The study investigates the antimicrobial effects of the Hypericum crenulatum ethanolic (HCE) extract against 14 different food pathogens and their biofilm-forming abilities in response to HCE treatment. The phenolic acid composition of the HCE extract was also determined using an HPLC-DAD detector. The antimicrobial activity of HCE extract was assessed using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods. According to the findings, the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Listeria monocytogenes RSKK 472, and Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 strains exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values at a concentration of 2 μg mL−1. Based on the disc diffusion test results, the largest zone of inhibition of HCE extract against foodborne pathogens was seen against Bacillus cereus, and the diameter of the inhibition zone increased with the concentration of HCE extract (P < 0.05). In terms of phenolic acid composition of HCE extract, the phenolic acids with the highest and lowest amounts were caffeic acid (59.92 mg g−1) and p-coumaric acid (13.61 μg g−1), respectively. Our study determined that the HCE extract demonstrated antimicrobial, bactericidal, and antibiofilm activities against some foodborne pathogens. These effects reveal its potential for improving food safety by inhibiting the growth of these pathogens.
Peanut butter and yoghurt are targeted for adulteration intended at consumer deception. This study aimed to fingerprint and detect peanut butter and yoghurt adulteration with cassava flour and starch using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) in a quasi-experimental approach. Ingredients for laboratory sample preparation were obtained from the Kumasi Metropolis. Peanut butter was adulterated at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20% w/w and yoghurt at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 45, 50% w/w. Selected concentrations mimicked practices on the market. Marketed products were randomly sampled from six markets in the Kumasi Metropolis to validate the study models. Samples were scanned with a hand-held NIRS in triplicates. Chemometric (Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) models) statistical methods were employed to develop classification and prediction models. Peaks with spectral bands such as 1050 , 1200 and 1450 nm were observed for peanut butter and 990–1100 nm, 1100–1200 nm and 1300–1408 nm were observed for yoghurt in the NIR spectrum. Some yoghurt brands were suspected of containing cassava starch, while Peanut butter from the different markets differed based on classification models. Cassava flour and starch concentrations were quantitatively predicted by PLSR with an R2CV of 0.98 and an error of 0.9 g/100 g (low error).
Functional diversity of the soil microbial community participates in most of the soil ecosystem services, often they have an essential role. From the many theoretical and experimental approaches, the catabolic activity pattern based on MicroResp™ technique is shown here. The method is the extension of the old-fashioned substrate induced respiration method to the microplate based multi-substrate induced respiration detection, allowing in situ community level physiological pattern of the soil microbial community. As the substrate utilization of the individual microbes may differ, the substrate utilization pattern of the sample depends on the actual composition and abundance of the soil microbial community. Substrates used in this method can be variable, mainly simple sugars, amino acids, amines or carboxylic acids are applied. The microrespiration method is fast, sensitive and reliable, therefore it is recommended to use in planned experiments and in soil monitoring programs as well.
The soaking step of dry pulse products' – e.g. chickpeas' – food processing is a time consuming process. Soaking time can be significantly reduced by ultrasonic treatment or using higher processing temperatures. The effect of ultrasonic treatment can be investigated by examining the soaking water characteristics. Ultrasound-assisted soaking of chickpeas was performed at 25, 35 and 45 °C, respectively. Additionally, control samples were also prepared without ultrasonic treatment at the same temperatures. The dynamics of the fitted curve clearly shows the relationship namely the higher the treatment temperature, the faster the hydration of the raw material for both untreated and treated groups. In contrast to control group, swelling rate of 2.00 – except the group 45 °C – is not achieved during ultrasound-assisted soaking. In case of treated group, the swelling rate was about 1.90 for all temperatures applied. The ANOVA test shows that the color of the ultrasonically treated samples was significantly different compared to the control (F (5;12) = 207.86; P < 0.001). Average dry matter content and °Brix value were significantly higher in the ultrasound treated group compared to the control in case of all temperatures. This may indicate the destructive effect of ultrasound, which may cause more components to dissolve out of the raw material by the end of the soaking process.
The objective of our work was to analyze the differences between four nut pastes, which were the following: walnut, peanut, pistachio, and tahini (sesame). The process technology of them is unknown, however, all the products contain 100% nut without any additives or flavoring.
The paste samples were measured at 25 ± 0.2 °C. The apparent viscosity at a 10 1/s shear rate during flow curve recording, and the dynamic viscosity at a constant 20 1/s shear rate was determined by viscosity measurement with the use of the MCR302 modular compact rheometer. The L*a*b* color components were determined by ColorLite sph850 spectrometer, finally, the particle sizes and shapes of the samples were analyzed by the high-speed image analysis instrument QICPIC.
The apparent viscosity and the average dynamic viscosity values of the four nut pastes were significantly different from each other. Differences were found between each paste according to the L*a*b* parameters. The complex structures of the particles are detailed and measurable, whereby the lengths and diameters of the particles can reliably be determined and fine deviations between the samples are detected. The sphericity decreases slightly with increasing particle size which means that bigger particles are more irregularly shaped.
