Before the Coronavirus pandemic, the fitness industry was a growing sector globally, both in terms of the number of members and clubs; even prior to the global pandemic there were online workouts and technological innovations. With COVID-19, revenues plummeted, and many gyms went out of business. Consumers bought equipment for home use and switched to different types of online or outdoor workouts. This paper aims to investigate how the pandemic affected the fitness sector, and the consumer behavior of former gym members. Our assumption was that the preferences of gym-members had changed, and gyms would have prospered if they had changed their business models and moved to a hybrid model. We conducted in depth-interviews with Hungarian club owners and used an online questionnaire survey to collect data from members of gyms in Hungary. We asked them about exercise habits, home exercise methods, planned future exercise locations, the expectations of customers, safety measures, and service quality. Our assumptions were confirmed. The results may represent useful input for Hungarian fitness centers.
This study explored the impact of the COVID-19 career shock to career capital among sports clubs personnel. With this aim, an explanatory mixed-method research was undertaken based on data gathered via a survey among the personnel of sports clubs in Poland (N = 226). The quantitative stage of data analysis (a multivariate analysis of covariance) determined the scale of the changes in career capital and its elements (knowing-how, knowing-why, knowing-whom) across different respondent groups, while the subsequent thematic analysis of the data gathered through open questions explored the sources of these changes. The results show that the shock had a positive impact mainly on knowing-how, and a lesser one on knowing-why, while it was neutral for knowing-whom. Nevertheless, there is an important heterogeneity of the experiences among sports club personnel, even when accounting for the differences in the way that COVID-19 impacted their clubs. By exploring the consequences of a career shock to career capital, this study contributes to career construction theory.
The Central and Eastern European countries have made considerable economic progress since the capitalist transformation. This paper investigates whether there is a co-movement between two factors of well-being, improvement of economic and health status between 1995 and 2018 compared to the six founding European Union (EU) member states. Applying the Pedroni- and Fisher-type cointegration test and a panel vector error correction model, our estimations suggest that there is a mutual causal relationship between economic convergence measured in GDP per capita and health status convergence measured by life expectancy. The long-term bi-directional effects are also proved by impulse response functions. Using the same econometric methods, the examination of the relationship between government health expenditure and life expectancy indicates that governmental health expenditure promotes the health status convergence. This study concludes that the FDI-based, low-wage growth model of the Central and Eastern European countries has not impeded the convergence in both factors of well-being to the founding EU member states. The results demonstrate that the improvement of the healthcare system may be a channel for the acceleration of convergence.
The authors’ aim is to create a conceptual framework from the academic literature dealing with the success factors of crowdfunding campaigns. The authors reviewed high-quality empirical articles written in English between 2013 and 2018, gathered from five relevant databases and Q1–Q4 journals. The results and conclusions sections of the selected articles were coded and analyzed using the rules of the qualitative content analysis methodology. The authors found success factors analyzed by top researchers and grouped them into categories and themes. This paper provides a typology of the factors contributing to the success of crowdfunding campaigns which can be used as a framework for further research. The conclusions can help project initiators in the planning and execution phases of crowdfunding campaigns while creating a new perspective about crowdfunding campaign success forecasting.
The paper presents the application of a non-parametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique for measuring the macroeconomic performance of the Balkan countries. In this context, for the period of 2006–2018, a dynamic DEA Window model was applied based on selected macroeconomic indicators as input and output variables. For a more comprehensive and objective analysis, the DEA Window analysis is complemented by a Malmquist productivity index that provides a more complete picture of the observed entities' performance and shows a trend of change from period to period. The results showed that in the observed period, Albania and to a large extent Montenegro, especially after the end of the global financial crisis, had the highest average efficiency, that is, they used the available resources effectively to increase the GDP growth rates. The EU Member States, Greece and Croatia, in particular, achieved the highest growth in overall productivity over the observed period, and this growth was largely due to a change in technical efficiency.
