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Az elektromágneses tereknek tulajdonított idiopátiás környezeti intolerancia (IEI-EMF) jelensége a szakemberek szemszögéből

Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI-EMF) – from the viewpoint of the specialists

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors:
Zsuzsanna Dömötör
,
Ferenc Köteles
, and
Renáta Szemerszky

Kétrészes narratív összefoglalónkban áttekintést nyújtunk az elektromágneses tereknek tulajdonított idiopátiás környezeti intoleranciával (IEI-EMF, más néven elektromágneses túlérzékenységgel) kapcsolatos tudományos eredményekről, a kutatások jelenlegi állásáról. Az elektromágneses túlérzékenység olyan állapotot jelent, amely során az érintett személy tüneteket tapasztal az elektromos eszközök közelében vagy azok használatakor, és tüneteit az elektromágneses expozíciónak tulajdonítja. Az Egészségügyi Világszervezet jelenlegi álláspontja szerint az IEI-EMF nem diagnosztikus kategória, megállapításához jelenleg sem orvosi teszt, sem valid protokoll nem áll rendelkezésre. Jellemző az állapotra a nagyfokú distressz, gyakran vezet szociális izolációhoz, valamint a munkaképesség elvesztéséhez. Gyakoriak a különböző komorbid mentális zavarok, mint a szorongás, depresszió, szomatizáció. Az elektromágneses túlérzékenység etiológiájával kapcsolatos elméletek két fő irányvonalat képviselnek: míg a biofizikai megközelítés szerint a tüneteket elektromágneses mezők által aktivált fiziológiai folyamatok idézik elő, addig a pszichogén elméletet propagáló szerzők a tünetképzés jelenségét pszichológiai folyamatokkal magyarázzák (például torzult figyelmi és attribúciós folyamatok, nocebohatás, asszociatív tanulás). Számos kutató hangsúlyozza azonban, hogy a jelenség teljes megértéséhez a két megközelítés integrálására és interdiszciplináris kutatócsoportok felállítására van szükség. Jelen írásunkban a jelenséggel kapcsolatos jellemzőket kutatói és orvosi szemszögből járjuk körül: az etiológiával kapcsolatos elméletek bemutatásán túl kitérünk a vizsgálati, módszertani nehézségekre, a definíciós és diagnosztikus problémákra és a terápiás lehetőségekre.

Open access

Az orvostanhallgatók mentális egészségét kedvezőtlenül befolyásoló tényezők és a beavatkozások lehetséges pontjai hallgatói szemszögből

Understanding students’ perspectives on mental health determinants of medical students and interventions to improve mental health in medical school: a qualitative study

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors:
Barnabás Oláh
,
Bence Márk Rádi
, and
Karolina Kósa

Elméleti háttér: Az orvostanhallgatók kedvezőtlen mentális egészségi állapotára kutatások széle köre mutat rá világszerte. A háttérben álló tényezők és a szükséges beavatkozások megismerése azonban már kevesebb vizsgálatnak került a fókuszába, és különösen kevés a kvalitatív módszert alkalmazó kutatás. Célkitűzés: A Debreceni Egyetem magyar és angol nyelvű orvosképzésében részt vevő hallgatók mentális egészségét kedvezőtlenül befolyásoló egyetemi és egyéni szinten megjelenő tényezők azonosítása, a hallgatók által javasolt beavatkozások megismerése. Módszerek: 26 fő (13 magyar és 13 angol nyelven tanuló), I–VI. éves orvostanhallgatóval készítettünk fókuszcsoportos interjúkat, amelyeket hang-felvételen rögzítettünk. Az interjúk átírását követően az összesen 46 874 szószám terjedelmű anyagon tartalomelemzést végeztünk az NVivo szoftver segítségével, azt manuálisan ellenőrizve. Eredmények: Legfőbb stresszorokként a tananyag mennyiségét, a vizsgáztatás sajátosságait (tisztázatlan követelmények, vizsgáztatói szubjektivitás, észlelt igazságtalanság), az oktatási segédanyagok, valamint a gyakorlati képzés hiányosságait, illetve az egyetemen belüli információáramlás problémáit fogalmazták meg a hallgatók. A magyarok körében kiemelt stresszforrásként jelent meg az évismétlés és az önköltséges képzési formába való átsorolás veszélye. A tananyag nagy mennyisége miatt a hallgatók tanulásmódszertani, időbeosztási készségek fejlesztését célzó intervenciókat szeretnének, továbbá igényük lenne a stresszkezelési és kudarctűrési képességük fejlesztését célzó segítségre is. Sokak szakmai jövőképe bizonytalan, amelyet a hatékony karrier-tanácsadás tudna enyhíteni. Következtetés: Az orvostanhallgatók mentális egészségére számos szervezeti és egyéni tényező jelent kockázatot, amelyeket az egyetem elsősorban rendszerszintű beavatkozásokkal tudna csökkenteni.

Open access

Krónikus légzőszervi betegek élményvilágának vizsgálata a COVID–19-világjárvány idején interpretatív fenomenológiai analízissel

Exploring the experiences of chronic respiratory patients during the COVID-19 pandemic using interpretative phenomenological analysis

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors:
Edina Tomán
,
Judit Nóra Pintér
, and
Rita Hargitai

Elméleti háttér: A koronavírus világjárvány idején a krónikus légzőszervi betegek fizikai sérülékenységük mellett a mentális problémákra is fokozottan érzékenyek lehetnek. Betegségük sajátosságaiból kifolyólag nagyobb valószínűséggel rendelkeznek már meglévő tapasztalattal krízishelyzetek, súlyos egzisztenciális kérdések és az ezekkel való megküzdés területén. Ezeknek a korábbi tapasztalatoknak szerepe lehet a COVID–19-járvánnyal kapcsolatos veszélyeztetettség megélése szempontjából. Az egyre nagyobb számú kvantitatív kutatáson alapuló szakirodalom ellenére az érintettek szubjektív tapasztalatainak megismerése továbbra is hiányzik. Cél: Kutatásunk célja a krónikus légzőszervi betegek COVID–19-világjárvány általi veszélyeztetettségélményének, tapasztalatainak feltárása és mélyebb megértése volt kvalitatív, idiográfiás módszerrel. Az alábbi kutatási kérdésekre kívántunk választ kapni: 1. Hogyan viszonyulnak az interjúalanyok a légzőszervi alap- betegségükhöz? 2. Mit jelent a számukra a veszélyeztetettség megélése? 3. Hogyan hatnak az alapbetegséggel kapcsolatos eredeti tapasztalatok a világjárvánnyal járó sérülékenység megélésére? Módszerek: Vizsgálatunkhoz az interpretatív fenomenológiai analízis módszerét használtuk. A kutatásban 8 fő vett részt: 7 nő és 1 férfi, 29–60 évesek, a következő diagnózisok valamelyikével: asztma, krónikus obstruktív tüdőbetegség, cisztás fibrózis. Eredmények: A félig strukturált interjúk elemzése során három főtéma bontakozott ki: 1. légzőszervi betegség mint a mindennapokat meghatározó tapasztalat, 2. a koronavírus világjárvány hatása az énre és az identitásszerveződésre, illetve 3. a veszélyeztetettség megéléséhez való alkalmazkodás. A levegőtlenség a progresszív tüdőbetegségek legnehezebben tolerálható, leginkább félelmetes velejárója, amely élmény különböző módokon kapcsolódhat a félelemmel és a szorongással. A COVID–19 potenciális fertőző volta éles határvonalat húz a veszélyeztetett Én és a veszélyes Másik; vagyis az én és a világ közé, továbbá kritikus élethelyzetet jelent a társas szükségletek és vágyak kielégíthetősége szempontjából. Adaptációjukban alapvetően énvédő mechanizmusok, illetve érzelem- fókuszú stratégiák bontakoztak ki. Következtetések: A jelenlegi világjárvány jelentős hatást gyakorol az érintett betegek életére. A koronavírus elsősorban légutakat érintő természete miatt az érintettek veszélyeztetettként tekintenek önmagukra, a veszélyeztetettség megélése pedig alapvetően meghatározza életüket; döntéseiket, a világhoz való kapcsolódásukat, identitásszerveződésüket, megküzdésüket, s megkérdőjelezi a világ biztonságosságába vetett hitüket. A krónikus légzőszervi betegek tapasztalatainak feltárása kiemelt jelentőséggel bír a járvány pszichoszociális hatásait mérséklő stratégiák kidolgozásában.

