Due to the increasing application of antibiotics not only in healthcare settings but also in conventional agriculture and farming, multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens are rising worldwide. Given the increasing prevalence of infections caused by MDR bacteria such as Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species (ESKAPE pathogen complex), it is pivotal to explore novel alternative or adjunct treatment options such as phytochemicals with antibiotic properties. Vanillin and vanillin acid represent biologically active ingredients in vanilla that has been known for long for its health-beneficial including antimicrobial effects besides its role as flavoring agent. Therefore, we performed a literature search from the past 10 years summarizing the knowledge regarding the effects of vanilla constituents against bacterial including MDR pathogens. Our survey revealed that vanillin and vanillic acid exerted potent effects directed against distinct Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by inhibiting growth, viability, biofilm formation, quorum sensing and virulence. Remarkably, when combining vanillin or vanillic acid with defined synthetic antibiotics pronounced synergistic effects directed against distinct pathogenic including ESCAPE strains could be observed. In conclusion, vanilla ingredients constitute promising alternative or adjunct options in the combat of infections caused by MDR bacterial pathogens.
In line with the current development of individualized cancer treatments, targeted and specialized therapeutic regimens such as immunotherapy gain importance and factors improving its efficacy come into the focus of actual research. Given the orchestrated interaction of the intestinal microbiota with host immunity the modulation of the human gut microbiota represents a therapy-enhancing factor. We therefore performed an actual literature survey on the role of the gut microbiota composition and the effects of its modification during immunotherapy of cancer patients. The included 23 studies published in the past 10 years revealed that both, distinct bacterial species and genera including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium, respectively, enhanced distinct immunotherapy responses following PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 blockage, for instance, resulting in a better clinical outcome of cancer patients. Conversely, a high intestinal abundance of Bacteroidetes and Fusobacterium species correlated with a less efficient immunotherapy resulting in shorter progress-free survival outcomes. In conclusion, modifications of the gut microbiota by fecal microbiota transplantation or application of probiotic compounds represent potential adjunct options for immunotherapy in cancer patients which needs to be further addressed in future trials to provide individually tailored and safe adjuvant therapeutic measures in the combat of cancer.
Intestinal amoebiasis in a 35-year-old German patient with a 3 weeks travel history in Indonesia was initially misidentified as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory-drug associated colitis in colonoscopy and histopathological analysis. Furthermore, initial stool examination by microscopy and Entamoeba faecal antigen ELISA did not reveal any protozoan infection. When cessation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and mesalazine treatment did not lead to clinical improvement, the patient presented to a specialist for tropical diseases. An intensive reinvestigation including a workup of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded colonic biopsies by molecular analysis with real-time PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) proofed the diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica colitis. Molecular methods including real-time PCR and FISH for the diagnosis of amoebiasis from histopathological samples are rarely used for the diagnosis of E. histolytica infections. Bloody diarrhoea vanished after the onset of metronidazole treatment. In conclusion, the here-presented case demonstrates how modern molecular diagnostics may help to diagnose E. histolytica-associated colitis, even from difficult specimens like paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue.
Varroa mite, Varroa destructor is the most important ectoparasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera worldwide, contributing to colony collapse. The development of alternative non-toxic methods against this pest is needed, as most of the wide-used acaricides in apiculture are banned in the European Union, which increase the risk of developing resistant mite populations against the remaining few products. In order to reveal biological basis of a new, semiochemical-based method, the aim of this study was to search for olfactory stimuli, used by female Varroa mites in orienting to drone brood for egglaying. Volatiles of uncapped drone brood were collected in situ, inside bee-hives, using either charcoal, or HayeSep® Q filters. Collections were analyzed by gas chromatograph linked to an electrotarsogram detector (GC-ETD), using the foreleg of female mite. Results showed that most components were present in collections trapped by any of these filters. However, some components appreared only in charcoal-, while others only in HayeSep® collections, respectively. Out of the large number of components, a few elicited electrophysiological responses. Structure elucidation of these active components are underways. Futher behavioral studies should reveal, which components play role in attraction of Varroa mites.
New data are provided on the distribution of scale insect species based on the soil sample collection of Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain. Six species proved to be new to the scale insect fauna of Spain: 1 species of Ortheziidae (Ortheziola vejdovskyi Sulc), 3 species of Pseudococcidae (Fonscolombia graminis Lichtenstein, Peliococcus mathisi (Balachowsky), Rhodania porifera Goux) and 2 species of Rhizoecidae (Rhizoecus arabicus Hambleton, Ripersiella lelloi (Mazzeo)).
Daffodil (Narcissus tazetta L.) is a bulbous ornamental plant which belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae. It is popular for sweet-smelling beautiful flowers and is used for the fragrant oil and perfumes. It is also a source of alkaloids used in traditional medicines. Daffodil is commercially important ornamental plant, therefore, it is important to maintain its quality and production. Various type of viruses affect daffodil cultivation and among them, potyviruses are of great concern as they cause more economic losses to its commercial cultivation in term of reduction in bulb size, number of bulbs and the quality of daffodil flowers. In this review, a general overview of daffodils, genus Potyvirus, disease symptoms in daffodils linked to potyvirus infection, potyviruses described in daffodils, Potyvirus identification methods and possible management strategies of potyviruses in daffodil cultivation are described in detail. The study will be helpful to daffodil growers for improvement of the production/yield and quality of daffodil crop.
Some jumping plant-lice species are economically important due to their capacity as vectors of phytopathogenic bacteria, for example phytoplasmas. Previous studies have identified 80 jumping plant-louse species from Hungary; however, little is known about their occurrence during winter. To extend our knowledge of overwintering sites of jumping plant-lice in Hungary, we sampled them from conifers in various regions of the country. One of our main objectives was to find Cacopsylla pruni (Scopoli, 1763), the vector of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum' during winter.
The period of this study extended from 2014 to 2020 in the winter months. Insects were collected at 18 sampling sites from Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county to Somogy county, located at Alsótekeres, Balatonvilágos, Boldogkőváralja, Budakeszi, Fenyőfő, Gyöngyöspata, Kecskemét, Martonvásár, Mátra Mountain, Nagykovácsi, Nagyszakácsi, Páty, Piliscsaba, Somogytúr, Soroksár, Sóskút and Verpelét.