Using cointegration approach and Augmented Phillips Curve framework, this study examines the effects of changes in the global oil prices on the inflation rate for five CEE countries between 1994 and 2018. Our research indicates the existence of cointegration for Czechia, Poland and Slovakia. We find a positive relationship between changes of oil prices and the inflation rate in Poland in the long run. Additionally, it seems that the changes in oil prices impact the inflation rate in the long run for Czechia, Hungary and Poland. In a non-linear model framework cointegration is found in Czechia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. Our findings suggest that changes in oil prices significantly affect the inflation rate in Czechia, Hungary and Poland in the long-run and in all countries in the short-run. More importantly, we demonstrate that the short- and long-run asymmetries play a significant role in explaining the dynamics of the inflation rate.
This study focuses on the influence of institution quality on foreign direct investment (FDI) outflows. For empirical estimation, we use a dataset covering 102 home and 67 host countries from 2001 to 2016. We use the gravity approach and apply the Poisson pseudo maximum likelihood method to derive unbiased estimates. A set of institutional variables in a country is integrated into a single institutional index using principal component analysis. Our main findings are the following. First, we only identify a positive influence of the level of institutional development on FDI outflows for the institutionally developed countries. Second, we have not found evidence for crowding out national investment in the countries with weak institutions. Third, increases in the level of institutions stimulate horizontal rather than vertical outward FDI in an economy. Finally, institutional distance negatively affects the level of outward FDI only when the institutional distance between the two countries is large. The policy implications of this research are strongly in favour of further developing institutions.
The financial industry has undergone several changes in recent years. One of these changes is the emergence of financial technology (FinTech) companies that are radically transforming the industry, posing a significant challenge to traditional commercial banks. In this study, we examined the responses of the Hungarian banks to the emergence of innovative FinTech startups and explored the benefits and barriers of the FinTech accelerator programs launched by banks. We conducted 27 semi-structured interviews with top executives of banks, FinTech startups and scaleups, investors and regulators to identify the potential benefits and barriers during the cooperation between banks and FinTechs. The most important results of our research show that during the partnership, several advantages can be gained by both parties. Still, the realization of these benefits is significantly hindered by the excessive exploitation focus of banks. Ambidextrous internal champions or suppliers of the banks are needed for successful cooperation between FinTechs and banks.
The paper relates to the paradigm of the middle income trap (MIT) and covers mid-run challenges to the Polish economic development. Our theoretical background is based on the concepts of comparative advantage and intra-industry trade, while the empirical analysis concentrates on a sample of 14 product clusters. Obtained results reveal the competitive position of the Polish goods leading in the global mid- and high-tech exports. These findings may serve for the evidence-based smart industry and trade policy-making in Poland, as well as of other emerging economies. The fundamental question is which industries could serve as the engines of international expansion and become likely winners.
The present study utilises an autoethnographic research methodology for introducing, from a handball player's point of view, the culture in which her career unfolded (from the beginnings to the first few years after her retirement), and the most important characteristics that shaped her professional years in the Hungarian first league. This topic was chosen not only as sports economics considerations are important with regard to the career of a handballer, but also to highlight how an individual athlete experiences the processes occurring in such a sports culture. Moreover, this study addresses the gap in scientific literature on career management in handball. Utilising autoethnography in the field of sports is somewhat unique, therefore this study can also pave the way for future research work in this domain. The following five pillars in career management were identified as a result of the research: Significant Others, Local Grassroots, Star Position, Roller Coaster and Rebirth. This study can be valuable for future researchers in the area of career management, and it can also provide practical information for athletes, sports federations and sports businesses.
Since the eastern enlargement of the European Union (EU), the movement from east to west has become the main driver of intra-EU mobility. Recently, the free movement of labour has been contested not only in the debates around Brexit, but also in other receiving countries. It is not on the political agenda, but several studies have highlighted the economic and demographic effects of massive emigration in eastern EU Member States. More recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the functioning of free movement. Economic integration theory assumes that migration continues until wages are equalized in the receiving and sending countries. This paper analyses the perception of intra-EU mobility in the literature and empirically tests whether there is a relationship between the dynamism of income growth in the receiving (Germany, Austria and Spain) and sending (Central and Eastern European) countries, and the dynamism of migration. The empirical results do not support the neoclassical assumption that an equalization mechanism can function, even in the long run. To cope with recent challenges, this paper argues that free movement should not be considered as an element of a spontaneous market mechanism, but as an economic-political product, based on a constitutional order.
