Géza Alföldy (1935–2011) is considered as one of the most important epigraphists and historians of the Roman civilization of the late 20th century, known also as “Mommsen of our ages”. His contribution is indispensable not only for the discipline of Roman epigraphy and social history, but also for the study of Roman religion. His intellectual roots in Hungary and the influence of the Hungarian scholarly tradition of the 1950’s marked his interest in the study of Roman religion for a long period. In this study, the authors discuss the formation of Géza Alföldy and his contribution to the discipline through a wider academic and socio-historical context.
The topic of the paper is a cycle of six large panneaux on Hungarian historical themes panted for the Vienna palace of the Transylvanian Court Chancellery. The series on Hun–Hungarian history from leaving behind the original habitat to the battle of Mohács is the earliest relic of Hungarian history painting, yet earlier researches only tangentially touched on it despite its salient importance.
When the Principality of Transylvania became part of the Central European Habsburg Monarchy as a independent land in 1690, Leopold I founded the Transylvanian Court Chancellery in 1693 as the highest governing organ of Transylvania. Based in Vienna, the office functioned in diverse rented buildings for a long time, before the freshly appointed chancellor of Transylvania Gábor Bethlen (1712–1768) purchased a building in Vienna in 1755 for the office. He chose the Sinzendorf palace in Hintere Schenkenstrasse across from the Löwel bastion (later replaced by the Burgtheater) close to the palace of the Hungarian Chancellery. It functioned until it was demolished in 1880. In 1755–1759 the chancellor had a representative suite of rooms created on the second floor also including a dining room. Its walls were covered by six large (c. 325 x 310 cm) painted wall hangings or spalliers. It is known from a description by Mór Jókai that the cycle contained three scenes from the Hun–Hungarian prehistory and three from the history of the Christian Hungarian Kingdom. 1) Exodus of the Magyars from their original habitat bordering on China; 2) Pagan priest officiating a fire sacrifice and the Hun king Attila (?), 3) Prince of Moravia Svatopluk sells Pannonia to the chieftain of the Magyars Árpád for a white horse, 4) Saint Stephen converts the Magyars to Christianity, 5) King Matthias Hunyadi enters Vienna in 1486, 6) The battle of Mohács in 1526.
In a study published in 1906 Piarist historian–archivist Sándor Takáts (1860–1932) adduced several data on the artists and artisans working on interior decoration of the chancellery palace including painters, presumably on the basis of the artists’ bills. These documents together with all the files of the Directorium in publicis et cameralibus perished in a fire that broke out in Vienna’s Justizpalast in 1927. The Hungarian historical panneaux were presumably painted by August Rumel (1715–1778) who features in the sources as Historienmaler and painter of the Viennese citizenry. On the basis of indirect information, the cycle can be tentatively dated to 1756–1758, as they were already included in the inventory of the chancellery in 1759.
The Transylvanian Court Chancellery hardly used its first headquarters for one and a half decades after 1766. When in 1782 Joseph II merged the Transylvanian and Hungarian chancelleries, the Transylvanian office moved in 1785 next door to its sister institution, which had had a palace since 1747 a street further, in Vordere Schenkenstrasse, i.e. today’s Bankgasse. They moved in the one-time Trautson house. Parallel with that the treasury sold the former centre of the Transylvanian chancellery which was bought by imperial and royal chamberlain Count Mihály Nádasdy (1746–1826).
As far as Jókai knew, the panneaux became court property in the 1780s and they were purchased at an auction in 1809 by Countess Rozália Bethlen (1754–1826) and transported to Transylvania. They can be identified in the chattels inventory for 1839 of the Jósika palace in Kolozsvár. Later the panneaux were inherited within the Jósika family. Elected minister a latere in 1895, Sámuel Jósika (1848–1923) had the cycle transported to Vienna and put them up in the “Hungarian house”, his official place, today the house of the Hungarian embassy. When his incumbency expired, the pictures went back to Transylvania and passed down in the Jósika family. In 1945 four of the pictures got lost. The two surviving pictures were purchased by the Hungarian State and hung up in the gala room of the Hungarian Embassy in Vienna in 2008 where they can still be seen.
The study collects the liturgical textiles with connection to the person of Cardinal Tamás Bakócz (1497–1521), archbishop of Esztergom, which used to be in the cathedral sometime in the past. The method adopted is looking diachronically through the basilica treasury’s inventories and other, 16–18th century written sources (high priests’ testaments). The main aim of the research is to explore the history of the survival of the chasuble adorned with the cardinal-archbishop’s coat of arms and preserved in the treasury of Esztergom cathedral. Apart from collecting the paraments, the study also gives a glimpse of the maintenance of paraphernalia in the treasury of the Esztergom basilica and its history after the lost battle at Mohács in 1526.
The introductory part of the study reviews the historiography of research into jagiellonian letters patent of nobility and the art historical problems of the illuminations. a similar survey was compiled sixty years earlier by dénes radocsay. since then several deeds of granting armorial bearings have cropped up, and lots of new data have been found in historical sources about once existing, now lost or latent, letters patent. the introduction is not meant to thoroughly revise dénes radocsay’s groups compiled by style critical criteria, but it touches on several questions solved or seen more clearly now. For example, the mark of an early 16th century buda illuminator’s hand is preserved not only by letters with armorial bearings, but also by three fragmentary liturgical manuscripts, and the oeuvre of the so-called bakócz monogrammist – who painted the coats of arms in the most representative letters patent in greatest numbers during louis ii’s reign – has been considerably extended.
A few words about the arrangement of the data in the list. the letters patent follow in chronological order, the years of granting emphasized for better orientation.
Vladislav ii’s letters patent arranged by years are followed by a few items that cannot be dated accurately. line one traditionally contains the names of the grantees, modernized – if possible – but not in phonetic transcription gaining ground lately. (i attach the original form of the name in parentheses.) then come dating, measurements, place of preservation and (when known) provenance. the most important data are followed by the list of works in which the given diploma is mentioned. it includes hand-written – 18th and 19th century – mentions, copied texts, as well as items of the modern special literature.
The present article contains the philological edition of the Old Babylonian Sumerian composition Dumuzi and Ĝeštinanna (UET 6, 11), a study of its literary characteristics, intertextual elements, allusions, and early hermeneutic techniques.
This paper deals with the Saljūqnāma of the Ottoman scholar Ahmed ibn Mahmud. It focuses on the two unexploited poems inserted into his Mantzikert account, and juxtaposes them with the world chronicles in verse that have been written by Constantine Manasses and Ehpraim of Ainos. The three writers recount the same event from different viewpoints. Ephraim absolves Diogenes from any responsibility, while Manasses seeks the reasons for the defeat in battle in his severe attitude. For Ahmed, the Seljuk victory came exclusively from God’s hands which were long enough to reach and protect the pious sultan with his warriors.