A total of 1,600 jumping plant-louse specimens belonging to 20 species and three families (Psyllidae, Aphalaridae and Triozidae) were collected and identified during the study. In the case of plum psyllid (C. pruni) four shelter sites were identified as new records for Hungary.
The most common species were Trioza remota, Cacopsylla melanoneura, Trioza urticae, Bactericera albiventris, C. pruni and Cacopsylla crataegi.
Gut microbiota depletion is a pivotal prerequisite to warrant Campylobacter jejuni infection and induced inflammation in IL-10-/- mice used as acute campylobacteriosis model. We here assessed the impact of an 8-week antibiotic regimen of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, metronidazole, and vancomycin (ABx) as compared to ampicillin plus sulbactam (A/S) on gut microbiota depletion and immunopathological responses upon oral C. jejuni infection. Our obtained results revealed that both antibiotic regimens were comparably effective in depleting the murine gut microbiota facilitating similar pathogenic colonization alongside the gastrointestinal tract following oral infection. Irrespective of the preceding microbiota depletion regimen, mice were similarly compromised by acute C. jejuni induced enterocolitis as indicated by comparable clinical scores and macroscopic as well as microscopic sequelae such as colonic histopathology and apoptosis on day 6 post-infection. Furthermore, innate and adaptive immune cell responses in the large intestines were similar in both infected cohorts, which also held true for intestinal, extra-intestinal and even systemic secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-6. In conclusion, gut microbiota depletion in IL-10-/- mice by ampicillin plus sulbactam is sufficient to investigate both, C. jejuni infection and the immunopathological features of acute campylobacteriosis.
Food, water, and energy scarcity threaten India's future, and they must be addressed first. To meet the country's ever-increasing population needs, agricultural productivity must be expanded. For the crop-land suitability, we have studied an area of about 6,539 km2 in Vizianagaram district. The majority of the land is used for paddy agriculture (Kharif). The crop-land suitability has been evaluated based on the different parameters identified in that study area. “Remote sensing (RS)” and “geographic information system (GIS)” were combined for the crop-land suitability using nine parameters. The slope, elevation, rainfall, soil texture, lithology, groundwater, land use–land cover (LULC), TWI, and land surface temperature are the primary criteria used to determine the crop-land suitability in the Vizianagaram district (AP). Thematic maps were created using Landsat 8 images and SRTM DEM images from USGS Earth Explorer. Based on these maps and the influence of these parameters, we may assign weights to the parameters and then rank them, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) allowing us to identify which area is more suitable for good crop productivity and which is not. In this study, the soils are divided into four categories: low suitability, moderate suitability, high suitability, and extremely high suitability. The suitability index is found to be in the range of 0–55.2%, which indicates the lack of outstanding agricultural lands in the sudy region.
Bacteremia is responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in intensive care units (ICU) is a growing concern. Hence, prior knowledge of bacterial epidemiology and resistance phenotypes is required to optimize these infections' management. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological profile of bacteremia in ICU settings, as well as the place occupied by MDR bacteria in these infections.
It is a prospective study carried out over 10 months on episodes of bacteremia in the ICU of Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital (Rabat, Morocco). Microorganism growth was detected using fluorescent technology, species identification was based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following the recommendations of the Antibiogram Committee of the French Society of Microbiology (CA-SFM) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST).
Among 504 hospitalized patients, sixty-one (12.1%) presented at least one episode of bacteremia. Forty patients (65.6% of bacteremic patients) presented at least one episode of bacteremia due to MDR bacteria. Male gender, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and previous hospitalization were significant risk factors for the acquisition of MDR bacteremia. Isolated bacteria were mainly Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) (n = 62; 68.9%) dominated by Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 19; 21.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 16; 17.8%). MDR bacteria were represented by multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 19; 44.2%), extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacterales (n = 9; 20.9%) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (n = 7; 16.3%). Carbapenems (n = 40; 65.6%), Aminoglycosides (n = 32; 52.5%) and Polypeptides (n = 24; 39.3%) were the most used antimicrobials. Mortality rates were 66.6% (n = 40) and 85% (n = 43) in patients with non MDR bacteremia and MDR bacteremia respectively.
Limiting the spread of MDR bacteria and improving the management of bacteremic patients require continuous monitoring of bacteremia as well as adapting the therapeutic and preventive strategy.
This study aims to examine the effect of hydrolysis degree (DH) on both antioxidant activity and functional properties of Acetes japonicus proteolysate (AP). Consequently, the AP showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (SA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) at DH of 66.7%. Whereas, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical (ABTS•+) SA and superoxide anion radical (O2•–) SA of the AP peaked at DH of 75.8%. In addition, its strongest Fe2+-chelating rate was found at DH of 72.1%. In the pH range from 3 to 8, the AP showed solubility over 55% even after heat treating, foaming capacity (FC) of 5.7–80.0%, foaming stability (FS) of 2.9–77.0%, emulsifying-activity index (EAI) of 16.1–56.3 m2 g−1, and emulsifying stability index (ESI) of 12.4–156.7 min. The highest water-holding capacity (WHC) and oil-holding capacity (OHC) of the AP were observed at DH of 66.7% and 50.6%, respectively. This study enhanced value of the Acetes by producing antioxidant AP possessing functionalities.
The effect of processing parameters on microencapsulation of oregano essential with maltodextrin:gum arabic using a disk atomiser spray-dryer was evaluated. By means of response surface methodology, the feed flow rate and inlet air temperature were optimised. Powder yield, moisture content, essential oil retention, and antioxidant activity of microparticles were evaluated. The best conditions to produce microencapsulated oregano essential oil were 0.6 L h−1 for feed flow rate and 200 °C for inlet air temperature. With this combination a microencapsulated powder with 89.8% powder yield, 2.1% moisture content, 92.1% essential oil retention, 76 s solubilisation time, 12.9 g of water/100 g of dry matter, 0.3371 g mL−1 bulk density, 0.5826 g mL−1 tapped density, and 8.2 μm of average particle size was produced. The microencapsulation of oregano essential oil preserves the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of its bioactive compounds.