The idea that socialism depends upon cooperation, as capitalism depends on competition, has always been inherent in the conception of socialism. Yet precise models of market socialism – ones, that is, that are sufficiently articulated so as to be able to discuss and compute an equilibrium in the economy – do not model cooperation in production, or more generally, in economic behavior. We introduce a Kantian optimization protocol, which, in contrast to Nash optimization, models how individuals can cooperate in labor and/or investment decisions. We prove that the ‘cooperative equilibrium’, thus modeled, is Pareto efficient whenever, in addition to receiving wages and rents, profits are distributed not to shareholders, but to workers and investors in proportion to their contributions to the firm. Pareto efficiency is achieved when the firms entire output is distributed to factor owners and shareholders do not exist.
The gains in economic welfare achieved over the last several generations depend on social as much as they do on technological innovations. Although much of the technological and commercial progress in question was driven mainly by self-interest and competition, effective functioning of governmental and legal systems and provision of public goods were crucial to social and economic progress, and these depended partly on social norms and motivations. Research suggests that the strengthening in recent centuries of cooperative dispositions embedded in human social psychology by long run evolutionary forces has played an important part in the escape of an increasing share of humanity from poverty. Behavioral economics and research on economic history, institutions and culture are shedding light on these connections and may provide guidance helpful to preserving late 20th century gains in the now rapidly shifting landscape.
The focus of debate on capital theory still is on the macroeconomic aggregate production function, almost seventy years after Joan Robinson attacked this concept. It has turned out that reswitching is rare in large systems. Reswitching and reverse capital deepening once were the most effective arguments against the production function. Later it was shown that an approximate surrogate production function could be constructed, using the approach of random matrices. This seemed to weaken the critique, but a new one has emerged, which shows that the number of effective techniques on the wage curve is small and that the possibilities of substitution between capital and labour are quite restricted in the relevant range or profit. This paper reconstructs the path by which the new results were arrived at and presents a new variant of the proof of zero substitution.
The complex co-evolution of economics as a scientific discipline is accompanied by two dilemmas which are reflecting ambivalent effects of two ideologies: economism and scientism. Economics may go wrong when certain tendencies occasioned by those inevitable “ideological” influences are ignored. Pertinent problems include pseudo-rationalist conceptions of policy advice and the failure to deal with the limited status of partial analysis and abstractive dichotomies (notably allocation – distribution), the status of core concepts such as scarcity, instrumental rationality, exchange, and contract, as well as the related abstraction from power, distribution, and human sociality relevant for non-contractual interaction in various spheres of social life, including the market economy.
The paper begins with a brief reminder of the origin of economic sociology. It then surveys research by economic sociologists from the 1980s to the present, with a focus on their relation to political economy, which ranges from close to arm's length. Finally, beyond any differences between economic theory and economic sociology, the paper considers how both approaches can be connected in the socio-historical and economic study of economic inequalities by Thomas Piketty, and the use of matching markets by Alvin Roth.
Conventional wisdom has it that Marxian value theory, and labour values themselves, are logically inconsistent, theoretically shaky, and empirically irrelevant. In this paper, we discuss recent research showing that this conclusion is not warranted. While past debates have definitively proved that labour values, or employment multipliers, cannot be used to explain equilibrium prices, this does not mean that a sound, empirically oriented Marxian approach cannot be built which assigns a central role to labour values. To be specific, we argue that they can be used to understand certain fundamental laws of capitalist economies – in particular the relation between profitability, technical progress, and accumulation – and also to construct normatively interesting indices capturing certain inequalities in well-being freedom.
