Discussed here is the presence of a warrior aristocracy in south-western Hungary, principally in County Somogy, during the early (and middle) Urnfield period (Br D–Ha A1-A2) based on the archaeological record. The period's offensive and protective weapons wielded by the warrior aristocracy during the Urnfield period (mid-thirteenth to ninth century BC) are exclusively known from hoards in this region; none have been recovered from burials. The Lengyeltóti V hoard contained a greave, a composite cuirass, a cheek-piece indicating the presence of a military aristocracy riding horses and wagons or chariots when going to battle and a realistic wheel model. The swords and spearheads were part of the period's offensive weaponry. The hoard's other articles represented the jewellery of the female aristocracy: a diadem, a torc and an ornamented disc pendant. The hoard contained over seven hundred items. In A. Mozsolics's view, the hoard could be assigned to the period lasting up to the close of the Hallstatt period (Ha A2). The rise of the warrior aristocracy began during the Br D, Br D/Ha A1 period, while its consolidation and heyday fell into the early Urnfield period (Ha A1). The aristocracy lived in hillforts – fortified settlements – which had a flourishing bronze industry. The number of settlements and burials declined drastically in the ensuing Ha B period in south-western Transdanubia.
The aim of the article is to present a study of the literary text from a discursive perspective focusing on the development of the discourse competence in the English language. It is a new approach in the EFL methodology which highlights the relation between the holistic understanding of the comunication, social phenomena and the study of language structures in their use. The European educational policies favour the literary text as a key factor in boosting the students' communicative skills.
Thus, the paper presents a theoretical framework of the researches in the field and shares our vision on the discourse competence which places the discourse component on the central position in the process of developing the communicative competence. The text interpretation through a discursive approach constitutes an effective tool for examining the language correlation with the intent and sociocultural context. In this regard, in the second part of the article, we offer some concrete didactic activities related to the necessary conditions (such as the context and communicative situations) and discourse-oriented practices (activities simulating real needs outside the classroom) used for an optimal development of students' discourse competence.
The paper investigates the increasing number of international co-authored publications, comparing countries that accessed the European Union (EU) in 2004 (EU04) against other Central-Eastern European Countries (othEast-ERA), adopting a scientometric approach. This comparison looks at whether to be part of the EU is different from being part of the European Research Area (ERA) – given that both entities aim at fostering more international collaborations. The hypothesis is that EU might convey more opportunities for the sake of international publications, although ERA assures access to European funding schemes anyway. Analysing the census of internationally co-authored publications from 1995 to 2015, difference-in-differences regressions show that Countries that joined EU in 2004 performed better than other Central-Eastern ones. Implications for the public policies in science are discussed.
Feedback literacy in higher education has come as a reaction to the ineffective focus on teacher's delivery of feedback and its passive reception by students rather than on students' active participation in receiving feedback and constructing it (Nicol & Macfarlane-dick, 2006; Nicol, 2019). Therefore, the aim of this theoretical paper is to identify students' capabilities of feedback literacy. To meet this objective, three questions are targeted: 1) How is feedback literacy defined? 2) How is it characterized? 3) What are its practical dimensions from student's perspective? Based on the analysis of theoretical and empirical studies retrieved via reliable databases, a thorough description of the existing definitions of feedback literacy and its frameworks (Carless & Boud, 2018; Carless & Winstone, 2020; Molloy, Boud, & Henderson, 2020; Sutton, 2012) can be highlighted. Four dimensions of student feedback literacy and their adaptation to the writing context are also targeted: appreciating feedback, making evaluative judgments, managing affect, and acting upon feedback (Carless & Boud, 2018). This paper is relevant because it addresses the shift from feedback as a one-way process of transmitting information from instructors to feedback as a process of using diverse communication channels, through which teachers and students collaborate to improve learning outcomes.
Mental disorders with high levels of impulsivity such as bulimic spectrum eating disorders (BSED) and gambling disorder (GD) are associated with high risk of suicidal behavior. The aim of the present study was to identify the common and differential vulnerability factors behind suicide attempts in a sample of patients with BSED compared to patients with GD.
A total of 6,077 adults who sought treatment and met criteria either for BSED (n = 2,391) or GD (n = 3,686) were assessed at a specialized hospital unit. Personality traits, psychopathological symptomatology, lifetime history of suicide attempts and socio-demographic variables were evaluated.