This study evaluated the effect of surfactant-assisted enzymatic extraction on the quality of tiger nut milk (TNM). TNM was extracted from tiger nuts using different concentrations of xylanase (0.010–0.100%) and Tween 20 (0.005–0.010%). The yield, stability, nutritional, antioxidant, and sensory properties of the samples were determined. The yield of TNM significantly increased, by 32.72–50.67%, following surfactant-assisted enzymatic extraction. Optimum yield and stability of TNM were obtained using 0.010% xylanase and Tween 20. Enzymatic extraction significantly increased total sugar and flavonoids, however, starch, dietary fibre, protein, carotenoids, lycopene, total phenolic content, and antioxidant properties reduced significantly. The incorporation of Tween 20 stabilised these parameters. There was no significant difference in panellists' preference for the control (sample extracted without enzyme and surfactant), enzymatically-extracted, and surfactant-assisted enzymatic extracted samples in mouthfeel and aroma, however, the surfactant-assisted enzymatic extracted sample was most preferred in colour, consistency, taste, and overall acceptability. Using surfactant-assisted enzymatic extraction could prove invaluable for the production of TNM.
Cultivation of specialty mushrooms on lignocellulosic wastes represents one of the most economical organic recycling processes. Compared with other cultivated mushrooms, very little is known about the nature of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by the edible fungus Calocybe indica, its enzymatic activity profiles during submerged and solid state fermentation. The intracellular activity of laccase (7.67 U mg−1), manganese peroxidase (7.48 U mg−1), cellobiohydrolase (5.46 U mg−1), and endoxylanase (4.21 U mg−1) was best obtained in C. indica on 14th and 21st day of incubation. The extracellular activity of laccase (11.57 U mL−1), lignin peroxidase (8.45 U mL−1), and endoxylanases (6.22 U mL−1) were found to be highest on the 14th day. Ligninolytic enzyme activity was substantial during substrate colonisation but quickly dropped during fruiting body development. C. indica, on the other hand, showed relatively modest hydrolase activity during substrate colonisation. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes increased dramatically when primordia formed and peaked at the mature fruiting body stage. The yield of the crude enzyme-treated wheat straw utilised for mushroom production was 52.47%. These findings showed that the activities of lignocellulolytic enzymes were regulated in line with developmental phase of growth of C. indica.
This study aims to formulate the optimal pectin-curcumin-lemongrass oil emulsion (PE) for coating of chicken fillet at 50:50%, 70:30%, and 90:10%, based on microbial growth inhibition, freshness consistency, and fat absorption during frying. Throughout the 7 days of storage, chicken fillet coated with 70:30% PE showed significant (P < 0.05) suppressive activity against psychrophilic bacteria (8.09 ± 0.00 log10 CFU g−1) compared to non-coated sample (8.27 ± 0.06 log10 CFU g−1). In contrast, 90:10% PE coating inhibited the growth of yeasts or moulds on chicken fillet at 8.24 ± 0.28 log10 CFU g−1, compared to non-coated sample (9.16 ± 0.14 log10 CFU g−1). The 70:30% PE coating showed a better fillet's toughness (18.30 ± 1.32 N mm−1 s−1) and firmness (1.49 ± 0.22 N mm−1) when compared to fillet without coating. After 7 days of storage, coated and uncoated samples showed the same total colour difference (E value) indicating PE coating preserved the texture of fillet and colour. Both coated samples (70:30% and 90:10%) reduced fat uptake during frying by 13.70%–14.25%. The application of PE coating at 90:10% was effectively functioned as an excellent coating to preserve the quality and safety of fillet.
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious health condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) on glucose tolerance, triglyceride levels, and adipose tissue in rats with MS induced by high-fat high-fructose (HFHF) diet. Fifty rats were allocated in 5 groups: control, MS, MS+AMFJ2.5, MS+AMFJ5, and MS+AMFJ10. In the course of 10 weeks, the control group was on a regular rat diet while the other groups received HFHF diet. During the experiment, control and MS groups were treated daily orally with distilled water (10.0 mL kg−1) and the other three groups – with AMFJ at doses of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mL kg−1, respectively. In MS rats, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, visceral obesity, and increased adipocyte size were observed. In AMFJ-treated groups, the serum glucose and triglycerides, as well as visceral fat and adipocyte size decreased significantly and did not differ from those of the control group. AMFJ at doses 2.5 and 5.0 mL kg−1 showed an anti-apoptotic activity in adipocytes, while at the dose of 10 mL kg−1 a pro-apoptotic effect was detected. In conclusion, AMFJ could antagonise most of the negative consequences of HFHF diet on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in a rat MS model.
‘Patharnakh’ (Pyrus pyrifolia Burm.) (PN), a hard pear and ‘Punjab Beauty’ (Pyrus communis L. × Pyrus pyrifolia Burm.) (PB), a soft pear are dominant low-chill pear cultivars of subtropics of India. Present investigation reports the changes in sugar metabolism and related enzymatic activities in fruits of ‘PN’ and ‘PB’ cultivars harvested at different developmental stages from 45 to 150 days after fruit set. Total soluble sugars, fructose, and sucrose contents were higher in ‘PB’ as compared to ‘PN’ during fruit growth and maturation stages. Total phenols and flavanols increased initially and then showed a decreasing trend towards maturity. Sucrose synthase (SS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activities strongly correlated to sucrose content in ‘PN’ but SPS was weakly related in ‘PB’ fruits. Acid and neutral invertases showed a negative correlation with sucrose content in ‘PN’, and a reverse trend in ‘PB’ cultivar was observed. It is concluded that SS and SPS are crucial for sucrose accumulation in ‘PN’, but invertase enzymes are also important for sucrose accumulation in ‘PB’ fruits.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common chronic liver diseases with unclarified pathomechanism and without evidence-proven therapy. Dietary polyphenols, targeting oxidative stress, are at the center of investigations. Our aim was to examine the effects of a polyphenol rich extract on metal element homeostasis and transmethylation ability in non-alcoholic fatty liver model. A ten-day rat model was used (control group, hyperlipidemic group with fat-rich diet, hyperlipidemic group with fat-rich diet and polyphenol supplementation, N = 8 in each group). The hyperlipidemic diet increased the concentration of the majority of the elements with significantly higher contents of B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se, Si, and Zn in the liver. Further elevation of Al, Pb, and Sn concentrations could be observed in polyphenol supplemented animals. The polyphenol supplement unexpectedly decreased the transmethylation ability of the liver (132.00 vs. 114.15 vs. 92.25 HCHO μg g−1) further. The results emphasize the possible role of altered metal and non-metal element concentrations and decreased transmethylation ability in the pathomechanism of fatty liver disease. Dietary supplementation with natural compounds may have undesirable effect as well, there is the necessity to improve the efficacy of polyphenol formulations because of their low oral bioavailability.