Open access

Mi van a maszk mögött? A maszkviselés szociális reprezentációja

What is behind the mask? Social representation of mask wearing

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors:
Judit Borszéki
,
Martin Farkas
,
Andrea Turner
,
Gabriella Vonyik
,
Gábor Simonyi
, and
Ervin Finta

Elméleti háttér: A COVID–19-pandémia idején a járványügyi intézkedések meghatározó részévé vált az arcmaszkok viselésének preventív és széles körű alkalmazása. Az arcmaszkok az arcfelület mintegy 60–70%-át lefedve jelentősen befolyásolják a szociális interakciókat – különösen az érzelemfelismerést, érzelemkifejezést és mentalizálást. A kommunikációban fellépő nehézségek a gyógyító munka hatékonysága szempontjából kiemelt jelentőségűvé válnak az orvos–beteg kapcsolatban. Ennek még kritikusabb esetei azok a helyzetek, amikor a páciens mentalizációs deficittel jellemezhető zavarban szenved. Tanulmányunkban a szociális reprezentációk elméletét használjuk annak vizsgálatára, hogy a maszkviselés milyen tartalmakkal vált a közös tudás részévé. Célkitűzés: Vizsgálatunkban a maszkviselés szociális reprezentációjának feltérképezését tűztük ki célul, figyelembe véve annak interperszonális kommunikációra gyakorolt hatását, olyan csoportokban, ahol a kölcsönös megértés hatékonysága kiemelt jelentőséggel bír. Módszerek: Kutatásunkban a koronavírus-járvány második és harmadik magyarországi hulláma idején, orvos, szomatikus és pszichiátriai beteg csoportban, valamint kontrollcsoportban (összesen 81 fő, átlagéletkor 43,1 [SD = 13,83] év) szabad asszociációs feladatot adtunk a „maszkviselés” hívószóra. A nyert adatokból szemantikus kategóriákat képeztünk, majd ranggyakoriság-eljárással feltérképeztük a szociális reprezentációk szerkezetét az egyes csoportokon belül. Eredmények: A vizsgálati csoportok maszkhasználathoz kapcsolódó szociális reprezentációjában egységesen központi elemként jelent meg a maszkviselés által nyújtott biztonságélmény, valamint a maszk zavaró testérzetet keltő hatása. Különbséget találtunk az egyes csoportok között elaboratív kategóriák megjelenése, illetve szorongás, agresszió, tehetetlenség, sérült dependenciaszükséglet, valamint a kényszerű alkalmazkodás tekintetében. Következtetések: A maszkviselés szociális reprezentációjának elemzése alapján a maszkviselés ambivalens jelentéstartalmakat hordoz. Bár a maszkviseléshez kapcsolódó szociális reprezentációk struktúrájában számottevő különbségek is mutatkoztak, ugyanakkor a legtöbb vizsgált csoportban a maszk a vírusvédelem szempontjából „kényelmetlen, de szükséges” eszközként került felismerésre. Az eredmények alapján az egyes csoportok sajátos reprezentációik alapján eltérő módokon lehetnek veszélyeztetettek, illetve küzdhetnek meg a pandémia idején kialakult helyzettel.

Open access

Abstract

Psychedelic compounds hold promise for alleviating human suffering. Initial trials of psychedelic-assisted treatments have established feasibility and safety, generating calls for replications. Meanwhile, social and medical sciences have drawn criticism due to perceptions of replication failures and varying public trust in empiricism. Data suggest that researchers and the public frequently misunderstand some of the statistical issues associated with replication, potentially leading to unrealistic expectations of treatment effects. Promoting discourse on what constitutes sufficient replication is especially warranted considering the ongoing progression of multi-site phase II and III clinical trials. Here, we review recent and classic work on prediction intervals and power analysis to reveal that trials of psychedelic-assisted therapy that emphasize statistical significance will likely include failures to replicate, especially if sample sizes do not increase dramatically. The field and the public should expect some failed replication attempts based on sampling variability alone. Continued emphasis on statistical significance will require markedly larger samples than those used in clinical trials to date, necessitating substantially greater resources. An alternative approach focused on prediction intervals has distinct advantages. We focus on a recent trial of MDMA-assisted therapy for PTSD to show that, based on prediction intervals, reasonable replications are well within reach. A lack of attention to these statistical issues could unnecessarily prompt widespread dismissal of these therapies before the intervention receives adequate investigation and a fair assessment. In contrast, realistic expectations and appropriate planning could help ensure that these treatments receive the opportunity to help those most in need.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Thais Guimarães Bourscheid
,
Leonardo Corrêa Cardoso
,
Marcelo Henrique Nascimento Santana
,
Letícia Cimó de Oliveira
,
Fernanda Ziegler Reginato
,
Michel Mansur Machado
, and
André Valle de Bairros

Abstract

Snuff is a fine aromatic powder composed of dried and thin leaves combined with tobacco, roots, peels, and seeds. Its use for indigenous religious purposes has appeared since pre-Columbian period in various localities of American continent. Practice is considered sacred in indigenous culture and suffered from trivialization of consumption due to influence of colonizers, which triggered subsequent industrialization of this complex for commercial purposes. Commercial snuff is essentially made from industrialized tobacco without addition of other medicinal plants and without therapeutic or spiritual purposes beyond its indiscriminate and inappropriate use, causing health risks. Therefore, this study aimed to make a review on snuff in Brazilian culture and a tour of a local community. In shamanism, plants are used as access vehicles to other religions of cosmos and its inhabitants, from where experts dialogue, bring songs, news, omens, and acquire new knowledge. The plants used in shamanic composition of snuff vary with the locality of indigenous villages in America and are essential ingredients of this interaction between humans and non-humans, a special mediator of intersubjective interactions. Several studies show the use and meaning of Erythroxylum coca used in different communities of the Amazon, besides Chacrona and Mariri, popular names of plants used in manufacture of Ayahuasca drink by doctrine Santo Daime. Because of this, it is essential to establish differences between recreational snuff and shamanic and their effects on body as well as studies on use of shamanic snuff should be directed according to their applications and plants employed by communities.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Bastien Perrot
,
Jean-Benoit Hardouin
,
Elsa Thiabaud
,
Anaïs Saillard
,
Marie Grall-Bronnec
, and
Gaëlle Challet-Bouju

Abstract

Background and aims

Gambling disorder is characterized by problematic gambling behavior that causes significant problems and distress. This study aimed to develop and validate a predictive model for screening online problem gamblers based on players' account data.

Methods

Two random samples of French online gamblers in skill-based (poker, horse race betting and sports betting, n = 8,172) and pure chance games (scratch games and lotteries, n = 5,404) answered an online survey and gambling tracking data were retrospectively collected for the participants. The survey included age and gender, gambling habits, and the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). We used machine learning algorithms to predict the PGSI categories with gambling tracking data. We internally validated the prediction models in a leave-out sample.

Results

When predicting gambling problems binary based on each PGSI threshold (1 for low-risk gambling, 5 for moderate-risk gambling and 8 for problem gambling), the predictive performances were good for the model for skill-based games (AUROCs from 0.72 to 0.82), but moderate for the model for pure chance games (AUROCs from 0.63 to 0.76, with wide confidence intervals) due to the lower frequency of problem gambling in this sample. When predicting the four PGSI categories altogether, performances were good for identifying extreme categories (non-problem and problem gamblers) but poorer for intermediate categories (low-risk and moderate-risk gamblers), whatever the type of game.

Conclusions

We developed an algorithm for screening online problem gamblers, excluding online casino gamblers, that could enable the setting of prevention measures for the most vulnerable gamblers.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Jakob Jonsson
,
David C. Hodgins
,
Axel Lyckberg
,
Shawn Currie
,
Matthew M. Young
,
Ståle Pallesen
, and
Per Carlbring

Abstract

Background and aims

Lower-risk recommendations for avoiding gambling harm have been developed as a primary prevention measure, using self-reported prevalence survey data. The aim of this study was to conduct similar analyses using gambling company player data.