Households supply the workforce for the modern economy, increasingly based on information and communication technology (IT). The access of households to e-devices and e-channels has been continuously growing in the last two decades. The aim of the study is to reflect these theoretical concepts with data-based, econometric causality analysis. Specifically, this study investigates whether the digitalization of households is a factor in their macroeconomic and behavioural indicators. In other words, does households' access to digital devices and channels determine rates of employment, productivity (TFP), level of savings, disposable income, per capita GDP or the growth ratio of GDP, and even such institutional indicators as political stability? The methodology employed is panel Granger causality analysis and Dumitrescu-Hurlin test, and the regional scope is the EU. Causality is tested between the households' digitalization and their macroeconomic, consumer behaviour or institutional indicators using panel Granger causality tests.
Using annual sectoral data for Hungary and Poland covering the period of 2005–2016, this paper assesses the impact of credit market characteristics on labor productivity in manufacturing. Apart from the amount of loans extended to non-financial corporations, which has been extensively studied in the literature, it focuses on credit market stability and tightness. The main results are that the volatility of credit originating from the supply side of the market has a negative influence on labor productivity, while credit market tightness is insignificant. There is no robust evidence that the stock of credit is a critical productivity determinant.
The neoliberal structural adjustment policies in Turkey moved on to a new phase with the Health Transformation Program (HTP) that came into effect in 2003. In this study, 5,002 people, who used the services of the public hospitals in Istanbul, participated in a face-to-face survey to find out the impact of the HTP on the public's understanding of the welfare state and also the impact on their opinions over the healthcare services offered by the state. The data were classified into two topics: First, the transformation of the welfare state and second, the adequacy of the public healthcare services. Interestingly, the participants took a much more explicit stance against the neoliberal transformation of the welfare state than against the adequacy of the public healthcare service provision. The primary purpose of this research was to expose this paradox.
Using situation-specific and dyadic data, we analyse how trust in inter-organisational relationships evolve over time. Based on a multidisciplinary approach, we define four trust-related concepts, which include both behavioural and perceptual aspects of this multifaceted phenomenon. We also develop the hypothesis that the behavioural consistency of the trustee affects the level of his/her trustworthiness as perceived by the trustor. To test this hypothesis, the paper specifies a finite Dynamic Trust Game that, in a unique way, models longer-term relationships characterised by interdependent actions between partners. In contrast to the simple Repeated Games modelling discrete exchange episodes, this game corresponds to the requirements of the interaction approach of the relationship management, since the iterations of the game are interrelated and embedded in previous ones.
Timely development of the behavioural variables in the game reflects an inverse U-shape with an increasing willingness to cooperate until round 8, with a maximum cooperation level of 80% on average. Behaviour seems to affect the perceived level of trustworthiness. However, we need additional experimental data on inconsistent behaviours to get a clear understanding of this effect.
Among other things, the COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected the use of time of individuals. The burdens seem to have been unequally distributed between men and women. This paper analyses gender differences in Slovenia in time spent on paid and unpaid work before and during the lockdown. The design of our study enables us to examine the change in time spent on 14 different activities in an average workday before and during the pandemic. We find that during the pandemic, the gender gap in paid work widened, meaning that men spent even more time on paid work compared to women. Men also began to cook, devoted more time to cleaning and spent significantly more time caring for children. Therefore, the gender gap in childcare, which was marginally significant before the pandemic, became insignificant. During the pandemic, women spent relatively more time on home maintenance, which in turn led to a narrowing of the gender gap in this activity.
Turkish foreign policy has undergone a distinctive transformation in the last two decades, placing a greater emphasis on trade relations with her neighbours, which had previously been beyond the scope of Turkish foreign policy. In this respect, Turkey's relations with Russia improved dramatically due to strong trade relations, which not only contributed to the development of these countries but also resulted in peace-inducing effects. This study aims to highlight and analyse the role of economic interests and gains in the transformation of Turkish foreign policy from a political economic perspective. The study suggests that economic interests brought Turkey and Russia together, making hostilities less likely among the two countries. We make also policy recommendations, which take peculiarities of Russia into consideration in order to highlight further gains in trade relations with this country.
