing mediaeval settlement network at the time when some of the early settlements had been abandoned and a permanent village was established, with a church and upscale landowners, in the area of present-day Băgău in the 13th to 14th century AD. Significant environmental impacts have emerged during this transitional period around the reservoir.
The genesis of Lusatian culture is not sufficiently understood due to the demanding nature of its funeral ideology, which suddenly makes the highest social group invisible in the eyes of archaeologists. The elite proto-Lusatian burial of Nitrica I (Bz C2/D – ca. 1350–1300 BC) points to a persisting warrior-chief component of the Middle Bronze Age origin, which survived here from the previous period and probably contributed to the spread of Lusatian-style pottery. It reveals the diachronic acculturation of ending Tumulus facies, which has retained the habits of depositing votive wealth in graves, while the community of the Urnfield facies have decided (or been forced) to drastically reduce the importance and investment in funeral deposits. Typologically, this is the richest burial of Lusatian cultural zone with a significant continental importance, and offers an excellent case for the integration of multidisciplinary approaches in chronology, sociology, cultural development, and others. Selection of the location of the central burial and its position in the landscape was not accidental, and later began to function as a ritual centre/territorial marker with a high occurrence of metal hoards – which raises several implications in social archaeology and points to a sophisticated spiritual thinking of the Lusatian communities.
Archaeological excavations and inscriptions discovered on site point towards the existence of an Early Imperial Period urban settlement under the area of the present-day village Környe (Komárom-Esztergom County), established in the civitas Azaliorum region, most probably on the territory of the Mogiones tribe. On some of the inscriptions possibly related to the name of the Early Imperial Era settlement, unearthed on site and in the immediate neighbourhood, a striking abbreviation, MOG appears. According to the Inotapuszta (Bakonycsernye) diploma and a Roman urban laterculus, there stood in Pannonia an urban settlement known by the name of Mogionibus as well. The results of the excavations conducted in Környe in the period 1939–2016, local inscriptions and a newly published milestone discovered in Tata (Komárom-Esztergom County) are all witnesses to the existence of a municipium named rather Mogionibus such as Mogionensium on the territory of the present village of Környe. The municipium existed between the reigns of Hadrian and Gallienus. Before 214, it belonged to the urban network of Pannonia Superior, while after 214, to that of Pannonia Inferior.
Discussed here is the presence of a warrior aristocracy in south-western Hungary, principally in County Somogy, during the early (and middle) Urnfield period (Br D–Ha A1-A2) based on the archaeological record. The period's offensive and protective weapons wielded by the warrior aristocracy during the Urnfield period (mid-thirteenth to ninth century BC) are exclusively known from hoards in this region; none have been recovered from burials. The Lengyeltóti V hoard contained a greave, a composite cuirass, a cheek-piece indicating the presence of a military aristocracy riding horses and wagons or chariots when going to battle and a realistic wheel model. The swords and spearheads were part of the period's offensive weaponry. The hoard's other articles represented the jewellery of the female aristocracy: a diadem, a torc and an ornamented disc pendant. The hoard contained over seven hundred items. In A. Mozsolics's view, the hoard could be assigned to the period lasting up to the close of the Hallstatt period (Ha A2). The rise of the warrior aristocracy began during the Br D, Br D/Ha A1 period, while its consolidation and heyday fell into the early Urnfield period (Ha A1). The aristocracy lived in hillforts – fortified settlements – which had a flourishing bronze industry. The number of settlements and burials declined drastically in the ensuing Ha B period in south-western Transdanubia.
It is well known that, alongside Lutheranism and Calvinism, other, even more radical forms of Protestantism emerged in the 16th century, attacking fundamental Christian beliefs such as the dogma of the Trinity. However, neither Catholic, nor Protestant states welcomed heterodox views, so their proponents were forced to flee to the East, where they were permitted to build their own churches in Poland and Transylvania. In the western parts of the continent they were largely unknown, so when the first representatives of the Counter-Reformation (mainly Jesuits) arrived, they were confronted with a new, obscure foe.
Antonio Possevino, one of the most well-known and influential figures of the Catholic Reformation, wrote a lengthy polemic book against Antitrinitarism based on his own experiences which he acquired in the early 1580s when he performed various missions in Poland and Transylvania, while also studying Antitrinitarism. Possevino's work outlines the history of Antitrinitarism, summarizes its doctrines, and refutes its most important book, De falsa et vera unius Dei … cognitione. Although Possevino's book is intriguing in and of itself, its publishing history is also worth noting. It was not published until 1586, after a heated debate between Possevino, his Jesuit censors, and the pope, and it was printed in three cities (Poznan, Cologne and Vilnius) at the same time with different titles and prefaces. Within a few years, the book was edited two more times. This history outlines some tactics on behalf of the Catholic Reformation, with a focus on the importance of printed books.
Non-finite verb forms, in-between verbs and nouns and also in-between inflection and derivation, pose challenges to grammar writing. In the largely Latin-based European grammar traditions, three or four main types of non-finites are often distinguished: infinitives, participles, verbal adverbs (gerunds, converbs), and – often most closely connected to the participles but classified as derivation rather than inflection – deverbal noun derivatives. Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian, the three Uralic state languages with a strong tradition of written cultivation, are situated at the western end of the language family and display a strong “Europeanization” also in their systems of non-finites. Yet, these systems differ greatly even from each other.
In this paper, the classification and nomenclature of non-finites in Hungarian grammars are compared with Finnish and Estonian. The Finnish grammar tradition is based on morphological substance but, failing to acknowledge the category of converbs, ends up exploiting the term “infinitive” in a way which is syntactically and semantically meaningless. The Estonian grammars vacillate between an opportunistic use of traditional European grammar terms and a simple listing of forms at a minimal level of abstraction. Hungarian grammars, in turn, present the non-finites in a way which is incompatible with other grammar traditions and is internally contradictory.
The study discusses the possibilities of the scholarly processing of Hungarian queer literature. In particular, it takes into account the diversity of interpretive strategies and focuses on methods that can productively liberate canonized interpretations and act subversively against the expropriation and manipulation of literary texts. The imported categories of queer study of literature can often only be applied with modifications to Hungarian and Central European literature. The author argues that queer interpretation is not a stigma, nor is it a trademark, but a field of freedom.