Methods

The sample (N = 35,753) were Norsk Tipping website customers. Gambling indicators were frequency, expenditure, duration, number of gambling formats and wager. Harm indicators (financial. social, emotional, harms in two or more areas) were derived from the GamTest self-assessment instrument. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were performed separately for each of the five gambling indicators for each of the four harm indicators.

Results

ROC areas under the curve were between 0.55 and 0.68. Suggested monthly lower-risk limits were less than 8.7 days, expenditure less than 54 €, duration less than 72–83 min, number of gambling formats less than 3 and wager less than 118–140€. Most risk curves showed a rather stable harm level up to a certain point, from which the increase in harm was fairly linear.

Discussion

The suggested lower-risk limits in the present study are higher than limits based on prevalence studies. There was a significant number of gamblers (5–10%) experiencing harm at gambling levels well below the suggested cut-offs and the risk increase at certain consumption levels.

Conclusions

Risk of harm occurs at all levels of gambling involvement within the specific gambling commercial environment assessed in an increasingly available gambling market where most people gamble in multiple commercial environments, minimizing harm is important for all customers.

Open access

Another failure of the latent disease model? The case of compulsive sexual behavior disorder •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Nicholas C. Borgogna
and
Stephen L. Aita

Abstract

Recent debates have evolved regarding the classification/conceptualization of compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD). Conclusions regarding an agreed upon CSBD model are hindered by reliance on the latent disease model. Competing biological-based frameworks are moving forward to replace latent disease classification more broadly but have been met with limited success. We suggest that CSBD researchers move towards developing dimensional, transtheoretical, process-based models. We further suggest additional research, particularly mixed methods and longitudinal studies. Finally, we request that federal funding bodies take a more active role in supporting CSBD research.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Despite promising findings indicating the therapeutic potential of psychedelic experience across a variety of domains, the mechanisms and factors affecting its efficacy remain unclear. The present paper explores this by focusing on two psychedelic states which have been suggested as therapeutically significant in past literature: ego-dissolution and connectedness. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of ego-dissolution and connectedness on the therapeutic effects of the psychedelic experience.

Methods

The investigation was carried out as a mixed methods systematic review, with the data from four databases analysed thematically and results presented through narrative synthesis.

Results

The analysis and synthesis of findings from 15 unique studies (n = 2,182) indicated that both ego-dissolution and connectedness are associated with a higher chance of improvement following a psychedelic experience. However, there seem to be differences in the way the two experiences affect individuals psychologically. Ego-dissolution appears to trigger psychological change but does not typically exceed the psychedelic experience in its duration, while connectedness can be more sustained and is associated with several positive, potentially therapeutic feelings.

Conclusions

Moreover, the findings of this review have implications for further theory-building about the mechanisms which enable therapeutic effects in psychedelic experience. This in turn might lead to improved models for psychedelic therapy practice. Emphasis on ego-dissolution during the preparation phase and on connectedness during integration is one suggestion presented here, alongside overarching implications for the mental health debate and general practice.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Hongsheng Xie
,
Feifei Zhang
,
Yuan Cao
,
Xipeng Long
,
Baolin Wu
,
Qiyong Gong
, and
Zhiyun Jia

Abstract

Background and aims

Perfectionism is correlated with the occurrence of exercise dependence. We aim to reveal the role of functional connectivity (FC) between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) networks in the association between perfectionism and exercise dependence.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, one hundred ten participants with exercise dependence underwent behavioral evaluation and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Perfectionism and exercise dependence were quantified using the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS) and Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS). We used a K-means clustering algorithm to identify functional GM and WM networks and obtained the FCs of the GM-GM, GM-WM, and WM-WM networks. Partial correlation and mediation analyses were performed to explore the relationships among FCs, FMPS, and EDS.

Results

We identified ten stable GM networks and nine WM networks. Of these, FCs existed between the corona radiata network (WM1) and default mode network (DMN, GM8), WM1 network and WM DMN (WM4), WM1 network and midbrain WM network (WM7), and WM4 network and inferior longitudinal fasciculus network (WM9). The WM1-GM8 and WM1-WM4 FCs were positively correlated with the EDS and negative FMPS. The mediating effects of the WM1-GM8 and WM1-WM4 FCs were established in the association between the negative dimensional FMPS and EDS.

Discussion and Conclusions

The WM1 network anatomically linked the subregions within the GM8 and WM4 networks, and WM1-GM8 and WM1-WM4 FCs mediated the association between negative dimensional FMPS and EDS. These findings indicated that DMN function might be involved in the increased risks of exercise dependence promoted by negative perfectionism.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Florent Wyckmans
,
Nilosmita Banerjee
,
Mélanie Saeremans
,
Ross Otto
,
Charles Kornreich
,
Laetitia Vanderijst
,
Damien Gruson
,
Vincenzo Carbone
,
Antoine Bechara
,
Tony Buchanan
, and
Xavier Noël

Abstract

Background and aims

Experiencing acute stress is common in behavioral addictions such as gambling disorder. Additionally, like most substance-induced addictions, aberrant decision-making wherein a reactive habit-induced response (conceptualized as a Model-free [MF] in reinforcement learning) suppresses a flexible goal-directed response (conceptualized as a Model-based [MB]) is also common in gambling disorder. In the current study we investigated the influence of acute stress on the balance between habitual response and the goal-directed system.

Methods

A sample of N = 116 problem gamblers (PG) and healthy controls (HC) performed an acute stress task – the Socially Evaluated Cold pressure task (SECPT) – or a control task. Self-reported stress and salivary cortisol were collected as measures of acute stress. Following the SECPT, participants performed the Two-Step Markov Task to account for the relative contribution of MB and MF strategies. Additionally, verbal working memory and IQ measures were collected to account for their mediating effects on the orchestration between MB/MF and the impact of stress.

Results

Both groups had comparable baseline and stress-induced cortisol response to the SECPT. Non-stressed PG displayed lower MB learning than HC. MANOVA and regression analyses showed a deleterious effect of stress-induced cortisol response on the orchestration between MB and MF learning in HC but not in PG. These effects remained when controlling for working memory and IQ.

Discussion and Conclusions

We found an abnormal pattern of modulation of stress on the orchestration between MB and MF learning among PG. Several interpretations and future research directions are discussed.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Hannah Schmidt
,
Dominique Brandt
,
Christian Meyer
,
Anja Bischof
,
Gallus Bischof
,
Anika Trachte
,
Bettina Besser
,
Svenja Orlowski
,
Samantha Schlossarek
,
Stefan Borgwardt
, and
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf

Abstract

Background

Adolescents and young adults (AYA) have an increased risk for Internet use disorders (IUD) compared to older individuals that may lead to functional impairments in daily life. To date, evidence-based brief interventions are lacking. This study aimed to test the efficacy of a low-threshold counseling approach based on Motivational Interviewing (MI) in a vocational school setting.

Methods

Of 8.230 vocational students (age M=20.56, SD=4.68; 51.85% female) being proactively screened for IUD, 937 with positive screenings took part in telephone-based diagnostic interviews. IUD were assessed in line with the criteria of the Internet Gaming Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). Readiness to change, self-efficacy, and impairments in daily life were additionally assessed with standardized screening instruments. Participants fulfilling at least two IUD criteria were randomized to the intervention group (n=240, up to three MI-based counseling sessions via telephone) or the control group (n=257, information brochure on responsible Internet use). Follow-up interviews were conducted after five and ten months. The primary outcome was the reduction of IUD criteria. Secondary outcomes were improvements of readiness/ self-efficacy to change and the reduction of daily impairments. Data were analyzed with Intention-to-Treat (ITT) and complier average causal effect (CACE) analyses.

Results

Overall, 153 (63.75%) individuals assigned to the intervention group participated at least in one counseling session (=compliers). Both groups reduced the number of IUD criteria over time. In ITT analyses, however, we did not find intervention effects for primary and secondary outcomes. Bayes statistics were inconclusive. Based on low participation rates in the intervention group, explorative CACE analyses were conducted to compare compliers in the intervention group to potential compliers in the control group. Again, we did not find intervention effects apart from improvements in self-efficacy after five months.