With growing attention to health and lifestyle changes, functional foods have become crucial and in demand. These foods are a rich source of probiotics and prebiotics, but most probiotic products are dairy-based, making them inappropriate for people with lactose intolerance or milk protein allergies. Nevertheless, egg white offers a viable substitute and is considered one of the best sources of functional proteins. As an alternative food matrix, they come highly recommended for those who are hypersensitive to dairy products or who follow a high-protein diet, such as athletes. In this context, egg-white drink with different carbohydrate sources, including monosaccharide (fructose) and oligosaccharide (fructooligosaccharide), was fermented by Lacticaseibacillus casei 01. After 24 h of fermentation, the total cell count was higher than 8 log10 CFU mL−1 thus, the egg white drink was suitable for L. casei 01 to grow. Additionally, the survival of L.casei 01, the pH value, and the rheological properties of fermented beverages within three weeks of refrigerated storage were also investigated. Throughout the storage period, the control samples exhibited considerably lower cell count and higher pH values compared to the samples with carbohydrate sources, also, samples containing the same carbohydrate source showed no noticeable changes. Viscosity measurements of the studied samples showed a shear thickening behaviour during the time.
In recent years response surface analysis has been increasingly used to optimise membrane separation. It has many advantages, such as reducing the number of experiments to be performed, which requires lower energy consumption and significantly less laboratory work. For more accurate data analysis and forecasting, mathematical models are used that analyse the relevance of the factors examined and the interaction effects between the factors. In this research, two experimental designs that use response surface methodology are presented, namely, the central composite design and the Box–Behnken design. After the general characterisation of the experimental designs, their application in membrane technology is presented.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is grown worldwide in open fields and greenhouses in a range of climate conditions. Hedgerows are a type of agroforestry systems that monitors ecological and influence microclimate conditions. An experiment was conducted at the Soroksár experimental field of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences in 2022 to investigate the influence of hedgerow technology on tomato plant leaves, N, P, K, chlorophyll, and carotene mineral levels from different distances, Exposed sides W1-3m, W2-9m and W3-15m and Protected sides NP1-3m, NP2-9m and NP3-15m, meters from the hedgerow trees.
The results investigate potassium and carotene, as well as chlorophyll b levels, are less differed among the protected and exposed side of the hedgerows trees, while the others were impacted to a certain extent; nitrogen and chlorophyll content was generally higher on the exposed side regardless of variety, while in the case of phosphorus adverse effects were observed. Distance from the hedge showed similar patterns for all traits. The results will help to better understand the impact of alternate technologies on tomato production in open-field conditions.
Polyphenols from agro-industrial waste particularly of fruit origin are a reliable source of antioxidants and antimicrobials that can be used as natural food additives. Organic solvents play an important role in extracting the polyphenols, however, inefficiency in exerting bioactivity and interference with the organoleptic properties are among the reasons that hinder their use as food additives. These problems can be alleviated by purification. In this study, the effect of resin types and elution solvent for purification of the apple pomace extracts on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidants were investigated. Crude ethanolic extracts were purified using amberlite resins (XAD7HP and FPX66) in a glass column (25 × 310 mm). The sorption flow rate was 2 Bed volume (BV) per hour, rinse 2 BV per hour, and desorption was 2 BV per hour. Final wash and regeneration were each done by 2 BV per hour. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity were quantified spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu and Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays respectively. Polyphenol recovery was 50% in XAD7HP (Lowest) using ethanol and 69% in FPX66 (Highest) using acetone. For the case of FRAP recovery, 76% (Lowest) was observed in FPX66 using ethanol while 93% (Highest) was observed in XAD7HP using acetone. Conclusively, FPX66 is the ideal resin for the purification of apple pomace extracts for enhancing antioxidant activity compared to XAD7HP. Further, acetone seems to be a good desorption solvent compared to ethanol.
This study investigates the effect of 2% lactic acid and 2% ascorbic acid mixture on the quality parameters of red deer meat and beef. After treatment samples were stored at 4 ± 1 °C. The following meat quality parameters were evaluated: pH, color, and microbiological count on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. The results showed that at the end of the experiment, the pH of the treated samples was slightly higher than the non-treated samples, indicating that the lactic acid and ascorbic acid mixture had a mild acidifying effect on the meat. The color of the treated and non-treated samples did not show any significant difference. However, the microbiological count in the treated samples was lower than the non-treated samples. These findings suggest that an acid mixture could be used as a natural preservative to enhance the microbial safety of red deer meat and beef.
This study focuses on the contribution of maturity stages and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment to the quality of ‘Zebra’ apricot. Samples were harvested at mature-green, yellow and orange maturity stages. Fruit were treated with gaseous 1-MCP (24 h at 1 °C), followed by cold storage at 1 °C for 6 weeks. Non-destructive measurements were used to evaluate the quality changes of apricot during storage. The results showed that the maturity stages significantly affected the weight loss. The loss of weight increased rapidly for orange ripeness stage fruit, more than others during storage. Both maturity and 1-MCP affected the stiffness of apricot. The 1-MCP could delay the softening of fruit. The green and yellow maturity stages retained higher values in stiffness compared to orange. No significant difference in hue angle values was observed between 1-MCP treated and control fruit, however hue angle value decreased strongly in mature-green harvested fruit. The maturity stages and 1-MCP treatment had the effect on quality changes of apricot over storage. The maturity stage was an important factor contributing to the effectiveness of 1-MCP application as it was observed in slower softening after harvest.