COVID-19 lockdown affects people's daily routine and has an impact on their lifestyle. Recent studies documented associations between body weight changes and children's lifestyle during social isolation. Childhood obesity is associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our aim was to assess the effects of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on children's sleep, screen time, physical activity, and eating habits. 387 parents of five elementary school students between 16 and 26 June 2020 were interviewed through an online questionnaire. Physical activity level decreased (63.8%), sleep (60.9%) and screen (5.64 ± 3.05 h/day) times and food intake (39.8%) increased. 80.6% of parents reported changes in children's diet: increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (32.4%), breakfast (15.5%), water and sugar-free beverages (17.6%), snacks (40.4%), sugary drinks (9.9%) was observed. Body weight increased in 44.4% of children. The results of the survey conducted under GYERE®-Children's Health Program are in line with the international literature findings: body weight change during the quarantine is significantly associated with food intake, snacking, sugary drinks, and we also found association with fruit and vegetable consumption and lack of breakfast. Effective strategies and electronic health interventions are needed to prevent sedentary lifestyle and obesity during lockdown.
Cassava is used as a staple food in many developing countries despite its low nutrient density. Fortification of cassava diets is needed for the prevention of malnutrition and achievement of food security. Cassava-soybean complementary foods were formulated from natural and solid state fermented cassava complemented with soybean. The proximate composition, physicochemical properties, nutritional quality, and sensory properties of the samples were determined (Table 2). The moisture content (7.51%) and ash (3.81%) content of the solid state fermented (SSF) cassava flour complemented with un-defatted soybean flour was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than of the other samples. Solid state fermentation (SSF) led to the highest reduction in viscosity (from 2,855 to 2,052 cPs). Average weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of experimental animals fed SSF cassava were the highest. The colour and aroma of SSF diets and that of fermented cassava samples were similar (P > 0.05). The texture of diets from SSF cassava were inferior (P < 0.05) to the other samples. Solid state fermentation of cassava with Rhizopus oligosporus and supplementation with soybean can be used to produce a complementary food that is nutrient dense and nutritionally adequate, although the texture of the product might need to be improved.
In this scientific paper, thermochemical conversion of redwood (RW) was studied. Using the thermogravimetric analysis' technique (TGA), the thermal behavior of RW samples was examined at four heating rates ranging from 5 to 20 K min−1 in inert atmosphere between 300 and 900 K. Two main objectives have been set for this study; the first one was the determination of the kinetic decomposition parameters of RW (Pinus sylvestris L.), and the second one was the study of the variation of characteristic parameters from the TG-DTG curves of the main RW's components, such as; cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The kinetic analysis was performed using three isoconversional methods (Vyazovkin (VYA), Friedman (FR) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO)), Avrami theory method and the Integral master-plots (Z(x)/Z(0.5)) method to estimate activation energy (Ea), reaction order (n), pre-exponential factor (A) and model kinetic (f(x)) for the thermal decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components.
The DTG and TG curves showed that three stages identify the thermal decomposition of RW, the first stage corresponds to the decomposition of hemicellulose and the second stage corresponds to the cellulose, while the third stage corresponds to the lignin's decomposition. For the range of conversion degree (x) investigated (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.7), the mean values of apparent activation energies for RW biomass were 127.60–130.65 KJ mol−1, 173.74–176.48 KJ mol−1 and 197.21–200.36 KJ mol−1 for hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, respectively. Through varied temperatures from 550 to 600 K for hemicellulose, from 600 to 650 K for cellulose and from 750 to 800 K for lignin, the corresponding mean values of reaction order (n) were 0.200 for hemicellulose, 0.209 for cellulose and 0.047 for lignin. The pre-exponential factor's average values for three components of RW ranges from 0.08 × 1012 s−1 to 2.5 × 1012 s−1 (Ahemicellulose = 1.09 × 1012 s−1), 0.10 × 1014 s−1 to 0.28 × 1014 s−1 (Acellulose = 0.17 × 1014 s−1) and 3.07 × 1016 s−1 to 3.69 × 1016 s−1 (Alignin = 3.33 × 1016 s−1), respectively. The experimental data of RW had overlapped the D4, D2 and F3 in the conversion degree of 10–30%, 30–55% and 55–70% for the three components, respectively.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of green tea on lipid profile, liver tissue damage, and oxidative stress in rats fed a diet including high fructose. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control (C), Fructose (F), Green Tea (GT), and F+GT. F and F+GT groups were given 20% fructose in the drinking water for eight weeks. Green tea (2 mg kg−1) was administrated to GT and F+GT groups by oral gavage for eight weeks. Biochemical parameters in serum and oxidative stress markers in the liver were analysed. The liver sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin. As of the 3rd week of the experiment, the body weight of rats in the F group showed a statistically significant increase in comparison with the F+GT group. The serum glucose and triglyceride levels of the F+GT group significantly decreased when compared with the F group. The fructose-induced degenerative changes in the liver were reduced with green tea. Green tea may serve a protective role against hyperlipidaemia and liver injury in rats fed a high fructose diet.
Indigenous yeast strains Kluyveromyces marxianus (MH6), K. marxianus (CH1), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (C1) were screened for whey beverage production. K. marxianus (MH6) showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) fermentation efficiency (15.2%) as compare to other yeast strains. The conditions optimised for whey fermentation were 16 Brix, pH 5.5, 28 °C, and 72 h without agitation. For fermented whey beverage production, fruits viz., kinnow (Daizy), guava (Allahabad safeda), and mango (Safeda) were blended with whey at different ratios viz., 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50. All ratios showed significant differences for biochemical and sensory analysis (P < 0.05), out of which ratios 60:40, 70:30, and 60:40 for whey kinnow, whey mango, and whey guava, respectively, were selected. To enhance the flavour of whey beverage, flavouring agents (cinnamon, cardamom, fennel seeds, and apple essence) were added. A panel of judges assessed all whey beverages on a hedonic scale basis, and cardamom whey guava beverage received the highest score of 8.16. The whey beverages were stored under refrigerated conditions after pasteurisation, and the shelf life was assessed to be 15 days. This study conferred that K. marxianus held the potential for fermented whey fruit blend beverages production and these beverages could be an alternative healthy refreshing substitute for synthetic bottled fruit beverages.