This paper analyses the effects of deregulation of employment in an environment of low interest rates and economic uncertainty. For this purpose, we estimate a switching employment equation based on the play model of hysteresis. As a novel feature, the estimation allows for a possible change in the value of the switching parameter after the implementation of labour market reforms. We use Portuguese monthly industrial data spanning from January 2000 to October 2016. Portugal provides a good case study since it is a country where significant measures towards the deregulation of the labour market were applied after the recent financial crisis. The results show that these measures reduced the hysteresis effects in the dynamics of aggregate employment except in the period where uncertainty increased substantially, when the opposite happened.
This paper provides a theoretical clarification of an important question raised by Olivér Kovács in Acta Oeconomica 69 (4) and points out further problems and possibilities. It clarifies what role considerations of complexity theory have played in the economic sciences so far and why. Focussing on the complementary phenomenon of emergence, the contribution shows where the limits of this approach lie within the discipline and to what extent serious problems of demarcation arise with regard to other disciplines of the social sciences. Accordingly, this paper aims to demonstrate the conditions under which economics can use concepts of emergence in a fruitful way.
The year 2020 saw the world turned upside down by the coronavirus pandemic. Countless human activities were suspended or cancelled as the virus spread across the globe. In this paper, we show how the regular season matches of Ecuador's professional football league were rescheduled due to the disruption caused by the pandemic. As with many others, this league had to reschedule its remaining games to fit within in a much shorter period of time than originally planned. To address this problem, we developed two mathematical models that designed new match calendars. The first one, a round assignment model, rescheduled the various rounds in the season still to be played while the second one, a day assignment model, took the solutions of the first model as input to assign the matches within each round to specific days. The implementation of our models secured a well-balanced number of days off before each match across all of the teams. Also, it enabled the league to conclude a full season without cancelling any matches or changing the schedule format, unlike what occurred in many other leagues, and won the approval of all stakeholders including league officials, players, team coaches, the TV broadcaster and fans.
This paper focuses on sports-related public spending in the Member States of the European Union (EU). Based on the public procurement database of the EU (TED), a sport-related public procurement database was built and analysed. Using data from 33 countries for the period 2017–2019, the paper describes the characteristics of sport-related public procurements. The research highlights that the public database is an adequate way of making the data on public procurements available, where traditionally the latency was high. The characteristics found for the eight most active Member States include a high proportion of construction works. There is a connection between countries and the dominant type of purchasing organisations, although the involvement of central purchasing bodies is not a game-changer in this area. Higher value contracts usually lasted for longer and the length of contracts has a strong connection to the contract types. Non-negotiated types of procedures show a far higher average contract value than negotiated procedure types. When the lowest price criterion was applied, the total procurement value was significantly lower.
The esport industry is emerging and constantly changing. The pandemic has had a significant impact on esport and its markets and has affected the whole ecosystem. The focus of this paper, besides esport, is simracing: due to the limitations on physical events, motorsports have had to convert their races to the digital world. The aims of the article are: (1) to identify the changes in the esport and simracing world and markets caused by the pandemic, (2) to examine the difficulties and challenges that the industry is facing, and (3) to explore the opportunities for the further development of the business. Our research methodology involved in-depth interviews with industry professionals from different backgrounds. The results show that esport and simracing need to become more economically sustainable, and changes are required in all related markets. This article identifies such opportunities. Despite the difficulties, esport will continue to be a major player in the digital world and in the world of sports.
In recent years public and political debate suggested that individuals with children value the future more. We attempt to substantiate the debate, and we use a representative survey to investigate if the number of children (or simply having children) is indeed associated with a higher valuation of the future, which we proxy with an aspect of time preferences, patience. We find that, in general, there is no correlation between having children and patience, though for young women with below-median income there is some weak evidence in line with the conjecture. We also show some evidence that it is not having children that matters, but marital status. More precisely, single women are less patient than other, non-single women.