Besides their unique taste and texture, mushrooms are a promising source of important nutrients, including dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Fresh mushrooms, however, can only endure for a brief time, typically up to three days at ambient conditions. Different methods have been used to preserve mushrooms for a prolonged period, such as drying, cooking, frying, irradiation and fermentation. The objective of the current study is to investigate the effect of different pre-treatments and fermentation on physicochemical, textural, and microbial properties of oyster mushrooms. The fresh oyster mushroom was considered as control and 6 alternative pre-treatment methods were used as; blanching in water, steaming, oven cooking, microwave, High Hydrostatic Pressure and UV Light treatment. Moisture, pH, yield, color, texture, and microbiological analyses were performed on each pre-treatment group before and after fermentation. Our results showed that the quality attributes of oyster mushrooms were significantly affected by the usage of different pre-treatments.
The presented study investigated the effects of edible coatings with concentration of 2%, 3% and 4% of starch (w/v) on the weight loss and firmness loss of green asparagus during 4 days of storage at room temperature (26 ± 2 °C, 65–70% RH). According to the results, the coated asparagus exhibited significantly slower deterioration rate than the uncoated control samples. This was indicated by the decrease in weight loss and increase in firmness (P < 0.05). After the storage period, the samples treated with 4% starch formula retained the highest quality. Furthermore, the assessment of asparagus quality throughout the storage period involved the use of the line laser scattering technique. Extracted parameters of laser scattering signal discriminated samples with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), in which the correct recognition rate of the treated groups was 75.26% and the storage time was 70.54%. This study showed the potential of laser scattering as a rapid, non-invasive, and practical optical method for assessing the quality of asparagus during storage.
This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of two reverse osmosis membranes (RO99 and X20) plus one nanofiltration membrane (NF270) at concentrating hawthorn fruit and anise seed extracts. Extracting the anise was done using water at a temperature of 37 °C over a period of 100 min. For hawthorn, ethanol-water (56%) was used as the solvent and extraction occurred at 55 °C for 80 min. The transmembrane pressure (TMP), temperature, and recirculation flow rate of the membrane separation process were monitored and set at 35 bar, 30 °C, and 400 l/h respectively. Using a spectrophotometer, the quantification of valuable compounds was examined. After studying the flow levels, it was discovered that the X20 membrane had the tiniest alterations in permeability, followed by RO99 and NF270. Moreover, in terms of efficiency, the X-20 outperformed RO-99 and NF-270 membranes, where TPC was increased (20 and 18-fold) for anise seed and hawthorn fruit extracts respectively, and TFC was increased 8-fold for both of the extracts. While using NF-270, TPC was increased only (11 and 6-fold), and TFC (4 and 2-fold) for anise seed and hawthorn fruit extracts respectively. For the antioxidant activity, the process using X-20 showed an improvement of around 12-fold for anise extracts and 15-fold for hawthorn extracts for antioxidant activity. In terms of brix, the anise extracts saw a 3-fold increase and the hawthorn extracts saw a 4-fold boost after going through the X-20 membrane concentration process. Additionally, the X-20 membrane exhibits the highest retention rates for both anise and hawthorn extracts and is least affected by fouling during the concentration process.
The food robotics revolution is driving a shift in the vending machine sector from conventional pre-packaged sales to on-site food manufacture. As these machines develop into small-scale food processing points, it is critical to guarantee food safety. The implementation of automated Clean-in-Place (CIP) techniques, in addition to manual cleaning, is modelled after food production practices, where hygiene is maintained without direct human intervention. These days, running these modern, multifunctional vending machines requires giving the highest priority to food safety and putting rigorous control measures in practice.
This case study aimed to implement a CIP procedure in a vending machine and assess microbial contamination. Water, blender, and smoothies were microbiologically analyzed to evaluate the microbial safety of ingredients, equipment, and the final product.
Microbiological analysis showed that none of the samples was contaminated with three major pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli. This study showed the importance of the Clean-in-Place (CIP) process in automated vending machines.
The aim of the present study was to find the best extraction parameters to obtain the highest amounts of polyphenols and antioxidants from the walnut. Walnut kernels from ‘Alsószentiváni 117’ cultivar were used for extraction. The extraction methods were as the follows:
Method 1: shaking water-bath at 50 °C for 30 min.
Method 2: shaking water-bath at 50 °C for 30 min, then storing at 5 °C for 20 h.
Method 3: shaking water-bath at 40 °C for 30 min.
Method 4: shaking water-bath at 40 °C for 30 min, then storing at 5 °C for 20 h.
According to our results Method 1 showed the highest FRAP value (34.43 mg AAE g−1), the DPPH value (52,94%) and the highest HPLC peaks for chlorogenic acid, epicatechin and rutin were also seen in extracts obtained using Method 1. TPC values of Method 3 were 26.06 mg GAE g−1 for Method 1 it was 25.65 mg GAE g−1. The results of color values, L* and ΔE* were similar in all extracts as well. In our experiments extraction Method 1 proved to be better than others.