Discussion

Telephone-based counseling seems not appropriate to address AYA at risk for IUD. Low participation rates in the intervention group caused underpowered analyses. Besides, dealing with the own Internet use during intensive assessments and receiving an information brochure led to behavioral changes also in the control group. Since the efficacy of brief interventions under the condition of higher participation rates cannot be fully ruled out, further research is required by taking the implications of this study into account.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Chelsea Radakovic
,
Ratko Radakovic
,
Guy Peryer
, and
Jo-Anne Geere

Abstract

Background and aims

The benefits of classic serotonergic psychedelics (e.g. psilocybin, LSD, DMT, ayahuasca) are becoming more widely known with the resurgence in research in the past decade. Furthermore, the benefits of mindfulness are well documented. However, no systematic reviews have examined linkage of mindfulness and psychedelics use. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the link between psychedelics and characteristics of mindfulness.

Methods

We conducted a systematic search across multiple databases, inclusive of grey literature and backwards/forward-citation tracking, on the 18 January 2021. The search strategy included terms relating to mindfulness and psychedelics, with no restriction on clinical or non-clinical conditions. Study quality was assessed. An exploratory random-effects meta-analysis was conducted on pre-post mindfulness data relative to psychedelic ingestion.

Results

Of 1805 studies screened, 13 were included in the systematic review. There was substantial variability in participant characteristics, psychedelic administration method and measurement of mindfulness. The ingestion of psychedelics is associated with an increase in mindfulness, specifically relating to domains of acceptance, which encompasses non-judgement of inner experience and non-reactivity. The meta-analysis of a subset of studies (N = 6) showed small effects overall relative to ayahuasca ingestion, increasing mindfulness facets of non-judgement of inner experience and non-reactivity, as well as acting with awareness.

Conclusions

Further methodologically robust research is needed to elucidate the relationship between psychedelics and mindfulness. However, mindfulness and specific facets relating to acceptance have been shown to increase following ingestion of psychedelics in a number of studies.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Myung Ji Kwak
,
Wha Young Kim
,
Seung-Hyun Jung
,
Yeun-Jun Chung
, and
Jeong-Hoon Kim

Abstract

Background and aims

Proper measurement of expected risk is important for making rational decisions, and maladaptive decision making may underlie various psychiatric disorders. However, differentially expressed genetic profiling involved in this process is still largely unknown. A rodent version of the gambling task (rGT) has been developed to measure decision-making by adopting the same principle of Iowa Gambling Task in humans. In the present study, we examined using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique whether there are differences in gene expression profiles in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) when rats make different choices toward risk in rGT.

Methods

Rats were trained in a touch screen chamber to learn the relationships between 4 different light signals on the window of the screen and accompanied reward outcomes or punishments set up with different magnitudes and probabilities. Once they showed a stabilized pattern of preference upon free choice, rats were classified into risk-averse or risk-seeking groups. After performing the rGT, rats were decapitated, the mPFC and the NAc was dissected out, and NGS was performed with the total RNA extracted.

Results

We found that 477 and 36 genes were differentially expressed (approximately 75 and 83% out of them were downregulated) in the mPFC and the NAc, respectively, in risk-seeking compared to risk-averse rats. Among those, we suggested a few top ranked genes that may contribute to promoting risky choices.

Discussion and conclusions

Our findings provide insights into transcriptional components underlying risky choices in rats.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Christian Bäcklund
,
Pia Elbe
,
Hanna M. Gavelin
,
Daniel Eriksson Sörman
, and
Jessica K. Ljungberg

Abstract

Background and aims

The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the available literature on the relationship between gaming motivations and gaming disorder symptoms. Specifically, to (1) explore what gaming motivation questionnaires and classifications are used in studies on gaming disorder symptoms and (2) investigate the relationship between motivational factors and symptoms of gaming disorder.

Method

An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCO (MEDLINE and PsycINFO) and the Web of Science Core Collection. All studies using validated measurements on gaming disorder symptoms and gaming motivations and available correlation coefficients of the relationship between gaming disorder and gaming motivations were included. The meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model.

Results

In total, 49 studies (k = 58 independent sub-samples), including 51,440 participants, out of which 46 studies (k = 55 sub-samples, n = 49,192 participants) provided data for the meta-analysis. The synthesis identified fourteen different gaming motivation instruments, seven unique motivation models, and 26 motivational factors. The meta-analysis showed statistically significant associations between gaming disorder symptoms and 23 out of 26 motivational factors, with the majority of the pooled mean effect sizes ranging from small to moderate. Moreover, large heterogeneity was observed, and the calculated prediction intervals indicated substantial variation in effects across populations and settings. Motivations related to emotional escape were robustly associated with gaming disorder symptoms.

Discussion and conclusions

The present meta-analysis reinforces the importance of motivational factors in understanding problematic gaming behavior. The analysis showed significant heterogeneity in most outcomes, warranting further investigation.

Registration detail

PROSPERO (CRD42020220050).

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) which includes problematic pornography use (PPU) is a clinically relevant syndrome that has been included in the ICD-11 as impulse control disorder. The number of studies on treatments in CSBD and PPU increased in the last years. The current preregistered systematic review aimed for identifying treatment studies on CSBD and PPU as well as treatment effects on symptom severity and behavior enactment.

Methods

The study was preregistered at Prospero International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42021252329). The literature search done in February 2022 at PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsycInfo, included original research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 to end 2021. The risk of bias was assessed with the CONSORT criteria. A quantitative synthesis based on effect sizes was done.

Results

Overall 24 studies were identified. Four of these studies were randomized controlled trials. Treatment approaches included settings with cognitive behavior therapy components, psychotherapy methods, and psychopharmacological therapy. Receiving treatment seems to improve symptoms of CSBD and PPU. Especially, evidence for the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy is present.

Discussion and conclusions

There is first evidence for the effectiveness of treatment approaches such as cognitive behavior therapy. However, strong conclusions on the specificity of treatments should be drawn with caution. More rigorous and systematic methodological approaches are needed for future studies. Results may be informative for future research and the development of specific treatment programs for CSBD and PPU.

Open access

Evolúciós pszichológia: Miért és hogyan tanítjuk?

Evolutionary Psychology: Why and How Do We Teach It?

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Norbert Meskó
,
Petra Gyuris
,
Ádám Putz
,
Ferenc Kocsor
, and
Tamás Bereczkei

Az evolúciós pszichológia (EP) a viselkedéstudományoknak az emberi viselkedés evolúciós gyökereire fókuszáló ága. Képviselői abból indulnak ki, hogy az ember pszichológiai (kognitív, affektív, társas stb.) működése alaposabban megérthető, ha figyelembe vesszük, hogy az egyes pszichológiai vonások milyen szelekciós előnyt jelenthettek az ember evolúciója során. Számos tudományos irányzatot szintetizál, így például felhasználja a kognitív pszichológia, a genetika, az etológia, az antropológia, a viselkedésökológia és a szociobiológia megközelítésmódját és eredményeit. A Pécsi Tudományegyetemen a pszichológusképzés indítása óta, azaz 30 éve oktatunk evolúciós tárgyakat. A bolognai képzési rendszer bevezetése óta mindhárom képzési szinten (BA, MA, PhD) vannak evolúciós kurzusok. Ebben az írásban összefoglaljuk, hogy milyen meggyőződésből és szakmai háttérből kiindulva oktatunk evolúciós kurzusokat Pécsett, és bemutatunk néhány általunk alkalmazott oktatási módszert, amely sikeresnek bizonyult az elmúlt években. Így beszélni fogunk az evolúciós vitafórumokról, a Facebook-profil-gyakorlatról és a filmrészletek elemzéséről. Összegzésként kiemeljük, hogy az evolúciós kurzusok milyen fontos szerepet töltenek be a pszichológusképzésben azáltal, hogy a hallgatók szerteágazó stúdiumainak integrálására alkalmas elméleti keretet nyújtanak.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Play-to-earn (P2E) gaming is a newly emerging form of gaming increasingly based on blockchain technology. In this paper, we examine the mechanics and business model of these games and their potential benefits and risks for players.

Methods

The paper draws upon and critically synthesises the developing published literature on predatory monetization in gaming as well as objective market data drawn from credible online sources.

Results

P2E gaming blurs the boundaries between gaming and trading and may not yield many of the benefits promoted to consumers or otherwise conveyed through marketing and social media messaging. Particular risks include the deflationary nature of reward currencies and the asymmetric reward structures that heavily favour early investors and exploit late adopters.

