Authors:Cs. Dobolyi, K. Inotai, I. Bata-Vidács, D. Sárkány, O. Csernus, S. Kocsubé, B. Tóth, A. Szekeres, and J. Kukolya
Aspergillus strains were isolated from Hungarian mills in order to get information on the appearance of sterigmatocystin (ST) producing moulds, whose presence has never been demonstrated in Hungary. Fungal isolates were classified into nine morphotypes, sections Nigri, Nidulantes, Versicolores (two morphotypes), Circumdati, Flavi (two morphotypes), Clavati and Terrei by classical mycological assays. ST producing strains could be classified into section Versicolores. ST production of the isolates was assessed by liquid and solid phase growth experiments and compared to ST producing reference strains: Aspergillus pepii SzMC 22332, Aspergillus versicolor SzMC 22333, Aspergillus griseoaurantiacus SzMC 22334 and Aspergillus nidulans RDIT9.32. Four of our isolates marked as Km11, Km14, Km26 and Km31 showed ST production in liquid medium. ST production on solid phase corn grit substrate was measured after three weeks of incubation, and Km26 isolate proved to be the most prominent with a toxin concentration of 277.1 μg g−1, surpassing all reference strains. The toxin-producing ability of Km26 isolate was also tested in a field experiment, where corn was infected. By the end of the experiment, ST level of 19.56 μg kg−1 was measured in infected corn.
Molecular taxonomic identification of the Km26 strain was performed using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), calmodulin and tubulin sequence analyses. Based on these studies, strain Km26 was identified as Aspergillus creber.
Here we report that an ST-producing A. creber strain has appeared in Hungary, and the Km26 strain is the first known extreme ST-producing mould in this country. As a result of climate change, aflatoxin B1 producing Aspergillus flavus strains have appeared in Hungary in the last decade. As strain Km26 is the only A. creber isolate in Hungary so far, there is no sign of mass prevalence, and due to the lower temperature optimum of the species compared to A. flavus, its appearance is probably not related to climate change.
Authors:K. Berisha, H. Bytyçi, Zs. Mednyánszky, E. Kiss, and L. Simon-Sarkadi
To our knowledge, there is a lack of information on the nutrient composition of Busha cattle milk with special regard to its amino acid and biogenic amine contents. The Busha cattle breed is known to be highly resistant to various diseases and well-adapted to the extensive breeding conditions of the Balkan Peninsula. Busha cow milk contains an average of 13.47% dry matter, 4.34% fat, 3.72 % protein, and 4.32% lactose. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05) in the amino acid compositions of the milk of different Busha cattle strains of Kosovo. Glutamic acid, proline, leucine, aspartic acid, lysine, and valine represented 68% of the total amino acid content. Essential amino acids, branched-chain and sulphur-containing amino acids were found in substantial amounts in the milk samples. Among the biogenic amines, however, spermine (0.16 mg kg−1) and cadaverine (0.09 mg kg−1) were present in low concentrations. Due to these excellent qualities of the Busha cow milk, preservation of this cattle breed is of great importance. Developing sustainable and secured breeding and feeding programs for this endangered cattle breed of the Balkan Peninsula should also be a high priority.
Authors:B. Salamon, F. Zakariás, B. Csehi, G. Kiskó, and I. Dalmadi
The effect of high pressure processing (300 and 600 MPa) combined with mild heat treatment (55 and 75 °C) on the colour parameters, anthocyanin content, and sensory characteristics of strawberry puree were examined after the treatments and 2 weeks of cold storage at 2 and 15 °C. As on an industrial scale the simultaneous implementation of these treatments remains a challenge, the HHP and heat treatments were carried out consecutively in different sequences. The colour parameters and the anthocyanin content did not change significantly due to the treatments, but decreased during cold storage, at 15 °C storage the changes were more intensive than at 2 °C. Regarding the sensory test results, the different sequence of the 600 MPa-75 °C combined treatments is not detectable even after 2 weeks of storage at 15 °C, but in case of 300 MPa-55 °C, the enzyme inactivation is probably not sufficient enough as differences between the samples were detected.
Grafting is an effective tool in intensive vegetable growing systems that provides standard quality and yield. In the present study, the effect of two rootstocks (‘Capsifort F1’ and ‘Snooker F1’) on two commercial varieties (‘SV9702 F1’ and ‘Karpex F1’) grown on two media (soil and coconut fibre) was evaluated. During our 2-year study, those instrumental attributes, which have a dominant effect on the chosen chemical components of fruit quality (total soluble solids and titratable acidity) were investigated. Sensory tests were also implemented in order to identify any changes due to the applied technological combinations. Sensory profile analysis was used to identify the descriptive attributes and their perceived intensities. Panellists worked in individual booths with standard lighting, test results were recorded with the Profisens software. In general, it can be concluded that the major instrumental and sensory parameters did not deteriorate as a result of grafting and the application of coconut fibre medium. Some attributes were identified, where the grafted plants on coconut fibre medium showed higher values, namely flesh thickness and shape. Based on our results, grafting and the application of coconut medium is a feasible technological development for growers and agri-business companies.