Ethylene has key roles in triggering and speeding up ripening processes, which in tomatoes take the form of various qualitative changes. Tomatoes, just like all climacteric fruits, need a continuous ethylene exposure to accelerate ripening. Therefore, it is possible to use ripening regulators preventing ethylene binding. According to some studies, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements can be used at least as efficiently as tristimulus colorimetry classifying tomatoes based on maturity. Measurements were carried out by treating fresh tomatoes with 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) at six different stages of ripening and studying the changes in chlorophyll content related quality characteristics (e.g. surface colour, chlorophyll fluorescence) during postharvest storage (two-week refrigerated storage at 15 °C followed by a two-week shelf life). According to our results, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity of the treated samples decreased much less than those of untreated ones. Additionally, anti-ripening treatment proved to be more effective on tomatoes at an earlier stage of ripening.
In this work, the simulated adulteration of coconut drink by dilution with water was investigated using laser-light backscattering (LLB) imaging. The laser vision system consisted of six low power laser modules, emitting 1 mm diameter beams at wavelengths of 532, 635, 780, 808, 850 and 1,064 nm. The backscattering images were acquired by a grey scale camera with 12 bit resolution. Eight parameters were extracted to describe the backscattering profile. The methods of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were performed on LLB parameters for classifying and predicting dilution level of adulterated coconut drink samples. Based on the results, LLB signals responded sensitively to adulteration. LDA results showed that adulterated samples were correctly recognized with accuracies between 60 and 100%. PLS models were able to estimate the adulteration level of samples with coefficients of determination of 0.57–0.97 in validation. This result demonstrated the potential of laser-light backscattering imaging as a rapid and non-destructive optical technique for evaluation of coconut drink adulteration.
Measurement of soil water content is complicated due to the soil heterogeneity and environmental variability. No single efficient method has been developed to map the different soil moisture zones at great depth at the field scale without disturbing the soil structure and paths of the waterflow.
Partially or completely non-destructive measurement of soil moisture is provided by ground-penetrating radar (GPR), which offers high resolution and significant penetration depth for medium-scale soil moisture measurements, bridging the methodological gap between small-scale point-based and large-scale remote sensing techniques. In addition, this technique can be used with better time efficiency compared to other destructive or non-destructive procedures.
GPR has been used for soil water content estimation including measuring soil water content profile, identifying specific soil water depths or soil water variation under irrigation conditions.
Despite the high potential of GPR for hydrological investigations, it is important to realize that no single geophysical method is able to perform optimally under all conditions. For example, GPR is mostly restricted to areas with relatively low electrical conductivity (low attenuation of the electromagnetic wave). In addition, some of the GPR interpretation methods require the presence of well identifiable and continuous GPR reflections, which requires sufficient and spatially continuous subsurface contrast in dielectric permittivity.
Soil moisture (considering its flow) is a key variable in the fields of agriculture. It is the essential requirement for plants to grow. Consequently, soil moisture is important for irrigation management particularly in semiarid and arid regions.
In this paper, the literature of the principles of GPR measurements and utilization possibilities is summarized with the emphasis on the agricultural sector. GPR can be a beneficial measuring device that can help in mapping soil moisture distribution, taking into account infiltration, but also water loss caused by evaporation and plant water absorption. Consequently, it can be used in agriculture, due to its precision at high central frequency values, even (fine)root characteristics of the plants, essentially the xylem-water relationship can also be determined (xylem transports water and water-soluble minerals and supply water used during photosynthesis). In addition, GPR can provide valuable information regarding natural stratification and soil compaction. The data interpretation of GPR measurements, in addition to soil compaction causing a decrease in the moisture of soils (as three-phase systems), can in principle be extended to other aspects of agrotechnology, such as soil contamination studying. However, it has not been sufficiently explored, as no recent literature can be found on this subject.
Soil radar can be a useful part of “Smart farming”, which can help in the selection of soil moisture measuring sensors placed in the soil as part of it. Especially when associated with the recently released new simultaneous multi-offset and multi-channel (SiMoc) GPR system, which enables fast soil profile mapping with seven receivers, but at the speed of a traditional single-channel GPR.
If complete non-destruction is the goal, air-coupled GPRs mounted on a drone can provide an opportunity. It should be noted, however, that due to the significant signal attenuation (wave scattering) occurring at the soil-air interface, only a small penetration depth can be achieved.
This study has developed adaptive synergetic control (ASC) algorithm to control the angular position of moving plate in the electronic throttle valve (ETV) system. This control approach is inspired by synergetic control theory. The adaptive controller has addressed the problem of variation in systems parameters. The control design includes two elements: the control law and adaptive law. The adaptive law is developed based on Lyupunov stability analysis of the controlled system, and it is responsible for estimating the potential uncertainties in the system. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive synergetic control has been verified by numerical simulation using MATLAB/Simulink. The results showed that the ASC algorithm could give good tracking performance in the presence of uncertainty perturbations. In addition, a comparison study has been made to compare the tracking performance of ASC and that based on conventional synergetic control (CSC) for the ETV system. The simulated results showed that the performance of ASC outperforms that based on CSC. Moreover, the results showed that the estimation errors between the actual and estimated uncertainties are bounded and there is no drift in the developed adaptive law of ASC.