Several misconceptions exist about foods and nutrition. Many believe, that the human body can “acidify”, thus, an “alkaline diet” should be followed. The acid-base balance is a characteristic of a normally functioning human body. Throughout our metabolic processes, acids and substances with acidic pH are produced continuously, which, in the case of a healthy person, does not affect the pH of the human body. In those rare cases, when an overall pH imbalance evolves in the human body due to its life-threatening nature, it requires urgent medical intervention. Furthermore, it cannot be influenced by dietary interventions.
This paper highlights evidence regarding acidification and the acid-base balance, with special attention to certain food groups. Foodstuffs have different specific pH value (acid-base character), they can be acidic, alkaline, or neutral in elemental state. Beside their chemical nature, the effect they have on the human body depends on the mechanism of their metabolism, as well. Diet and ingredients have direct and indirect effects on the human body's intracellular and extracellular compartments (especially blood and urine), still they do not influence its pH significantly.
Alkaline diets were born in the absence of evidence-based information and/or the misunderstanding and wrong interpretation of the available and up-to-date scientific facts. The convictions of consumers and the promotion of the alkaline diet lack the scientific basis, so it can be harmful or even dangerous in the long run.
In summary, scientific evidence on the efficacy or prophylactic effects of an alkaline diet is not available.
Naturally-occurring compounds are acknowledged for their broad antiviral efficacy. Little is however known about their mutual cooperation. Here, we evaluated in vitro efficacy of the defined mixture of agents against the RdRp complex of the original SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron variant. This composition of vitamin C, N-acetylcysteine, resveratrol, theaflavin, curcumin, quercetin, naringenin, baicalin, and broccoli extract showed to inhibit activity of RdRp/nsp7/nsp8 both these variants. In vitro exposure of recombinant RdRp complex to individual compounds of this composition pointed to quercetin as the driving inhibitory compound. The outcome of this study supports the motion of antiviral efficacy of natural compounds against SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron and implies that their reciprocal or mutual interaction may augment antiviral action through simultaneous effect on different mechanisms. Consequently, this makes it more difficult for an infectious agent to evade all these mechanisms at the same time. Considering the urgency in finding effective prevention, but also side-effects free treatment of COVID-19 our results call for clinical affirmation of the benefits of this micronutrient combination in both preventive and therapeutic aspects. Whether observed effects can be achieved, by concentrations of the active agents used in these in vitro experiments, in in vivo or clinical setting warrants further study.
To overcome the problems of seasonality and geographical location in fruit production and processing, the production of aseptic semi-finished juice is an excellent solution. Even without refrigeration, aseptic pressing has a shelf life of more than a year, making it possible to produce finished products all year round. The production technology involves the addition of ascorbic acid to the pulp to fix or preserve colour. There is an increasing customer demand for ascorbic acid substitutes on the international market. In Hungary, one of the most important exports is aseptic sour cherry juice. In our work, ascorbic acid used for colour fixation was replaced by acerola concentrate. The anthocyanin content and colour coordinate values (L*, a*, b*, H, C) of aseptically filled sour cherry juice were determined and compared with the control sample during the 12 months of storage.
As a means of assisting the selection of promising soil classification systems, a set of criteria were presented and tested. Inside the studied slightly saline plot World Reference Base (WRB) and Hungarian soil classification (HU) were compared at all four levels in terms of class separability, correlation to biomass, parsimony and homogeneity of classes. WRB surpassed HU in terms of the very important homogeneity of classes only, but HU performed better in terms of class separability, correlation to biomass and parsimony of classes. With many possible classification units WRB categorized the soil into a large number of classes, but 67% and 78% of them were single-profile classes at levels 3 and 4, respectively inside the ca 0.9 km2 area.
A review of the international literature also found that the amount and the presence in slurry of oestrus inducer hormone preparations used in intensive dairy cattle production has not been investigated. In our study, we followed the path of 5 different sex-inducing drugs (alfaglandin, PGF, dinolytic, gonavet, ovarelin) including three active pharmaceutical ingredients (D-Phe6-Gonadorelin, Kloprostenol and Dinoprost-tromethamine) used in a cattle farm in Pest County from their use until their appearance in the slurry from 2017 to 2020. The study included a review of drug consumption and a seasonal analysis of the hormonal effects of slurry produced on the farm in quarterly cycles each year. We also tested separately the hormonal effects of the hormone preparations used on the farm. For the estrogenic effect tests, the yeast test with the human estrogenic receptor was used according to ISO 19040. Statistical evaluation of the results (Pearson correlation and Principal Component Analysis) was used to identify relationships between the use of sex inducers, the reproductive biology of the colony and the estrogenic effect of the slurry. We found that the estrogenic effects of slurry and sludge are strongly correlated. All three pharmaceuticals tested showed a strong correlation with the estrogenic effect of slurry/sludge. Our investigations confirm that slurry among other reasons due to its hormone and drug content shall be considered as a material that needs to be disposed of by new treatment methods before application to the field, because of its environmental and health risks.
Black plum sawfly (Hoplocampa minuta) is an important pest species of plum (Prunus domestica). In organic plum orchards, the yield loss caused by H. minuta larval damage can reach almost 100% occasionally. Adults feed on pollen and nectar of the plum flower; therefore, we hypothesize that, besides visual cues, also olfaction plays an important role in habitat and host finding. To understand the chemical communication mediated by flower volatiles to black sawflies, we investigated the chemical signals released from plum flowers, which can trigger the peripheral physiological responses of adult sawflies. First, using gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD), we selected 18 physiologically active compounds from the headspace volatile collection of plum flowers, which triggered the H. minuta male and female antennae. Subsequently, we determine the volatilome of plum flower and identified those compounds, which elicited physiological responses, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). These antennally active components in flower volatiles could be candidates for potential kairomone, which could later be used for attracting males and females of H. minuta and could contribute to developing pesticide-free, effective monitoring and lure and kill strategy against this pest.