The aim of this research is to examine whether consumers in Croatia behave ethically, focusing on whether they believe that family farm products have ethical attributes and whether they are willing to pay a higher price (premium) for such products. Given the specificity of the market niche of family farm products, the paper provides an innovative and different view of the product market with a focus on characteristics rather than the good itself. In the paper, family farm products are viewed as goods with ethical attributes, ethics in consumer behavior is examined, as well as the extent to which consumers are willing to pay a price premium for an ethical good, i.e., its ethical attributes. The sample consisted of 143 participants aged between 20 and 71. The results show that consumers in Croatia commonly behave ethically, perceive the characteristics of family farm products as ethical and are willing to pay a price premium for these products. Women perceive family farm products more ethically, and consumers perceive family farm products to have ethical attributes regardless of how frequently they buy these products.
This paper explains the EU's Aid for Trade (AfT) and trade relations with Vietnam, and examines how EU AfT influences Vietnam's trade policy reform. It provides an analysis of EU AfT as a contested trade policy intervention by using the results of the EU-MUTRAP project in Vietnam. The finding is that EU AfT can interfere as an “external impacts” on Vietnam's trade policy reform. Based on the priorities of EU trade policies towards Vietnam, the EU uses AfT projects to support and change the Vietnamese trade environment. The paper partially proves the contribution of the EU-MUTRAP on the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement negotiations and implementation.
In this article we use a natural experiment to assess the effects of a public transport disruption on the bicycle sharing system ridership. We exploit maintenance work on a major tram line in Budapest. Fixed effects panel regressions are applied in a difference-in-difference setting. Our results show that bicycle sharing usage significantly increased on weekdays during the disruption, however, this effect is not substantial relative to the baseline usage of the tram service. These findings raise interesting policy questions.
Policy makers must identify the priorities in which resources should be invested in order to stimulate growth. This requires the identification of drivers of economic growth. Numerous researchers have pointed out that entrepreneurship is one of the key drivers of growth in the developed countries. However, sometimes entrepreneurship can be “unproductive”, and even “destructive”, because different forms of entrepreneurship do not have the same impact. Our paper investigates the impact of different types of entrepreneurships on growth in the emerging markets in order to identify the productive forms of entrepreneurship. The regression results, from panel data analysis of 20 emerging countries for the period of 2011–2018, showed that total entrepreneurial activity has a positive impact on economic growth in the emerging markets, but this impact is not statistically significant. The greatest and significant contribution to economic growth has high-growth expectation entrepreneurship. The influence of innovative entrepreneurship on economic growth is positive, but statistically insignificant, while impact of necessity-driven entrepreneurship is negative. Necessity-driven entrepreneurship and informal entrepreneurship are unproductive and destructive forms of entrepreneurship in the emerging markets.
The main goals of the article are to investigate the level of fiscal unsustainability in Poland and estimate the tax gap necessary to stabilize the size of the public debt and to follow a path to fiscal sustainability. It hypothesizes that by closing the tax gaps for value-added tax (VAT) and personal income tax (PIT), Poland can cover most of its current fiscal needs and stabilize the country’s fiscal situation. We estimated a modified version of the equation describing Ponzi games, calculated the primary gap indicator, and conducted cointegration tests for ex-post data on public expenditures and revenues to investigate the actual level of fiscal unsustainability. The research period covers yearly observations between 2003 and 2017. Empirical evidence confirmed our research hypothesis. We found out that closing the tax gap could change the situation dramatically. If the public authorities were able to collect the VAT and PIT that currently go uncollected, Poland could easily embark on the path towards fiscal sustainability.
We investigate whether the European Union can be considered as a convergence machine after the 2008/2009 financial crisis. To do so, we econometrically test the relationship between the per capita GDP growth rate and macroeconomic variables in the period of 2004–2018, further subdivided into three periods: 2004–2008, 2009–2013 and 2014–2018. We hypothesize that the 2008/2009 financial crisis had a negative effect on the σ and β-convergence process. Our results support the convergence hypothesis, namely that the poor countries tend to grow faster than the rich countries. The convergence rates ranged between 1.71% and 4.51%. The negative effects of the crisis on convergence have been identified only for the absolute convergence. Our findings demonstrate that economic openness, inflation and government integrity have a positive impact on growth. The effects of unemployment have not been identified.