The Cyber-Physical and Vehicle Manufacturing Laboratory, a model Industry 4.0 laboratory, is applying new innovative solutions to improve the quality of education. As part of this, a digital twin of the lab was designed and built, where users can practice. In the virtual space, it is possible to apply the known robot motion types, and the tool centre and wrist speed have been measured virtually. Robot control tasks can be performed “offline” using parameters. This information can then be transferred to the actual physical robot unit. The stable diffusion 1.5 deep learning model generates 2D geometric shapes for trajectory, allowing users to perform unique tasks during education. The Google Colab cloud-based service was used to teach our rendered-type dataset. For the 3D simulation frame, we used V-REP, which was developed on a desktop PC equipped with an Intel Core i5 7600K processor, Nvidia GTX1070 VGA with 8 GB of DDR5 VRAM, and 64 GB of DDR4 memory modules. The following material describes an existing industrial six-axis robot arm and its implementation, which can be controlled and programmed while performing virtual measurements after integrating into a Cyber-Physical system and using deep learning techniques.
In order to improve the thermal performance of heat exchangers and air collectors, we insert various forms of artificial roughness, known as ribs, into the useful duct. These ribs promote the creation of turbulent flows and enhance heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation.
However, the introduction of these ribs leads to an increase in pressure drop, requiring higher mechanical power to pump the heat transfer fluid. This experimental study focuses on estimating, using empirical approaches, the pressure losses induced by rectangular ribs with an inclined top. The ribs are made from 0.4 mm galvanized sheet steel.
An experimental set-up was designed to measure the head losses generated by the ribs, from the point of entry to the point of exit from the useful duct. Using the dimensional analysis method, correlations were established to evaluate head losses as a function of flow regime and rib geometry and configuration (including different geometries for rib arrangement over the configuration area).
With the escalating density of vehicles converging at road intersections, the surge in road accidents, traffic conflicts, and traffic congestion has emerged as a pressing concern. This research paper addresses these challenges by employing MC (manual control) techniques to mitigate encroachment issues at three selected intersections. These intersections were identified through a comprehensive analysis of the Ranking-based Instance Selection (RIS), enabling the design of suitable measures to facilitate smooth traffic flow and minimize the occurrence of crashes. In order to gather pertinent data, the study incorporates various parameters such as traffic volume, peak flow rate (PFR), traffic conflicts, accidents, and intersection inventory. Through the implementation of our proposed approaches, which involve both MC techniques and signalized operation, a supreme level of service (LOS) is attainable. Notably, our findings demonstrate a remarkable reduction in the volume-to-capacity ratio (v/c ratio) of up to 0.62. This paper thus serves as a significant contribution to the field of traffic management, offering practical insights for optimizing intersection design and effectively addressing the challenges posed by increased traffic density.
Worldwide, precast and hybrid construction methods are becoming increasingly popular in the construction industry. But many problems occur during the fabrication, such as segregation, bleeding, scaling, plastic shrinkage, dust formation, honeycombing, sintering, high sorptivity, and high permeability and transportation. This problem may be caused by an ineffective curing process that affects the quality of concrete and construction. In addition, it provides inadequate and incomplete cement hydration that has a 20% negative effect on the desired properties of the concrete. Various researchers have demonstrated the components of self-curing lightweight concrete that can enhance strength and physicochemical properties, and address the above-mentioned issues. In this review, the role of the self-curing mechanism in lightweight concrete based on the various self-curing chemical admixtures such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), superabsorbent polymer (SAP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium lignosulfonate and calcium lignosulfonate as self-curing agents are discussed in detail. Also, this paper briefly reports on the scope, significance, mechanisms, and tests for self-curing lightweight concrete. Overall, this review analyzes the possibilities of future research perspectives on self-curing lightweight concrete with sustainable materials and fibres with comparative technical information.
Sensors are the main components in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), which transmit large amounts of physical values and big data to computing platforms for processing. On the other hand, the embedded processors (as edge devices in fog computing) spend most of their time reading the sensor signals as compared with computing time. The impact of sensors on the performance of fog computing is very great, thus, the enhancement of the reading time of sensors will positively affect the performance of fog computing, and solves the CPS challenges such as delay, timed precision, temporal behavior, energy, and cost. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the 1st derivative of the sensor signal to generate an adaptive sampling frequency. The proposed algorithm uses an adaptive frequency to capture the sudden and rapid change in sensor signal in the steady state. Finally, we realize and tested it using the Ptolemy II Modeling Environment.
Soluble dietary fibre (SDF) is well recognised for its remarkable effectiveness in promoting human health. This study utilised response surface methodology to evaluate the optimal conditions required to extract SDF (U-SDF) from Lentinula edodes via the ultrasonic-assisted hot-water method, and evaluated the hypolipidemic effects and anti-inflammatory effects of U-SDF. The optimal extraction conditions for U-SDF were ultrasonic power of 182 W, extraction time of 2 h, extraction temperature of 81 °C, and solid-liquid ratio of 1:24 (g mL−1). Under these conditions, the extraction rate of U-SDF reached 8.08%. U-SDF treatment significantly improved liver and kidney indices in diabetic mice, markedly reduced the levels of plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and significantly increased the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner. U-SDF also improved adipose tissue injury in diabetic mice, significantly decreased the levels of cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and alleviated inflammation of the abdominal aorta. In conclusion, U-SDF from L. edodes is an excellent source of dietary fibres, which exhibit good hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities, suggesting potential applications as a functional additive in diverse food products.