The prevalence of suicide attempts was higher for BSED patients (26.2%) compared to GD patients (7.1%) being anorexia nervosa (Binge/Purge type) and bulimia nervosa the most affected subtypes. In the predictive model, the transdiagnostic vulnerability factors with the highest contribution to the risk of suicidal behavior both in BSED and GD were unemployment, early age of onset of the disorder, worse psychopathological state, and self-transcendence personality trait. However, specific risk factors for suicidal acts were identified in each disorder: longer duration of the disorder, lower education levels and reward dependence were exclusively associated with BSED while female gender, older age, and higher harm avoidance were associated with GD.
Patients with GD and BSED share certain vulnerability factors although certain factors are exclusive to each disorder.
Interventions need to pay special attention to both common and specific vulnerability factors to mitigate the risk of suicidal acts in these disorders.
Scour is the leading cause of bridge collapse beneath any bridge pier located within the waterway. A numerical-based hydraulic model named the Hydrologic Engineering Centre River Analysis System and a mathematical model of the Florida Department of Transport were implemented to investigate their performance and accuracy in estimating the maximum scour depth beneath bridge piers where large and small-scale physical prototypes are used as a benchmark. The main findings are that a hydraulic model is an effective tool when employing the Colorado State University equation, which compares well with physical prototypes irrespective of the variation in piers' size and shape. Also, it has achieved more consistent results than the Froehlich and the Florida Department of Transport methodologies.
Hungarian pond fish production is based on grains, but in the last few years, new ideas and efforts have appeared to intensify carp production technology. The basic objective was to change grain-based feeding to nutritionally complete feeds, which ensure rapid growth and more efficient feed conversion rates. This study aimed to utilise empty ponds during the summer period for carp production. Thus, there is no need for fish producers to catch fish in large ponds at the operating water level to satisfy smaller market demands appearing during the summer.
The other aim was to compare the meat quality of fish raised on traditional and nutritionally complete feed until market size in the last year of production. Fatty acid profile and the levels of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish fillets were specified, and their ratios were analysed. The result showed that nutritionally complete feed with different fatty acid composition affects the fatty acid composition of carp fillet during the rearing period. Quality of the fillet of carp fed with higher unsaturated fatty acid content became more favourable to the consumers due to health promoting effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Human milk (HM) of healthy, well-nourished, lactating mothers is a unique and ideal source of nutritive factors, like hormones, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors that ensures the proper growth and development of infants. Among the main components of HM, fat is an important energy source and a regulatory factor. The quality of milk fat depends on its fatty acid (FA) composition. Gas chromatography coupled with flame ionisation detection is one of the most common methods for analysis of the FA profile of HM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the FA composition of HM, collected from mothers with different health conditions (normal Body Mass Index (nBMI); overweight and obese) using GC-FID method. The results showed that saturated FAs were present in the highest amount in the HM samples, of which palmitic acid was the main representative. The major monounsaturated FA was oleic acid, while linoleic acid was the most abundant of the polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA). Overweight and obese women have lower levels of PUFA in their breast milk. The data were subjected to principal component and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). QDA classified nBMI and overweight and obese mother milk samples with 88.24% accuracy. Significant differences were found between normal and overweight and obese HM samples in case of C10:0 and C18:3 FAs. Higher maternal BMI was associated with a higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio.
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent in adolescents and is associated with various mental health problems. Repetitive NSSI (R-NSSI), as an extreme manifestation of NSSI, is a growing concern and has been proposed as a behavioral addiction. However, little is known about the potential addictive mechanisms of NSSI. This study aimed to examine the mediating effect of emotion dysregulation and the moderating effect of impulsivity using the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model in adolescents who repeatedly engage in NSSI.
A total of 3,915 adolescents (mean age = 13.21 years, SD = 0.87, 57.6% male) were recruited from three middle schools. Relevant questionnaires were used to evaluate childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and NSSI. Mediation and moderated mediation analyses were conducted separately for adolescents with occasional NSSI (O–NSSI) and R-NSSI to assess the relationship between childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and NSSI frequency.
Our study found that childhood maltreatment was directly related to NSSI and indirectly related to NSSI through emotion dysregulation in both the R-NSSI and O–NSSI groups. Furthermore, impulsivity played a moderating role in the relationship between emotion dysregulation and NSSI in the R-NSSI group but not in the O–NSSI group.
Discussion and conclusions
The findings suggest that a high level of impulsivity and a high level of emotion dysregulation may be important risk addictive factors of NSSI through childhood maltreatment. Strengthening the emotion regulation skills and inhibitory control of adolescents with NSSI would be helpful to reduce their self-injury behaviors and maintain their mental health. This finding also supports the validity of the I-PACE model for evaluating R-NSSI.