The aim of the paper is to verify whether there has been a causal relationship between economic performance and the quality of political environment in the last 200 years. Mainly, the paper explores the bi-directorial causality for the period of 1821–2016. To attain the aim, the paper uses Granger causality test. The differences between the individual regions (Europe, Latin America and former British colonies) are taken into consideration. Economic performance is expressed as annual growth rate of GDP per capita (taken from Maddison Project Database); the quality of political environment is associated with the Electoral Democracy Index and the Liberal Democracy Index (from the V-Dem Project).
The paper offers three findings. Firstly, the results indicate that a statistically significant relationship between economic performance and political development was identified for the researched period. Secondly, bi-directorial causality was peculiar to the European countries, whereas the linkage was not identified within other regions. Thirdly, the results for the sub-periods confirm the previous conclusions with two additions. The quality of political environment and economic performance did not interact with each other in the period of 1821–1870 across all three regions, while in the period after World War II, bi-directorial causal relationship could also exist in the Latin American economies.
The article analyzes the direction and scope of the responsiveness of real wages to the business cycle in Turkey using longitudinal data from 2005 to 2015. We found that wages in Turkey are procyclical; one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate induces a 0.6% decline in real wages. There is a variation in the patterns along the lines of wage distribution among the subgroups with relations to skills. Less-educated workers have acyclical wages. Compatible with this evidence, we found that the workers who earn around the minimum wage also have acyclical wages. High share of minimum wage earners suppresses wage cyclicality. Consistent with strict employment protection legislation and loose wage determination, wages of relatively high-income employees who mostly have formal work arrangements are procyclical.
The self-fulfilling prophecy is a ubiquitous concept with a large amount of research to date, characterised by disciplinary diversity and thus a potential plurality in its narrative. A meta-narrative review was implemented to analyse the narratives of self-fulfilling prophecy in the different research areas. It identified 10 research areas, 22 themes and 7 subthemes where the phenomenon was adopted to describe and explain phenomena/events/outcomes. It revealed the self-fulfilling prophecy’s meta-narrative in the separate areas and in overall, compared to the original notion, and with regard to the critics. And it set up methodological and research area-related boundaries to implementation. Finally, the paper provided suggestions to future researches on internal validity and on the configuration of trending topics as the self-fulfilling prophecy.
Sustainable practices aiming to reduce environmental impacts have become key guiding principles of events, but initiatives focusing on the economic impacts and on supporting the local economy and society are also gaining more emphasis in event planning and management. Music festivals attracting larger audiences are becoming especially aware of the importance of sustainability as well as of their role in the process of raising participants’ awareness of it. The paper aims to assess the initiatives of the Street Music Festival in Veszprém, Hungary, one of the flagship events of the city, from both the participants’ and the organisers’ perspective. For the investigation of participant attitudes, a questionnaire survey was conducted, while the organisers’ views on sustainability were sought through interviews. The findings show that although respondents rate the importance of sustainability as very high, their contribution to responsible consumption is far from what could be considered sustainable, therefore better communication of the initiatives or stricter rules need to be introduced. The interviewees revealed that organisers consider economic sustainability just as important as the environmental issues, and gave an insight into the rationale behind sustainability enhancing initiatives, some of which have a marketing function as well as protecting the environment.
The phenomenon of weakness of will – not doing what we perceive as the best action – is not recognized by neoclassical economics due to the axiomatic assumptions of the revealed preference theory (RPT) that people do what is best for them. However, present bias shows that people have different preferences over time. As they cannot be compared by the utility measurements, economists need to normatively decide between selves (short- versus long-term preferences). A problem is that neoclassical economists perceive RPT as value-free and incorporate present bias within the economic framework. The axiomatic assumption that people do what is best for them leads to theoretical and practical dilemmas. This work examines weakness of will to resolve some shortcomings of RPT. The concept of intention is used to provide multiple self conception with the framework to decide between selves, which had not been done before. The paper concludes that individuals should not always follow their revealed preferences (desires) but the intentions (reason) because the latter indicates what people really want.