Food industrial bacterial cells eliminate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at different ratios. The study aimed to investigate the effect of AFM1 on probiotic industrial bacteria (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis R703, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12, and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 431) and evaluating their AFM1 binding ability in naturally contaminated milk. The growth of the R703 strain was affected by AFM1 at 1.47 μg L−1 concentration. Peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall fractions of R703 and BB12 bound a significant amount of AFM1 from naturally contaminated milk under one-hour treatment, while L. paracasei 431 was not effective. PG was better absorbent for AFM1 than viable cells of BB12, while the difference was insignificant for the R703 strain. Increasing the time did not significantly change the mycotoxin binding of BB12, while for R703 PG the absorption seemed reversible. BB12 PG needs further analysis for biotechnological application in dairy products.
The aim of this work was to microencapsulate propolis phenolic compounds using polycaprolactone as wall material by double emulsion solvent evaporation (w1/o/w2). Microencapsulation experiments were carried out by investigating the effect of sample/solvent ratio (10–100 mg mL−1), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) concentrations (200–1,000 mg mL−1), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) concentrations (0.5–2.5 g mL−1), and stirring speed (200–1,000 r.p.m.) on the microencapsulation efficiency of total phenolic content (TPC%) and antioxidant activity of propolis. The best microencapsulation conditions were selected according to the total phenolic amount and their antioxidant activity. Experimental results showed that all microencapsulation conditions had significant effects (P < 0.05) on total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. The best conditions were: 30 mg mL−1, 600 mg mL−1, 2 g mL−1, and 400 r.p.m. for sample/solvent ratio, PCL concentrations, PVA concentrations, and stirring speed, respectively, with values of 86.98 ± 0.03% for phenolic encapsulation efficiency, 53.81 ± 0.50% for free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), and 45,480 Trolox equivalent, mg TE/100 g dry weight for ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Under all encapsulation conditions, a significant positive correlation was observed between ferric reducing antioxidant power, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content.
This study examines the economic optimisation of existing district heating systems. A new approach has been taken to solving a long-standing problem. The authors describe the input-output model of the system, the balance equations for the thermal equilibrium of the system, and the heat transfer system. From the balance equations of the series-connected system elements, the resultant heat transfer balance equation and the resultant power transmission equation are derived. In an example, the authors detailed how perturbations in some input variables can be corrected with other variables. The equations presented and the concepts introduced form absolutely new scientific results.
Selecting the construction delivery method during the contracting period is one of the most important decisions determining the quality of large-scale infrastructure projects. Infrastructure projects have the most complex production processes in civil engineering. Infrastructure projects are among the most complex and resource-intensive endeavours in civil engineering due to their size, scope, multidisciplinary nature, regulatory requirements, financing challenges, environmental considerations, and the need for long-term planning and maintenance. Effective project management, collaboration, and a deep understanding of these challenges are crucial for the successful execution of infrastructure projects. Implementing such projects inevitably demands proper quality management throughout the project lifecycle. Two primary types of construction contracts are under implementation worldwide: Design-Bid-Build (DBB) and Design–and–Build (DB) contracts. In the Western Balkans region, both types of contracts are utilized for infrastructure projects, A noticeable trend is emerging toward transitioning from DBB to DB contracts. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of quality management within the context of construction contracts with a focus on the roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders and how these factors affect the achievement of quality objectives while managing constraints related to cost and time. This research aims to improve construction practices by selecting an adequate type of contract for construction practices and ensuring successful project outcomes.
In this study, nonlinear control design is presented for trajectory tracking of Tricopter system. A Fractional Order Proportional Derivative (FOPD) controller has been developed. The performance of controlled Tri-copter system can be enhanced by suggesting modern optimization technique to optimally tune the design parameters of FOPD controller. The Spotted Hyena Optimizer (SHO) is proposed as an optimization method for optimal tuning of FOPD's parameters. To verify the performance of controlled Tricopter system based on optimal SHO-based FOPD controller, computer simulation is implemented via MATLAB codes. Moreover, a comparison study between SHO and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has been made in terms of robustness and transient behavior characteristics of FOPD controller.
The effects of milk from different species (sheep/cow) and pH adjustment in the production of Requeijão cremoso, a kind of processed cheese, were investigated. The results showed that the sheep's Requeijão cremoso had higher pH (∼3%), lower yellowness index (∼11%), and lower brightness (∼12%) after 5 days of storage, and at least 40% lower hardness compared to the Requeijão made from cow milk. The pH adjustment did not change the visual appearance of the samples but affected their hardness in different ways, with an increase of up to 16% for the cheese from cow milk and a reduction of up to 39% for the cheese produced from sheep milk. The results suggested that the protein-protein interactions were favoured in the Requeijão cremoso from sheep milk, while a protein network with higher water holding capacity and increased hardness was observed for the samples from cow milk.