Consumption of infected plant tissues by decomposing organisms is an important part of ecosystem services. We tested how the common woodlouse (Porcellionides pruinosus, Isopoda: Oniscidea) may contribute to the decomposition process in a laboratory experiment in which Mycosphaerella pyri-infected pear leaves with or without the aecia of Gymnosporangium sabinae were offered as food. We recorded the loss of healthy and infected leaf tissues. Isopod survival rate was also monitored. We found (1) a certain pattern of preference in the consumption of infected leaf material; and (2) that the presence of G. sabinae reduced leaf consumption but had no effect on the ingestion of Mycosphaerella-infected spots; and (3) the mortality of P. pruinosus was adversely influenced by G. sabinae, but the results were highly dependent on confinement conditions. Our results suggest that woodlice consume plant pathogenic fungi, and therefore offer the ecosystem service of neutralizing infective plant remnants during decomposition.
The box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis, is the most important pest of the box tree in the world. The use of pheromone is expected to reduce use of chemical pesticides in C. perspectalis. In this study, the efficiency of three different types of traps including funnel, wing and delta traps at two installation heights (2 and 4 m above the ground) and also dynamic activity of C. perspectalis at different elevations above sea level was investigated in Mazandaran province (Iran) in 2018 and 2019 seasons. The results showed that funnel traps in comparison with the other two types of traps (delta and wing) captured significantly more C. perspectalis. However, trap height had no effect on trapping. C. perspectalis was active in the box reservoir at different elevations above sea level.
Cover crops serve as an essential source of nutrients in the soil and generally improve the soil’s properties. Cover crops’ production is considered a benefit of the soil quality; by protecting the soil from erosion, reducing the weeds and the so-called soil-borne plant pathogens. Different varieties of cover crops can be cultivated such as legumes, non-legumes, brassica, and grass-type of plants with a variability of the symbiosis. A pot experiment was carried out with five cover crops, as non-symbiont (Brassica carinata B.c.), single-symbiont with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) (Phacelia tanacetifolia P.t., Avena strigosa A.s.) and double symbiont with AMF and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Vicia benghalensis V.b., Vicia faba V.f.) crops; and a mixture of the five species, placed in sandy soil (arenosol) in plastic pots (5000 g soil) in 4 repetitions. One of the pots with mixed cover crops was inoculated by AM fungi industrial product. We measured soil biological activity of dehydrogenase (DHA) and fluorescein-diacetate (FDA) enzymes, the frequency of AM fungi (F%), the all protein, glomalin content and electrical conductivity (EC) of the soils. Mixture of all the cover crops resulted maximum EC and significantly enhanced the enzymatic, DHA, FDA activities in comparison with single plants. Mycorrhiza colonization frequency was high in all cover crops except the mustard (B.c.), as nonsymbiont. Vetch (V.b.), as double symbiont was responding very positively to AMF inoculation, and enhanced the performance of its growth. It was found in the pot experiment, that vetch, has the highest capacity to retain soil-protein, glomalin concentration, as well. The mixture of five cover crops could be suggested to use, due to the synergistic positive performance of the individual crops, and the better functioning of beneficial fungal / bacterial symbiosis.
Open-field small plot long-term experiment was set up during 2011 with willow (Salix triandra × S. viminalis ‘Inger’), grown as a short rotation coppice energy crop in Nyíregyháza, Hungary. The sandy loam Cambisol with neutral pH was treated three times (2011, 2013, and 2016) with 15 t ha–1 municipal sewage sludge compost (MSSC) and with 600 kg ha–1 (2011, 2013) or 300 kg ha–1 (2016) wood ash (WA). In 2018 the MSSC-treated plots were amended with 7.5 t ha–1 municipal sewage sediment (MSS), and 300 kg ha–1 WA. MSSC and WA or MSS and WA were also applied to the soil in combinations during all treatments. Control plots remained untreated since 2011. Repeated application of wastewater solids (MSSC, MSS) and wood ash (WA) significantly enhanced the amounts of As (up to +287%), Ba, Cd (up to +192%), Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the topsoil of willows. The combined application of MSSC+MSS+WA resulted in significantly higher Mn and Zn and lower As Ba, Cd Cr, and Pb concentrations in topsoil than MSSC+MSS treatment of soil without WA. Nitrogen concentrations in leaves of treated plants were generally slightly lower or similar to control. All soil treatments significantly enhanced the uptake or accumulation of nutrient elements (Ca, K, Mg, P) and potentially toxic elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the leaves of willows during 2018, 2019, and 2020. Significantly higher Mn or Zn concentrations were measured in MSSC+MSS+WA than in MSSC+MSS treatments. Significant amounts of Cd (up to 1.11 mg kg–1) or Zn (up to 183 mg kg–1) can be translocated (phytoextracted) from a soil amended with wastewater solids or wood ash to willow leaves. In 2018 the treatments decreased the chlorophyll fluorescence values, while in 2019 and 2020 the light adapted fluorescence yield (Y) values were higher in treated than in control plants.
In this study PTEs, [potentially toxic elements (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn)] were investigated in the upper layer of floodplain soils that occurred as a result of accident in the area of two mine tailings in Northwestern Romania. A large amount of sediment was deposited on the soil of floodplains along the Hungarian section of River Tisza, which could represent a threat to the environment. Floodplain soil samples were collected from four locations in Hungary from an area of the river stretching to about 250 km. BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Référence) sequential extraction method was used to analyze both post-flood and present samples. Most of the analyzed elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were found in the residual fraction, but there is a notable soluble amount in hydroxylammonium chloride extractable fraction. The results allow a comparison of the changes that have taken place over time, in addition to serving as a basis for further studies.