Biometric technologies are increasingly used by governments and international organizations in the context of refugee protection and control. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the ‘double bind’ embedded in the collection and processing of biometric data by exploring the experiences of Syrian refugees residing in Jordan. While taking biometric data is part of the UNHCR-registration, it is also used for other purposes, such as providing assistance and tracking movement. The findings are based on desk research and empirical data collected in Jordan. While stakeholders with vested interests argue for the benefits of technology, critical research is more concerned with human rights, unintended consequences of humanitarian governance or surveillance humanitarianism. Refugees, upon registration, seem to be more concerned with smooth and uninterrupted access to aid. While due to their vulnerable position they cannot really afford considering the consequences of giving their biometric data when they are asked to do so, sharing their biometric data entails a double bind situation. On the one hand, international organizations (such as the UNHCR and the WFP) in cooperation with commercial actors use iris scans as a payment method promising better food security for Syrian refugees in Jordan. On the other hand, the very same biometric data can be used for controlling, if not blocking, their free movement. The double bind logic implies that refugees registered with their biometrics can enjoy care only if they tolerate sophisticated control too.
The spread of digital culture is one of the biggest reprogramming of humanity, radically transforming our economic, social, and cultural models. One of the keys to success of this transformation, and to preventing the spread of digital divides, is the development of a variety of literacies. These literacies describe the success of society and business to thrive in the digital space. In this article, we introduce a new concept of action literacy (online trust literacy) and examine its functioning from both a social and a business perspective through two primary research studies. After defining the phenomenon, we examine it from two sides: the first part examines the dimensional structure of trust from the perspective of society (through a large, representative sample-based survey), while the second part analyses the building and operational mechanisms of trust from a business perspective (through a small sample of exploratory data collection). The main implications of this study are to demonstrate the Janus-faced nature of this new kind of literacy and the ambiguity of digital culture to better understand the toolset of information recipients and providers. The result of our research is the introduction of a new concept of action literacy and its operationalisation, resulting in an interpretation matrix.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widespread shift to online education around the world and in Hungary, too. Educational institutions from kindergartens to universities were forced to adapt rapidly to this new situation, when the space of education moved from classrooms to online video meetings; the regular methods and tools needed to be changed or modified. Nonetheless, we should keep in mind that online education itself was an already existing concept before the pandemic as part of digitalization as a current societal megatrend, however it was not widely used in educational institutions across different programs. By 2021, there are university students who have mostly or exclusively participated in higher education online. Online classes could be a new normal situation to these students instead of the pre-pandemic personal activities in physical classrooms, leading to altering the norms of participation. In our research, we collected answers to open-ended sentences from such students. As we wish to understand how students perceive the differences between online and offline education, we investigated the perceived advantages and disadvantages of online-only education, how this influenced their social networks, study efficiency and their whole experience in university education.
The spread of the idea of the circular economy has already appeared among service providers; therefore, a growing interest in tourism can be observed. Due to its seasonal nature and because tourism is primarily operated by for-profit actors, whose aspirations focus on economic benefits, tourism in in recent years has developed in the direction of mass tourism. By overriding the approach of sustainability, all this strengthens the damaging effects of tourism on nature and society. The aim of the study is to understand and interpret the circular economy model in the tourism industry; explore the relevant literature through a review analysis and based on the synthesis of principles found in the literature, show directions of how the circular economy can be interpreted in tourism. The main contribution of the study is that besides the contextual understanding of circular tourism, it aims to provide practical issues and examples about circular solutions. The study also highlights that in addition to physical parameters, some solutions could be achieved only by reorganizing processes and practices. Furthermore, based on industrial symbiosis, tourism can support sustainable development at the individual and the regional level.
This study analyses the effectiveness of government incentives on household savings in Hungary prior to the Covid pandemic and the ensuing economic turmoil. Time series pertaining to life insurance, voluntary pension savings, and long-term and short-term government bonds are tested in relation to government incentives. The novelty of this study is the test on complex mix of policy incentives and saving funds. The analysis applies the multiple breakpoint test and OLS regression, based on the behavioural life cycle hypothesis. The conclusion is that in the analysed time period the government incentives had a significant effect and promoted savings behaviour, with the exception of short-term government bonds.