This work used a carrageenan-based thrombosis model to determine the preventative effects of Lactobacillus plantarum YS1 (LPYS1) on thrombus. In thrombotic mice, LPYS1 improved the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), while decreasing the thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen (FIB) content. In thrombotic mouse serum, LPYS1 decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), while also increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Moreover, LPYS1 upregulated the mRNA expression levels of copper/zinc-SOD (Cu/Zn-SOD), manganese-SOD (Mn-SOD), and CAT in the colon tissues of thrombotic mice, while downregulating those of NF-κB p65, IL-6, TNF-α, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA. In tail vein vascular tissues, LPYS1 suppressed the mRNA expression levels of NF-κB p65, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin. The abundances of both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria were altered by LPYS1. These findings show that LPYS1 has the capacity to protect mice from thrombosis, while also revealing some of the underlying mechanisms of this effect.
The activity and structural variation of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) at different phosphorylation levels during incubation at 4 °C were explored in this study. The GP was assigned into four treatments to obtain high/low phosphorylation levels, which were (1) treated with glycogen phosphorylase kinase (Phk) to obtain high phosphorylation level, (2) treated with protein kinase A to obtain high phosphorylation level, (3) treated with alkaline phosphatase to obtain low phosphorylation level, and (4) control. Compared with the control group, the content of α-helix and β-sheet increased and the secondary structure of GP changed from disorder to order after phosphorylation. The activity of GP was increased and its structure was more tightly in the Phk group than that in the control group. The phosphorylation at Ser277, Ser430, Ser809, Thr304, Tyr298, and Tyr525 resulted in tighter spatial structure. In conclusion, phosphorylation of GP enhanced its catalytic activity by making the secondary and spatial structure more orderly, which is of great significance for controlling meat quality by regulating glycolysis.
Carob pulp is a natural source of polyphenols, which have been shown to possess health benefits. These compounds play a crucial role in initiating, shaping, and modulating the gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of carob pulp phenolic extracts on nine specific groups of human gut microbiota before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The effects of pure gallic and coumaric acids were also tested. The results showed that the treated phenolic compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on the growth of most pathogenic bacteria. Gallic acid, in particular, demonstrated the most potent antimicrobial effect on Listeria monocytogenes, reducing its growth to below 5%. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli showed a growth reduction of up to 10%. Furthermore, both phenolic acids, before and after digestion, led to a slight reduction in E. coli O157:H7 numbers. Probiotic bacteria experienced minimal decrease following exposure to phenolic extracts. However, the growth of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus was significantly inhibited by almost 50%. Interestingly, the in vitro digestion process exhibited a stronger antibacterial effect against pathogenic bacteria compared to probiotic bacteria. These results highlight the potential of carob phenolic extracts in modulating the intestinal microbiota, thereby offering interesting prospects for the development of diet-based health strategies.
This paper introduces a stereoscopic image and depth dataset created using a deep learning model. It addresses the challenge of obtaining accurate and annotated stereo image pairs with irregular boundaries for deep learning model training. Stereoscopic image and depth dataset provides a unique resource for training deep learning models to handle irregular boundary stereoscopic images, which are valuable for real-world scenarios with complex shapes or occlusions. The dataset is created using monocular depth estimation, a state-of-the-art depth estimation model, and it can be used in applications like rectifying images, estimating depth, detecting objects, and autonomous driving. Overall, this paper presents a novel dataset that demonstrates its effectiveness and potential for advancing stereo vision and developing deep learning models for computer vision applications.
Scour around the bridge piers is the main cause of bridge failure below any bridge pier placed within the waterways. It is more than hundred years back a number of researchers described the vortex shedding phenomenon and the resulting Aeolian tones from a circular cylinder. Since then there have been a large number of investigations dealing with various aspects of this phenomenon. In many practical works and situations, flow takes place around more than one obstruction and objects in close proximity. Invariably in all these cases, interference effects occur and the forces on the obstructions are much influenced by these effects. These effects play a key role in the structures like flow-induced vibration of TV and transmission towers, and in many other practical situations. In this research paper the changes in the flow field that occur due to the interference effects are shown, analysed and the results as given in literature are compared with the present experimental work. The features have been brought out in this paper mainly make use of stand and geometry of circular cylinders in close proximity and the flow part of geometry in side by side arrangement.
As part of the energy design synthesis method, complex dynamic building simulation database was created with IDA ICE code for all family house building configurations for a considered problem. In this paper, the annual heat energy demand output parameter is considered to serve as basis of a building energy design investigation. The sensitivity analysis performed by Morris' elementary effect method was used. As the result of the sensitivity analysis of the output parameter, the most important input parameters can be identified, that influence the buildings' energy efficiency, that can support further building designs.
The aim of the research was to carry out the One-at-a-Time sensitivity analysis of a tree burning experiment simulation with a novel fuzzy logic-based method. It was observed that the precent of the remaining tree is sensitive to the moisture content, the crown-base diameter and the tree height. The other variables, which are maximum mass loss rate, maximum heat release rate, and maximum temperature at the top of the tree are moderately sensitive or not sensitive to the selected parameters. The presented results can be used in sensitivity studies and wildfire simulations.
This study uses a three-layer backpropagation neural network combined with particle swarm optimization to control the foamed bitumen in cold recycling technology. The foaming process of bitumen is non-linear and depends on dynamic temperature. By developing a neural network model, this study effectively captures the complex relationships between temperature, water content, air pressure, and the expansion ratio and half-life of foamed bitumen. The integration of particle swarm optimization enhances the accuracy and convergence of the neural network model by optimizing the initial weights. This optimization process improves the model's ability to predict and control the quality of foamed bitumen accurately. It serves as a valuable tool for the rapid development of high-quality cold asphalt design.