Evaluation studies investigated the leverage effects of beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the long-termed toxicity of cypermethrin 25% EC, sulfoxaflor 24% SC, acetamiprid 20% SL and chlorfenapyr 24% SC against adults of Thrips tabaci laboratory strain (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (Lindeman, 1889) from 8 up to 40 °C. Laboratory studies showed no toxicity for β-CD alone at all tested concentrations. Concentrations of β-CD at 1.25 and 2.50 gm L−1 had potent leverage effects on the LC50s of cypermethrin within 30–35 °C and sulfuxoflor at 40 °C. β-CD at 0.5 gm L−1 had no leverage effect on tested insecticides. All the tested concentrations of β-CD decreased the toxicity of acetamiprid. Semi-field trials (≥28 °C) along 12 days declared that β-CD (equivalent to 1.25 gm L−1) increased the overall mean mortality percentages of 0.5 FRs of cypermethrin (73.08%) and sulfoxaflor (54.74%) compared to their 0.5 FRs alone of 63.70 and 44.30%, respectively in season 2020. While in season 2021, only cypermethrin at 0.5 FR + β-CD (74.45%) surpassed its 0.5FR (61.83%). Lethal times (LT50) values in semi-field trials showed a prolonged residual toxicity periods for the 0.5 FRs of cypermethrin + β-CD (8.58 days) and sulfoxaflor + β-CD (4.80 days) compared to their 0.5 FRs of 6.65 and 3.24 days, respectively in season, 2020. Furthermore, LT50 values of the 0.5 FRs of cypermethrin + β-CD (9.02 days) and sulfoxaflor + β-CD (7.34 days) exceeded their 0.5 FRs of 6.24 and 4.07 days, respectively in 2021. Thus β-CD could realize leverage efficacy and longer-termed toxicity for cypermethrin and sulfoxaflor in high temperatures.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a four-carbon non-protein amino acid, is widely known to have multiple physiological functions. The present study aimed to investigate the cultivation parameters for GABA production by a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strain isolated from a tuna gut sample. Among 60 tuna gut LAB, only 7 Limosilactobacillus fermentum isolates, i.e. NG01, NG12, NG13, NG14, NG16, NG23, and NG27, were capable of GABA fermentation, with NG16 being the most potent GABA producer. The GABA production by isolate NG16 was therefore thoroughly characterised. The optimal batch culture conditions for GABA production were an initial cell density of 5×106 CFU mL−1, a monosodium glutamate concentration of 2%, an initial pH of 7, a fermentation temperature of 35 °C, and an incubation time of 96 h. Under this cultivation conditions, NG16 produced a maximum GABA yield of 25.52 ± 0.41 mM.
Quality and storability are crucial factors in production of apple juice. The main goal of this study was investigation of the effects of ascorbic acid and acerola juice on the changes of some sensorial parameters and bioactive compounds of aseptically filled and industrial scale produced apple juice during storage for 12 months. While the viscosity and pH of apple juice did not change significantly, the ΔE* peaked (20–30) at month 6 of the storage period. The colour of apple juice was lighter than at the beginning of storage. Maximum total phenolic contents were 1,100, 1,400, and 1,250 mg L−1 in the control, ascorbic acid supplemented, and acerola added samples, respectively. Other parameters (antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, browning index, etc.) peaked in month 4. Acerola was a good alternative anti-browning and antioxidant agent for the treatment of apple juice in the processing. The antioxidant capacity of apple juice treated with acerola was higher than with ascorbic acid. The results were obtained with industrial samples, thus, they can serve as a very good base for the optimisation process and industrial production without the need for scale-up.
Fusarium spp. are phytopathogens causing fusarium head blight in wheat. They produce mycotoxins, mainly fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone. The study was conducted during two growing seasons (2020 and 2021) at the experimental field and laboratories of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE). The aim of the study was to determine the influence of growing season, nitrogen fertilisation, and wheat variety on Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production in wheat kernel. Zearalenone was not detected during the two growing seasons and deoxynivalenol was only detected in 2020. The results indicate that nitrogen fertilisation and wheat variety did not have statistically significant influence on Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production. The growing season had statistically significant influence on Fusarium infection and fumonisins production due to higher rainfall in 2021 compared to 2020 during the flowering period when the wheat spike is the most vulnerable to Fusarium infection.
Pulse beetle, Callosobruchus spp. are the major threat in legume grain (pulse) storage. They are very prolific and rapid in breeding and increasing their population within short period of time. Its infestation starts either in the field on the maturing pod and is carried to the stores with the harvested crops or it originates in the storage itself. If appropriate management is not adopted, then it can damage 100% of stored pulses within few months of storage. On an average they cause 5–10% pulse crop losses in the temperate and 20–30% in the tropical countries during storage. Here this article is intended to discuss their distribution, host plants, life cycle, damage symptoms, ecology, economic impact and their management by recent and effective techniques.
A three-year (2016–2018) open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation, fertilisation, and seasonal variation on the main bioactive components, such as carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotene), total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and tocopherols of processed Uno Rosso F1 tomato. The statistical evaluation of measurements proved that the multi-year data set cannot be evaluated as combined data set; the values obtained in different years must be evaluated separately. The impact of irrigation on the content of bioactive components varied from year to year. The correlation was negative between irrigation and α-tocopherol content in 2016 and 2018 (r = –0.567 and –0.605, respectively), polyphenol content in 2016 (r = –0.668), γ-tocopherol content in 2017 (r = –0.662), while positive correlation was observed between concentration of vitamin C (r = 0.533) in 2017, lycopene content (r = 0.473) in 2018 and irrigation intensity. A weak correlation was proved between K levels and concentrations of lycopene and polyphenols in 2016 (r = 0.301 and r = 0.392, respectively).
Nitrogen (N) is one of the most essential nutrients affecting the yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.). A field experiment was conducted at the experimental plot of the Department of Agronomy, The Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Hungary, to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the yield and quality of maize. The experimental site included four observation plots with a net of 2 × 5 m size. Four N levels of T1, T2, T3, and T4 were sprayed at indicated plants in four replications according to treatment viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg N ha−1. Nitrogen application in general does not significantly affect maize yield, its components, or grain quality. However, out of the four N treatments, the optimal N application between 50–100 kg N ha−1 potentially increased the yield, also the total expression of protein and starch contents in maize can be achieved with the right amount of N fertiliser, indicating that the treatment could produce a high grain yield as well as high protein and starch contents. Good N fertilising practice will boost the maize's nutritional value and make it more significant in the agriculture in the future. In addition, more research and assessment are essential to acquire the most benefit from the effect of optimal N application on maize yield and quality, and the findings could be beneficial to researchers and growers.
Due to extreme meteorological and soil hydrological situations the agricultural production security is highly unpredictable. To release the extent and duration of inland excess water (IEW) inundations or two-phase soil conditions during the period intended for cultivation, subsurface drainage (SD) has been used as a best practice in several countries. SD interventions took place between 1960’s and 1990 in Hungary. After 1989, land ownership conditions changed, thus professional operation and the necessary maintenance of the SD networks designed as a complex system became insignificant. In this paper, our aim was to present the IEW hazard in one of the most equipped areas by SD in Hungary. The occurrence frequency of IEW inundations in drained and non-drained (control) areas in different time intervals were compared. According to our results, we could state that the frequency of IEW on the subsurface drained areas was moderately lower in only a few periods compared to the control areas. IEW hazard of the arable areas at the Körös Interfluve was classified as nonhazarded in 52.7% of the area. Another 38.2% were moderately hazarded, 8.26% of the lands were meanly hazarded and less than 1% were highly hazarded area by IEW.