Authors:Ü.İ. Konak, H.A. Yatmaz, Ş. Nilüfer, T. Erkaymaz, and M. Certel
Residues in animal feeds and foods of animal origin have been important safety issue concerning both human and animal health. A multiresidue method for determination of eight mycotoxins and ten antibiotics was developed and validated in animal feeds by using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extraction followed by UHPLC-MS/MS. Optimisation of UHPLC-MS/MS parameters was performed to achieve good separation and resolution. The method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Matrix matched calibration curves showed good r2 (≥0.995) values, and limit of quantification (LOQ) values varied between 1.2 and 5.2 μg kg−1. Average recoveries ranged from 60 to 102% with relative standard deviations of 2.2 and 15.6% for all type of feed samples except for tetracyclines, lincomycin, tylosin, ochratoxin A, and fumonisin (B1 and B2).
The probiotic and technological potentials of lactic acid bacteria originating from human milk are becoming a remarkable research area. In the present study, Limosilactobacillus vaginalis MA-10 isolated from human milk was investigated in vitro for its probiotic and technological aspects. According to the results obtained in the study, MA-10 strain exhibited non-haemolytic activity and various degrees of sensitivity to most of the tested antibiotics. The strain showed good resistance to the gastrointestinal system and maintained its viability under these conditions. Its antimicrobial activity against human or clinical bacterial and fungal microorganisms and fish bacteria was determined in the range of 2.38–11.22 mm. The MA-10 strain was able to assimilate cholesterol ranging from 31.42 to 82.30%. The strain showed 9.34% ferrous-ion chelating and 32% DPPH free radical scavenging activities. These initial results from the present study confirm that L. vaginalis MA-10 may be a new source with appropriated probiotic and technological traits for various industries, and further in vivo assays.Due to the limited number of studies on L. vaginalis strains originated from human breast milk in the literature, the data obtained in this study are thought to be important for revealing the basic probiotic properties of the strain.
This study assesses consumers' preference for food from social media on a sample of 510 respondents from the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia using the Best-Worst Scaling method. The findings of the study conclude that unhealthy and nutrient-poor food items are more preferred than healthy and nutrient-rich food items. The study recommends that the food and drug authority should intervene to increase consumers' awareness about the effect of unhealthy food items by creating social media accounts to warn consumers about the health outcomes of consuming certain unhealthy foods marketed through social media platforms.
Authors:Merzouqi Maria, Sarhrouni El Kebir, and Hammouch Ahmed
Hyperspectral images (HSI) present a wealth of information. It is distinguished by its high dimensionality. It served humanity in many fields. The quantity of HSI information represents a double-edged sword. As a consequence, their dimensionality must be reduced. Nowadays, several methods are proposed to overcome their duress. The most useful and essential solution is selection approaches of hyperspectral bands to analyze it quickly. Our work suggests a novel method to achieve this selection: we introduce a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based on mutual information (MI) and Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) as fitness functions. It selects the relevant bands from noisiest and redundant ones that don’t contain any additional information. .The proposed method is applied to three different HSI: INDIAN PINE, PAVIA, and SALINAS. The introduced algorithm provides a remarkable efficiency on the accuracy of the classification, in front of other statistical methods: the Bhattacharyya coefficient as well as the inter-bands correlation (Pearson correlation). We conclude that the measure of information (MI, NMI) provides more efficiency as a fitness function for GA selection applied to HSI; it must be more investigated.
Authors:Sz. Gy. Szerencsés, S. Beszédes, Zs. László, G. Veréb, D. Szalay, Zs. Hovorkáné Horváth, C. Hodúr, G. Rákhely, and Sz. Kertész
In this study, statistical analysis was performed to investigate the influence of operational parameters based on experimental results. The research aimed to know whether a long-term discontinuous module vibration operation is possible without adversely affecting filtration efficiency. Polymer membranes were compared by surface characteristics with contact angle measurements and selected for further membrane filtration experiments for dairy wastewater treatment. The effect of the main operational parameters, membrane module vibration amplitude (Avibr.) and transmembrane pressure (TMP), was investigated using a vibratory shear enhanced processing (VSEP) module with ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes. Components of the permeates, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), were measured, and membrane rejections were calculated to compare with threshold limit values. The results suggest that proper combination of Avibr. and TMP could mitigate membrane fouling. However, discontinuous module vibration resulted in more clogged membrane with lower fluxes, but slightly higher rejections. We conclude that investigating the significance of operational parameters is necessary for a wider, more energy and environment-friendly application in wastewater treatment.