Discussion and conclusions

This paper highlights the need for greater consumer awareness of the mechanics and risks of these new gaming models. It will be important for business models to be more transparent and designed so as to encourage more equitable game outcomes, sustainable returns, a balance between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, and protection for potentially vulnerable players.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Repairer Etuk
,
Tiange Xu
,
Brett Abarbanel
,
Marc N. Potenza
, and
Shane W. Kraus

Abstract

Background and aims

This systematic review examines whether sports betting behaviors differ among and between sports bettors in different countries, evaluates psychosocial problems related to sports betting behaviors and how problems may vary by country, and lastly, summarizes the current regulatory guidelines for sports betting.

Methods

We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and included peer-reviewed articles from PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Studies on sports betting behavior were included if they were published in English or Chinese between January 1, 2010 and March 28th, 2022. We gathered regulatory information from peer-reviewed articles, legal acts, and relevant websites. Of 2,450 articles screened, 65 were included in the final review.

Results

Marketing and promotion of sports betting were more prominent for sports betting in Australia and the United Kingdom. Interviews with sports bettors demonstrated that sports betting is persuasive and normalized. Psychosocial problems do not appear to differ greatly by country, and sports betting appears to be associated with elevated levels of problem gambling. Responsible gambling approaches have helped address risky sports betting behaviors. China and South Korea have imposed more strict regulations and restrictions on sports betting access in comparison to countries such as Australia or the United States.

Discussion and conclusions

Currently, sports betting is easy to access, normalized, and contains many attractive features for sports bettors. Psychoeducation about potential risks of sports betting and encouragement of responsible gambling strategies could help lessen risky sports-betting behaviors, though cross-cultural adaptations should be explored.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Little data exist on exploring the subgroups and characteristics of problematic pornography use (PPU) in help-seeking adolescents. The aims of the study were to classify the subgroups among help-seeking male adolescents, explore their similarities and differences, and uncover their core symptoms.

Methods

A total of 3,468 Chinese male adolescents (M age = 16.64 years, SD = 1.24) who were distressed about their pornography use were recruited. The Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale, the Brief Pornography Screen Scale, and Moral Disapproval of Pornography Use were used to classify them. The General Health Questionnaire, the Pornography Craving Questionnaire, and the Sexual Compulsivity Scale were used to investigate participants' negative consequence related to their pornography use; and the Online Sexual Activity Questionnaire (OSAs) and time spent on pornography use every week were considered as quantitative indicators.

Results

Help-seeking male adolescents could be divided into 3 profiles, namely, self-perceived problematic (SP, n = 755), impaired control (IC, n = 1,656), and problematic use groups (PPU, n = 1,057). Frequency of OSAs was important for the identification of SP individuals, while negative consequences were more effective in identifying individuals with objective dysregulated behavior. Salience and mood modification were shared by all groups; however, in addition to this, the SP and PPU groups also showed withdrawal symptoms.

Discussion and conclusion

This study's results provide support for the presence of different profiles of help-seeking individuals and information on potential intervention targets among adolescents which is lacking in the literature.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Sex differences in internet gaming disorder (IGD) remain unknown. Investigating sex-specific neural features that underlie the core risk factor (i.e., risk-taking) of IGD would help in understanding sex-specific vulnerabilities to IGD and advance sex-specific treatments and prevention for IGD.

Methods

111 participants (28 IGD males, 27 IGD females, 26 recreational game user (RGU) males, 30 RGU females) completed a probability discounting task during fMRI scanning.

Results

First, among RGUs, males showed a higher risk-taking tendency and greater neural activation associated with risk/value evaluation for reward (the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left putamen) and smaller activation associated with cognitive control (the inferior frontal gyrus) than females during the contrast of risky-safe choices. Moreover, males showed a greater modulatory effect of risky choices on the connection from the vmPFC/ACC to the left putamen than females. Second, IGD males showed decreased activation in the vmPFC/ACC and left putamen compared to RGU males, whereas this decrease did not exist in IGD females.

Discussion

Males show a higher risk-taking tendency than females. Altered neural substrates associated with risky decision-making exist in IGD males but not in IGD females.

Conclusions

The present findings fill the gap in information on the behavioral and neural substrates underlying IGD among females and demonstrate that a high risk-taking tendency is a risk factor and core symptom only in IGD males but not in IGD females. It is necessary to design and adopt distinct treatments and prevention strategies for IGD in males and females.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Ayahuasca's psychological and subjective effects were compared in rituals of two neoshamanic groups in Uruguay.

Aims

Compare, describe and analyze psychological effects and subjective experiences of ayahuasca ceremonies in two different groups: a psychospiritual holistic center, and a center specialized in substance use disorder's treatment.

Methods

A mixed qualitative-quantitative study was conducted, using the Hallucinogen Rating Scale for measuring psychological effects, and in-depth interviews for the description of ayahuasca subjective experiences. Data from both techniques were compared, analyzing convergences and differences.

Results

When comparing the two neoshamanic groups, significant differences with a medium-size effect were found in the psychological variables Affect (r = 0.47), Cognition (r = 0.36) and Perception (r = 0.36). The qualitative descriptions of ayahuasca experiences in the group with higher scores in those variables showed more frequent and complex experiences of emotional, cognitive, and perceptive content. Dissimilar results were found when comparing Intensity and Somaesthetic domains, with no significant results in the quantitative part, while in the qualitative part intensity was reported as “soft” in one group, and corporal experiences (e.g., purging effects) were especially manifested.

Conclusions

Stronger subjective experiences and higher psychological effects may be related to differences in the dosage and the setting of the centers. Emotional, cognitive, and perceptive psychological effects of ayahuasca rituals measured by the Hallucinogen Rating Scale, seem to be associated with more frequent and complex subjective experiences in the mentioned domains. Qualitative group differences in corporal alterations and the overall intensity of the experience differed from non-significant results of the quantitative part of the study.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Object attachment is the emotional bond or connection that we have with possessions. Although thought to be ubiquitous, when excessive, object attachment is presumed to contribute to compulsive buying and hoarding problems. Unfortunately, our understanding of this relationship has been limited by the constraints of existing object attachment measures. In this paper, we developed and validated a new self-report questionnaire, called the Object Attachment Security Measure (OASM).

Methods

We developed an item pool based on previous measures and consultation with 24 experts in the field. After piloting, we administered this measure to a large sample (Final N = 365), along with self-report measures of hoarding, compulsive buying, and previous object attachment measures.

Results

We found that the OASM distinguished between secure and insecure object attachment. Both subscales showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability over a two-week period. Additionally, they demonstrated excellent convergent and divergent validity, and criterion validity with measures of hoarding and compulsive buying symptoms. We also found that insecure, but not secure object attachment, was uniquely related to hoarding and compulsive buying symptomology.

Discussion and conclusion

Our findings extend theoretical models, highlighting the role of insecure object attachment. Future research in both clinical and consumer behaviour fields should utilise the OASM, as reducing insecure object attachment and potentially encouraging secure object attachment could decrease maladaptive possession use and increase sustainable consumption.

Open access

Nemi, demográfiai és nemi egalitarianizmussal kapcsolatos vélekedés szerinti sajátosságok a hosszú távra szóló párválasztással kapcsolatos attitűdökben

Correlates of gender, demographics and gender-egalitarianism in the attitudes towards long-term partner choice

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Dorottya Ocsenás
and
Judit Kovács

Háttér és célkitűzések

A kutatás céljának azt tűztük ki, hogy rámutasson a nemi, demográfiai és egyenlőségelvűséggel kapcsolatos vélekedés szerinti sajátosságokra a hosszú távra szóló párválasztási preferenciákkal kapcsolatos attitűdökben. Kérdéseinket a hagyományos és modern párválasztási preferenciákat magyarázni képes vonatkozó szociálpszichológiai elméletek alapján fogalmaztuk meg. Általánosságban azt vártuk, hogy a mintában a férfiakkal és nőkkel szembeni preferenciák hordoznak modern, de hordoznak hagyományos tartalmakat is. A nőktől, a fiatalabbaktól, az iskolázottabbaktól és a nemek szerepéről inkább egyenlőségelvűen gondolkozóktól azt vártuk, hogy preferenciáikban erősebben tükröződnek modern, mint hagyományos tartalmak.