The Westsik’s long-term crop rotation experiment was set up in 1929 at the Nyíregyháza Experimental Station (NE Hungary) on a slightly acidic Arenosol. Besides fallow crop rotation (CR), effects of different organic amendments (lupine as green manure, lupine as main crop, straw manure, and farmyard manure (FYM) were studied with or without N or NPK-fertilizers. The crop rotation consisted of rye, potato, lupine, and oat with common vetch. The soil of potato plots was analysed in 2019 at the 90th anniversary of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment.
The following chemical and microbiological soil parameters were determined: soil pH, available nutrient contents, organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (ON) contents, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), soil respiration, net nitrification, and activity of some soil enzymes.
In the CRs, the soil pHH2O varied from acidic to weakly alkaline and it largely differed from pHKCl. The results showed a significant increase in the content of nitrate, available phosphorus and potassium in most of the fertilized plots. Applying straw, green manure, or FYM significantly increased the OC and ON contents. The total count of cultivable bacteria increased upon the application of the organic manures. Combined application of straw manure and N-fertilization heavily improved the abundance of the microscopic fungi.
While all the applied organic manures significantly enhanced the MBC, the MBN increased only by the green manure amendment. Our results revealed higher soil respiration rate in the plots receiving straw or FYM than in the control. Both green manure and FYM elevated the net nitrification rate. Phosphatase, saccharase, urease, and dehydrogenase enzymes showed a hesitating response to the manure application in the different CRs.
The soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity correlated to most of the measured chemical parameters. Among microbiological properties, the MBC and MBN, as well as dehydrogenase and other enzyme activities displayed a positive correlation. Results proved the need for the exogenous application of organic matter in the form of organic manures to enhance the nutritional status and health of the soil.
Greenhouse plastic contaminations in agricultural soils were studied to quantify and examine the macroplastic and microplastic contaminants on the soil surface, soil profile, and groundwater under greenhouse farmland. Random sampling was used to select three areas in a greenhouse farm where macroplastic and microplastic data were collected. Four composite samples were collected from shallow (0–20 cm) and deep (20–40 cm) soils for each sampling point, respectively. Three soil profiles were dug, and samples were collected at intervals of 20 cm. Groundwater samples were also collected from the same profiles at a depth of 100 cm. Microplastics were extracted using predigestion of organic matter with 30% H2O2 and density separation with ZnCl2. The total mass of macroplastics in the greenhouse farmland was 6.4 kg ha–1. Polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride were the dominant plastic structures, and the dominant sizes were 1–5 and 0.5–1.0 cm, respectively. Overall, the average abundance of microplastics in the greenhouse soil was 225 ± 61.69 pieces/kg, and the dominant size structure was 2–3 mm. The average microplastic concentrations at depths of 0–20 and 20–40 cm were 300 ± 93 and 150.0 ± 76.3 pieces/kg, respectively. The average microplastic concentration in the groundwater was 2.3 pieces/l, and fibers were the dominant plastic structure. Given that microplastics were found in greenhouse soil, soil profiles, and groundwater, we recommend the careful cleaning and disposal of plastics on greenhouse farmland and further research to shed light on the level of microplastic contamination in the soil profiles and groundwater.
Soybean seeds were germinated on an industrial scale after soaking for 0–56 h to produce a special additive for food industrial use. The germination process of three soybean varieties was monitored with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy based on changes in the amount, status, or character of the water. This paper evaluates the “waterless” NIR spectra of sound, germinated, and heat treated seeds to try to follow the fine details of the germination process. The germination process was analysed with the help of cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and polar qualification system (PQS) as statistical and chemometric methods. PCA proved to be the most sensitive spectrum evaluation method to follow the fine details of germination. The applied NIR method is suitable for non-destructively, real-time monitoring of the non-linear nature of germination.
A simple and reliable method for quantifying Fusarium head blight (FHB), a widespread disease of barley, would enhance our capacity in identifying resistance sources and highly aggressive isolates. A detached head assay (DHA) was used to reliably assess: (i) resistance of two barley cultivars, Arabi Aswad (AS) and Arabi Abiad (AB) with different susceptibility to FHB and (ii) aggressiveness in a set of 16 fungal isolates of four Fusarium species. The two inoculated cultivars showed different responses in FHB incidence (DI) and severity (DS) using spray and point inoculation on detached barley heads, respectively. On AB, susceptible under several experimental conditions, inoculation with different Fusarium species resulted in significantly higher DI and DS, compared with AS, which showed Fusarium resistance. Furthermore, the values of DI and DS were significantly correlated with the previous findings generated under several experimental conditions. The use of this simple and reliable method in barley breeding programs can speed up the process of identification of sources of resistance to multiple FHB isolates. To our best knowledge, this is the first in-depth report investigating the usefulness of DHA for distinguishing susceptibility of barley plants and aggressiveness of diverse Fusarium species from a breeder's point of view.
Pollen beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) rank among the most important pests of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). For their timely detection in early spring, yellow sticky or water pan traps are used; however, it has been suggested that the addition of chemical lures to attractive visual cues could improve trap efficacy. During the course of field trials in Hungary, we have developed a 3-component synthetic floral lure consisting of (E)-anethol + (E)-cinnamyl alcohol + (E)-cinnamyl acetate, which attracted large numbers of pollen beetles into large capture-capacity fluorescent yellow funnel traps. There was no apparent difference between the pollen beetle species Brassicogethes aeneus F. 1775 (earlier Meligethes aeneus), Brassicogethes viridescens F. 1775, Brassicogethes coracinus Sturm 1845 and Fabogethes nigrescens Sturm 1845 in their responses to the 3-component lure, which can therefore be used to trap all of them. Funnel traps with the new ternary floral lure were more efficient in catching beetles than those with lures containing 2-phenethyl isothiocyanate, a previously described plant-derived attractant for pollen beetles. However, the effect of the addition of the isothiocyanate to the ternary blend was not completely clear from these experiments and thus requires further studies.