Effect of edible coatings based on zedo gum (ZG) containing thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil (TEO) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) extract (CAE) on the quality and proteolysis of cheddar cheese was investigated. Four treatments were prepared using different coating formulas including: C (coated cheese with paraffin and wax mixture as commercial coating), Z treatment (coated cheese with ZG solution), TEO treatment (coated cheese with TEO), and CAE treatment (coated cheese with CAE). The results showed that the highest moisture content and proteolysis indices were related to sample C; the lowest moisture content and number of starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and the highest protein content, FDM content, proteolysis indices and number of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) were related to sample Z; while the TEO and CAE treatments showed similar values. Also, TEO and CAE had an inhibitory effect on growth of moulds and yeasts, without affecting NSLAB and SLAB. Therefore, instead of commercial coating, zedo gum containing T. vulgaris essential oil or C. verum extract can be used as active coating on cheddar cheese.
This study targeted to investigate a type of excavation slurry by local available material in Najaf region. On the other hand, chief practises is supported the deep sides of foundation in particular pile foundation and, drilling oil wells. The results of slurries are checking, for seven properties, which includes the viscosity (apparent plastic and funnel Marsh), yield stress, density, acidity, and gel power (10–0 min). Which are 11.7367, 8.8733, 38.1667, 11.5467 mPa·s, 1.1045 kg m−3, 10.9067, and 11.2683 mPa·s, respectively. On the basis of the results tests for the above properties, that is possible to produce a product that conforms to the specifications of American Petroleum Institute specifications, and according to the requirements of the standard ACI 336.3R-93:2006 without additives. The rheological behavior improvement is achieved through the breakdown of the bundles of palygorskite fibers that normally make up the texture of these mudstones by increasing the time and speed of the shear force as soon as increasing the concentration of clay powder.
The paper deals with the capacitance of cylindrical two-dimensional capacitor which consists of Cartesian orthotropic dielectric material. The determination of the capacitance of capacitor with orthotropic dielectric material by a suitable coordinate transformation is reduced to the computation of capacitance of an isotropic capacitor. It is proven that the capacitance of a Cartesian orthotropic capacitor can be obtained in terms of an isotropic capacitor whose dielectric constant is the geometric mean of the dielectric constant of the orthotropic capacitor.
Fair treatment of individuals in a scheduling task is essential. Unfairness can cause dissatisfaction among workers, faster obsolescence of work tools and underutilization of others. The literature's definitions vary, and there is no clear definition of general scheduling tasks.
This article explores fair scheduling through the lens of final exams, aiming to extend decision support system methodologies. It proposes a method based on Lipschitz mapping to measure fairness and presents a pseudo-algorithm for estimating optimal trend lines.
The model and the algorithm are demonstrated using the example of final exam schedules. In this way, two feasible solutions can be measured and compared in terms of fairness.
Building information modeling is one of the trends in the modern construction industry. The use of 4D building information modeling in addition to 3D building information modeling improves project planning and leads to higher quality of the final product with minimal wastage of resources. In addition, 4D building information modeling allows creating visual effects that can be shown to clients before construction begins. The study describes the ways in which 4D building information modeling can be used, as well as some of the notable benefits. The level of awareness of this technology and the level of its use in construction practice are also described. The final part describes the main problems and tasks of this field and possible ways to solve them.
The role of building orientation in decreasing energy consumption for cooling purposes was examined in this study. A radiation analysis was performed during the early stage of the architectural design process on a proposed four-story apartment building located in Cebu. The building's performance was evaluated using the Grasshopper Ladybug plugin on a 3D model developed in Rhinoceros. Results indicated that the optimal building orientation that produced the lowest total radiation was situated at 290° from the center of the building, with a recorded value of 731,356 kWh m−2. Conversely, the building orientation that resulted in the highest total radiation was recorded at 210°, with a value of 755,596 kWh m−2. The analysis results were utilized to make informed decisions about building orientation based on environmental factors and surrounding areas. The use of computational design tools in the early stages of architecture design improves the process by enabling designers to optimize building performance and identify potential design issues early, thereby avoiding costly problems.
The Electronic Throttle Valve (ETV) is the core part of automotive engines which are recently used in control-by-wire cars. The estimation of its states and uncertainty is instructive for control applications. This study presents the design of Extended State Observer (ESO) for estimating the states and uncertainties of Electronic Throttle Valve (ETV). Two versions of ESOs have been proposed for estimation: Linear ESO (LESO) and Nonlinear ESO (NESO). The model of ETV is firstly developed and extended in state variable form such that the extended state stands for the uncertainty in system parameters. The design of both structures of ESOs are developed and a comparison study has been conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed observers. Numerical simulation has been conducted to assess the performance of observers in estimating the states and uncertainties of ETV. The simulated results showed that both full order and reduced order models of ETV have the same transient characteristics. Moreover, the effectiveness of two versions of observers has been examined based on Root Mean Square of Error (RMSE) indicator. The results showed that the NESO has less estimation errors for both states and uncertainties than LESO.