Módszer

A mintavétel kényelmi alapon történt. A vizsgálati személyek (N = 534, férfi: 139, nő: 395) online kérdőívet töltöttek ki, amely demográfiai kérdőívből, hosszú távra szóló párkapcsolati választáskor a férfiaktól és nőktől elvárt tulajdonságok értékeléséből és a Beere-féle nemiszerep-egyenlőség kérdőívből állt.

Eredmények

Mindkét nem véleménye szerint és mindkét nemmel kapcsolatban a hosszú távú bizalmi kapcsolatban való jó partnerség szempontjából lényeges társas tulajdonságok, mint a megbízhatóság és az őszinteség a legfontosabbak. A preferenciák függetlenek maradtak a többi vizsgált változótól, és a nagyobb tulajdonságcsoportok fontossági sorrendje állandónak bizonyult (nőknél: jó partner nő, házias nő, emancipált nő; férfiaknál: jó partner férfi, férfias férfi, vonzó férfi, házias férfi).

Következtetések

A férfiak és nők véleménye hasonló azzal kapcsolatban, hogy a jó hosszú távú párkapcsolathoz elsősorban a jó partnerséghez kötődő tulajdonságok a legfontosabbak, függetlenül attól, hogy férfiról vagy nőről van szó. A preferenciák állandónak nevezhetők, az elvárások sorrendjét a kitöltő neme, az életkora, az egyenlőségelvűséggel kapcsolatos vélekedései, az iskolázottság és a vallásosság nem árnyalja, bár finom hangsúlybeli eltérések a nevezett változók tekintetében azonosíthatók.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of indicators consistent with Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD)—defined and operationalized according to the ICD-11 guidelines—in a large (n = 4,633; 50.5% male; 49,5% female) probability-based German national sample.

Methods

Participants were asked if they had ever experienced “intense and recurring sexual impulses or sexual urges that I had difficulty controlling and resulted in sexual behavior” over a period of several months. Those who reported this experience were queried about the associated distress.

Results

Overall, 4.9% of men [95% CI = 3.9–6.1] and 3.0% of women [95% CI = 2.3–3.9] reported experiences consistent with ICD-11 diagnostic requirements for lifetime diagnosis. In the 12 months preceding the study, 3.2% of men [95% CI = 2.4–4.2] and 1.8% of women [95% CI = 1.2–2.5] reported experiences consistent with CSBD requirements. Compared to controls and participants who reported elements of compulsive sexuality but without accompanying distress, strict religious upbringing was most prevalent in the CSBD group. The CSBD group was more likely to view sexual practices like men having sex with men as unacceptable and to report the belief that pornography has negative impacts on their sex life and life in general. Compared to the other two groups, the CSBD group was significantly more likely to have received psychiatric treatment for depression or another mental health problem during the past 12 months.

Discussion and conclusions

The current study provides novel and important insights into the prevalence and characteristics of CSBD in the general population.

Open access

Abstract

Cultural evolution theory proposes that information transmitted through social learning is not transmitted indiscriminately but is instead biased by heuristics and mechanisms which increase the likelihood that individuals will copy particular cultural traits based on their inherent properties (content biases) and copy the cultural traits of particular models, or under particular circumstances (context biases). Recent research suggests that content biases are as important, or more important, than context biases in the selection and faithful transmission of cultural traits. Here, evidence for biases for emotive, social, threat-related, stereotype consistent and counterintuitive content is reviewed, focusing on how these biases may operate across three phases of transmission: choose-to-receive, encode-and-retrieve, and choose-to-transmit. Support for some biases primarily functioning as biases of attention and memory, while others primarily function as biases of selection to share with others, and the implications for this in wider cultural evolution is discussed. Ultimately, a more consistent approach to examining content biases, and greater engagement with wider literature, is required for clear conclusions about their mechanism and potential differences across the three phases of transmission.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in adolescents is a concerning issue. Positive parenting has been found to protect against adolescent IGD, but the underlying mechanisms await further investigation. As such, this study examined the longitudinal association between parental involvement (PI) – a specific type of positive parenting understudied in the literature of adolescent gaming disorder – and IGD. Moreover, this study also tested consideration of future consequences (CFC) as a mediator and peer victimization (PV) as a moderator.

Methods

A two-wave longitudinal research spanning 6 months apart was conducted. Participants were Chinese adolescents (final N = 434; 222 females; M age = 14.44 years, SD = 1.56). They provided ratings on PI, PV, and IGD at Wave 1, and CFC-immediate, CFC-future, and IGD at Wave 2.

Results

Descriptive statistics showed that the prevalence rate of IGD was 10.81% and 9.45% at Waves 1 and 2, respectively. Moreover, results of moderated mediation model found that after controlling for Wave 1 IGD and covariates, Wave 1 PI was associated with Wave 2 IGD via preventing adolescents who had higher levels of PV from developing a tendence of CFC-immediate and via promoting adolescents who had lower levels of PV to develop a tendence of CFC-future.

Discussion and Conclusions

Altogether, these results suggest that facilitative ecological systems (e.g., positive parenting and good relationships with peers) and personal strengths (e.g., positive future orientation) jointly contribute to the mitigation of adolescent IGD.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Francky Teddy Endomba
,
Anastasia Demina
,
Vincent Meille
,
Aude Laetitia Ndoadoumgue
,
Celestin Danwang
,
Benjamin Petit
, and
Benoit Trojak

Abstract

Background and aim

In the last two decades, the proportion of internet users has greatly increased worldwide. Data regarding internet addiction (IA) are lacking in Africa compared to other continents. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of IA in African countries.

Methods

We systematically sought relevant articles in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane database published before September 25, 2021. The risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute tool, and we estimated the pooled prevalence of IA using a random-effects meta-analytic model. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines.

Results

We included 22 studies (13,365 participants), and collected data from Egypt, Ethiopia, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Tunisia between 2013 and 2021. The mean age of participants ranged from 14.8 to 26.1 years, and the most used tool for IA screening was the Young's 20-item Internet Addiction Test. The pooled prevalence rate of IA was 40.3% (95% CI: 32.2%–48.7%), with substantial heterogeneity. The pooled prevalence for Northern Africa was 44.6% (95% CI: 32.9%–56.7%), significantly higher than the prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa, which was 31.0% (95% CI: 25.2%–37.1%). The risk of bias was moderate for most studies, the certainty was very low, and we found no publication bias.

Discussion and conclusions

Four in every ten individuals was considered to have IA in Africa. Further research with methodological optimization seems needed, especially for IA screening tools and the representativity of some subregions.

Open access

Abstract

Empirical research supports the use of psychoactive drugs to augment psychotherapy for the treatment of mental illness. The use of such drugs, however, is still resisted by many in the medical community and this transfers to resistance in the wider community. The stigma of controversy surrounding the drugs, further enhanced by the stigma of mental illness, hinders community acceptance. We report an experiment to change community attitudes to endorse the benefits of such practice. Participants were given information about a client with post-traumatic stress disorder, with accompanying stigma of mental illness, or a physical condition (Parkinson's disease) with comorbid psychological symptoms, but without stigma. They received information about the diagnosis and the value of psychoactive drugs in the enhancement of therapy or this information with a manipulation to induce empathy. Analysis revealed higher empathy for the PTSD than for the Parkinson's patient. The elevation of empathy was further enhanced by the empathy manipulation. While there was higher agreement that PTSD clients were responsible for their own condition, there was a greater willingness to help, and this was further increased by empathy. Such conditions should be considered to encourage the general community to accept enhanced therapy for patients that can enhance endorsement by medical practitioners.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
M. Grall-Bronnec
,
C. Victorri-Vigneau
,
T. Rouaud
,
A. Verholleman
,
B. Schreck
,
J. Leboucher
,
E. Thiabaud
,
F. Feuillet
,
M. Roy
,
J.B. Hardouin
,
M. Guillou-Landreat
,
P. Derkinderen
, and
G. Challet-Bouju

Abstract

Background and aims

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases. First-line medications consist of drugs that act by counteracting dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia. Unfortunately, iatrogenic impulsive-compulsive behaviors (ICBs) can occur in up to 20% of PD patients over the course of their illness. ICBs must be considered multifactorial disorders that reflect the interactions of the medication with an individual's vulnerability and the underlying neurobiology of PD. We aimed to explore the predictive genetic, psychopathological and neurological factors involved in the development of ICBs in PD patients by building a complete model of individual vulnerability.

Methods

The PARKADD study was a case/non-case study. A total of 225 patients were enrolled (“ICB” group, N =75; “no ICB” group, N =150), and 163 agreed to provide saliva samples for genetic analysis. Sociodemographic, neurological and psychiatric characteristics were assessed, and genotyping for the characterization of polymorphisms related to dopaminergic and opioid systems was performed.

Results

Factors associated with “ICBs” were younger age of PD onset, personal history of ICB prior to PD onset and higher scores on the urgency and sensation seeking facets of impulsivity. No gene variant was significantly associated, but the association with the opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1) rs1799971 polymorphism was close to significance.

Discussion and conclusions

The influence of gene-environment interactions probably exists, and additional studies are needed to decipher the possible role of the opioid system in the development of ICBs in PD patients.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Blaszczynski and Nower (2002) conceptualized their Pathways Model by postulating the existence of three subtypes of problem gamblers who share common characteristics, but also present specific ones.

Methods

This study investigated how the psychological mechanisms postulated in the Pathways Model predict clinical status in a sample that combined treatment-seeking gamblers (n = 59) and non-problematic community gamblers (n = 107). To test the Pathways Model, we computed a hierarchic logistic regression in which variables associated with each postulated pathway were entered sequentially to predict the status of the treatment-seeking gambler. Self-report questionnaires measured gambling-related cognitions, alexithymia, emotional reactivity, emotion regulation strategies and impulsivity. Behavioural tasks measured gambling persistence (slot machine task), decision-making under uncertainty (Iowa Gambling Task) and decision-making under risk (Game of Dice Task).

Results

We showed that specific factors theorized as underlying mechanisms for each pathway predicted the status of clinical gambler. For each pathway, significant predictors included gambling-related cognitive distortions and behaviourally measured gambling persistence (behaviourally conditioned pathway), emotional reactivity and emotion regulation strategies (emotionally vulnerable pathway), and lack of premeditation impulsivity facet (impulsivist-antisocial pathway).

Discussion and conclusions

Our study adds to the body of literature confirming the validity of the Pathways Model and hold important implications in terms of assessment and treatment of problem gambling. In particular, a standardized assessment based on the Pathways Model should promote individualized treatment strategies to allow clinicians to take into account the high heterogeneity that characterizes gambling disorder.

Open access

„Nem tudom mi kárpótolhatná a magyar nemzet lelkét a 20. századért” – a magyar nemzeti csoporthoz kapcsolódó kollektív áldozati vélekedések vizsgálata

“Nothing could compensate the Hungarian nation's soul for the 20th century” – An investigation of the collective victim beliefs in the Hungarian context

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Zsolt Péter Szabó
,
Málna Benza
,
Edina Nikoletti
,
Julianna Oláh
, and
Mirtyll Miasnikov Gréti

Háttér és célkitűzések

Tanulmányunkban a magyar nemzeti csoporthoz kapcsolódó kollektív áldozati vélekedéseket kívántuk vizsgálni egy kérdőívben szereplő nyitott kérdés segítségével. Tanulmányunk három fő kérdése: (1) Milyen kollektív áldozati vélekedések jelennek meg a csoporttagok körében? (2) Milyen kapcsolat van az egyes vélekedések között? (3) Mennyire fontos a csoporttagok számára a csoport történelmi áldozattá válása?

Módszer

A vizsgálat egy nagyobb kérdőíves kutatás keretében zajlott. Ennek során 933 fő töltötte ki az összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések kérdőívet. A kérdőív kitöltését követően egy nyitott kérdést tettünk fel, amelyre 139 fő válaszolt. A kapott válaszokra egy kódrendszert dolgoztunk ki.

Eredmények

Kutatásunk számos kérdésben alátámasztotta a szakirodalom korábbi megállapításait, ugyanakkor a választott módszer segítségével új eredményeket is kaptunk. A magyar csoport történelmi viktimizációjának a jelentősége vitatott, az összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések közül elsősorban az inkluzív vélekedések jelentek meg, jellemzően nem társulnak okok és tanulságok az áldozattá váláshoz.

Következtetések

A kollektív viktimizáció szakirodalmában nagy jelentőséggel bíró összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések kevésbé jelentek meg a magyar kontextusban, a legtöbb vizsgálati személy a kollektív áldozati tudat személyes fontosságára vs. annak hiányára reflektált.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Little is known about individual differences in Hallucinogen Persisting Perceptual Disorder (HPPD). This study investigated visual processing style and personality across two HPPD types (HPPD I and HPPD II) and a Non-HPPD group.

Methods

An online survey was delivered to participants sourced from online HPPD and psychedelic user groups and forums (N = 117). Using one-way ANOVA, respondents were compared across four measures of individual difference. Using logistic regression, a range of visual symptoms and experiences were investigated as potential predictors of group categorisation.

Results

The HPPD I group had higher absorption and visual apophenia scores than the other groups and was predicted by higher drug use. The HPPD II group showed significantly higher trait anxiety than both other groups. Across the HPPD groups, HPPD II categorisation was also predicted by increased negative precipitating experiences, lack of prior knowledge and pre-existing anxiety diagnoses.

Conclusions

Anxiety, negative precipitating experiences and lack of prior knowledge are associated with negative experiences of persistent visual symptoms following hallucinogen use, whilst higher absorption and visual apophenia are associated with positive or neutral experiences. Together these findings indicate that differences in personality may play a role in determining an individual's experience of HPPD, highlighting the role of individual difference research in expanding knowledge around HPPD.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Orsolya Király
,
Joël Billieux
,
Daniel L. King
,
Róbert Urbán
,
Patrik Koncz
,
Eszter Polgár
, and
Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Background and aims

The popularity of video gaming has generated significant interest in research methods to examine motivations for gaming. Current measures of gaming motives are limited by lack of scope and/or their applicability to specific game genres only. We aimed to create a comprehensive motivation inventory applicable to any gaming genre and to evaluate its psychometric properties in a large sample of highly engaged video gamers.

Methods

Stage 1 of this project involved a systematic review that generated the items for the Gaming Motivation Inventory (GMI). Stages 2–4 involved an evaluation of the psychometric properties of the GMI. A sample of 14,740 video gamers (89.3% male; mean age 24.1 years) were recruited via an online survey promoted by a popular gaming magazine.

Results

In Stage 2, twenty-six gaming motives were identified, which clustered into six higher-order dimensions (Mastery, Immersion/Escapism, Competition, Stimulation, Social, Habit/Boredom). In Stage 3, construct validity of the six higher-order motives was assessed by associations with gaming-related, personality, and psychological variables. In Stage 4, the relationships between motives and depression symptoms and gaming disorder symptoms were explored. Although gaming motives had weak associations with gaming genres, they were moderately related to variables such as competitiveness, sociability, and positive and negative affect. Gaming disorder symptoms were directly predicted by depression symptoms and indirectly via Immersion/Escapism, Habit/Boredom, and Competition motives.

Discussion and conclusions

These findings support the notion that motives are one of the primary causes of gaming behavior and play an important role in predicting its problematic nature. The GMI is a psychometrically valid tool that will be useful for gaining insights into factors underlying gaming behaviors.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Asian countries are deemed to be high prevalence areas for gaming disorder (GD). This meta-analysis is the first to synthesize the overall prevalence of GD in East Asia and investigate characteristics that influence prevalence estimates.

Methods

Systematic and independent searches were conducted across PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library since their inception to January 27, 2021. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality scale was used for quality assessment. A random effect model was used to calculate the overall GD prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results

In total, 22 articles (26 studies) comprising 51,525 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of GD in East Asia was 12%, 95% CI (10%–15%); this figure was adjusted to 6%, 95% CI (3%–9%) for a representative sample. Higher prevalence was observed in males than in females (16% vs. 8%, respectively, P < 0.05). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses revealed that studies among gamers or those without random sampling reported significantly higher prevalence rates. There were no significant differences between countries/regions, sample size, quality score, proportion of males, and scale used.

Discussion and conclusions

The prevalence of GD in East Asia is higher than that in other world regions. Future studies should extend such epidemiological research to other regions to calculate the accurate prevalence of GD to benefit the local identification, prevention, policy formulation, and treatment efforts. Considering its negative effects, effective preventive and treatment measures for GD in East Asia need greater attention.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
John M. Clifton
,
Annabelle M. Belcher
,
Aaron D. Greenblatt
,
Christopher M. Welsh
,
Thomas O. Cole
, and
Alan K. Davis

Abstract

Background and aims

There is growing evidence that psilocybin, a serotonergic psychedelic substance, may be useful in the treatment of substance use disorders. However, there is a lack of data on the beliefs and attitudes towards psilocybin amongst Black individuals diagnosed with Opioid Use Disorder (OUD). This study characterized psilocybin use patterns and perception of risk amongst a cohort of Black individuals diagnosed with OUD.

Methods

Using a convenience sampling approach, patients were recruited from an urban methadone treatment program and paid five dollars to complete an anonymous phone-based survey.

Results

Twenty-eight patients participated (mean age 53.8; N = 28; 35.7% female). Most (N = 23; 82.1%) had “heard of” psilocybin mushrooms before taking the survey, but only five (N = 5; 17.8%) had ever used them. More than 80% perceived a risk or were “unsure” of the risk for sixteen of the seventeen items queried about psilocybin. Approximately half (N = 15; 53.6%) were willing to try therapy incorporating psilocybin and half (N = 14; 50%) said they would be more likely to try if it were FDA approved for OUD. Most (N = 18; 64.3%) preferred to stay on methadone treatment alone, 32.1% (N = 9) wanted to try treatment with both psilocybin and methadone, and only one participant opted for psilocybin treatment without methadone.

Conclusion

Many Black individuals with Opioid Use Disorder perceive psilocybin as dangerous and may be hesitant to try psilocybin treatment. Culturally informed treatment models, educational interventions and community outreach programs should be developed to increase racial/ethnic minority representation in psilocybin research and treatment.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Nikolaos Boumparis
,
Severin Haug
,
Stefanie Abend
,
Joël Billieux
,
Heleen Riper
, and
Michael P. Schaub

Abstract

Background and aims

Behavioral addictions are a public health problem that causes harm to both individuals and society. Internet-based interventions offer potential benefits over face-to-face therapy for the treatment of behavioral addictions, including their accessibility, perceived anonymity, and low costs. We systematically reviewed the characteristics and effectiveness of these interventions.

Methods

A systematic literature search was conducted in: PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. A standardized methodological quality assessment was performed on all identified studies via the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool.

Results

Twenty-nine studies were assessed in this systematic review. Between them, considerable heterogeneity was noted in various study characteristics, including screening tools, inclusion criteria, and outcome measures. Attrition rates also ranged widely (9–89%), as did study quality, with three of the 29 studies rated strong, 12 moderate, and 14 weak methodologically. Twenty-two studies focused on gambling disorder, most revealing significant within-group effects for the assessed intervention on gambling-related symptoms and four of these studies identified significant between-group effects. Behavioral addictions studied in the remaining studies included gaming disorder, internet use disorder, hoarding disorder, and pornography use disorder, revealing generally-promising, albeit limited results.

Conclusions

Internet-based interventions seem promising at reducing gambling problems, but too few studies have been published, to date, for conclusions to be drawn for other behavioral addictions. Internet-based interventions targeting other behavioral addictions – like gaming disorder, internet use disorder, hoarding disorder, and pornography use disorder – remain under-examined, warranting considerable additional research to assess their effectiveness.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Todd L. Jennings
,
Neil Gleason
, and
Shane W. Kraus

Abstract

Numerous debates surround the recent inclusion of compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) in the International Classification of Diseases (11th ed.), such as the appropriate classification of this construct and what symptom criteria best capture this syndrome. Although controversy surrounding CSBD abounds, there is general agreement that researchers should examine this syndrome in diverse groups, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations. However, there have been few investigations into how diverse sociocultural contexts may influence the assessment and treatment of CSBD. Therefore, we propose several differential diagnosis considerations when working with sexual and gender diverse clients to avoid CSBD misdiagnosis.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Jesús Castro-Calvo
,
Maèva Flayelle
,
José C. Perales
,
Matthias Brand
,
Marc N. Potenza
, and
Joël Billieux

Abstract

The paper by Sassover and Weinstein (2022) contributes to a timely and complex debate related to the classification of Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD). The recent inclusion of CSBD as an impulse-control disorder in the ICD-11 has generated debate since a competitive view is that CSBD should rather be classified as an addictive disorder. Sassover and Weinstein (2022) reviewed existing evidence and concluded it does not support the conceptualization of CSBD as an addictive disorder. Although we agree regarding the relevance and timely nature of considering the classification of CSBD, we respectfully disagree with the position that relying on the components model of addiction (Griffiths, 2005) is the optimal approach for determining whether or not CSBD is an addictive disorder. In this commentary, we discuss potential pitfalls of relying on the components model to conceptualize CSBD as an addictive disorder and argue that considering a process-based approach is important for advancing this timely debate.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Beáta Bőthe
,
Mónika Koós
, and
Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Building on the conclusions of the debate papers by Gola et al. (2022) and Sassover and Weinstein (2022), the present commentary further addressed the contradictions between the current classification, nomenclature, and diagnostic criteria of Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) with elaborating on the potential roles impulsivity and compulsivity may play in CSBD, and how these characteristics may relate to addictive behaviors in particular. Moreover, it briefly discussed how the classification of CSBD might impact research and clinical practice and proposed potential future research directions that may help to reach a consensus on the classification and core symptoms of CSBD.

Open access

Criteria for the establishment of a new behavioural addiction •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Matthew J. Gullo
,
Andrew P. Wood
, and
John B. Saunders

Abstract

When does repeated behaviour constitute behavioural addiction? There has been considerable debate about non-substance-related addictions and how to determine when impaired control over a behaviour is addiction. There are public health benefits to identifying new behavioural addictions if intervention can improve outcomes. However, criteria for establishing new behavioural addictions must guard against diagnostic inflation and the pathologizing of normal problems of living. Criteria should include clinical relevance (Criterion 1), alignment with addiction phenomenology (Criterion 2) and theory (Criterion 3), and taxonomic plausibility (Criterion 4). Against such criteria, evidence does not yet support classification of pornography-use and buying-shopping disorders as addictions.

Open access

Disorders due to addictive behaviors: Further issues, debates, and controversies •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Author:
Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract

Two recent papers in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions by Brand et al. (2022), and Sassover and Weinstein (2022) both make interesting additions to the place of behavioral addictions in the more general addictive behaviors field. This commentary discusses some of the further nuances in the debates surrounding whether problematic engagement in social networking, pornography, and buying/shopping should be considered as possible ‘disorders due to addictive behaviors’ in the ICD-11. Particular emphasis in this commentary is placed on social network use disorder and its delineation. While there is growing evidence that addictions to sex, pornography, social network sites, exercise, work, and buying/shopping may be genuine disorders among a minority of individuals, none of these behaviors is likely to be included in formal psychiatric manuals in the near future until there is more high-quality data on all research fronts (e.g., epidemiological, neurobiological, psychological, and clinical).

Open access

Abstract

After introduction of compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) in the ICD-11, many questions regarding etiology, classification and diagnostic criteria remain unanswered, providing rationale for further research. In this commentary, we critically review the ongoing discussion reflected in some relevant articles, and try to point out the risks of oversimplification of the broad clinical phenomenon, as well as attract attention to the neglected aspects, such as psychosexual development, intimacy disorder and the role of sexological expertise in the assessment and treatment of individuals presenting with out-of-control sexual behaviors. We also advocate for multimodal, transtheoretical approach and suggest that CSBD may be reconsidered as a condition related to sexual health.

Open access

Nosology of behavioral addictions: Intersections with philosophy of psychiatry •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Dan J. Stein
and
Christine Lochner

Abstract

Writing in this journal, Brand and colleagues have proposed criteria for other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors. Their proposal intersects with key debates in philosophy of psychiatry, including how best to define mental disorders, to validate them, and to optimize their meta-structure. Review of these debates in the context of behavioral addictions suggests several conclusions. First, these debates involve “essentially contested” constructs that require ongoing consideration and judgment. Second, the complexity of psychopathology suggests multiple legitimate approaches to delineating traits and explicating mechanisms. Third, in optimizing meta-structure, non-psychobiological considerations are crucial - the overlapping public mental health approach to addictive disorders is paramount.

Open access