This paper aims to advance a comprehensive theory of binding, which can account for all binding patterns found in Polish, some of which are particularly puzzling for traditional and novel formulations of Binding Theory. Namely, Polish reflexive pronouns/possessives are typically (nominative) subject oriented but they can also have dative Object Experiencers, OEs, as antecedents. Yet, OEs are also appropriate local antecedents for pronominal possessives. Our analysis explains the complementarity of pronouns and reflexives and lack thereof by assuming that the Spell-out form of the reflexive/pronoun is determined by its covert movement, while a binding dependency is established via Agree for [var(iable):_] feature.
Authors:Sabrina Oebel, Alexander Gotschy, Ingo Paetsch, Cosima Jahnke, Sven Plein, Rolf Gebker, Sandra Hamada, Michael Frick, Jochen von Spiczak, Malgorzata Polacin, Frank Enseleit, Nikolaus Marx, Thomas F. Lüscher, Frank Ruschitzka, Sebastian Kozerke, Hatem Alkadhi and Robert Manka
To assess the accuracy of 3D cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) against fractional flow reserve (FFR) and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) in patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF).
Out of 447 patients who underwent 3D CMR perfusion imaging (at 1.5 and 3.0 T under adenosine stress and at rest) at 5 European centers, 86 cases with an EF ≤50% were identified (mean age 64 ± 11 yrs, 80% male). Significant CAD was defined as a FFR value <0.8 and a QCA >50%. 86 individuals matched for age, gender and major cardiovascular risk factors, were chosen as the control group.
The prevalence of CAD defined by FFR (<0.8) was 59% (EF≤50%) vs. 54% (EF>50%), P = 0.4). In relation to FFR, 3D perfusion imaging yielded a sensitivity of 84.5% (95% CI 76.0–90.4) and specificity of 77.3% (95% CI 66.7–85.3). The sensitivity of perfusion imaging was higher in patients with an EF≤50% (90.2 vs. 78.3%, P = 0.1) whereas specificity showed the reverse (62.9 vs. 90.0%, P = 0.005) The diagnostic accuracy was comparable in both subgroups (AUC 79.1 vs. 83.7%, P = 0.25). According to QCA, the prevalence of CAD was 78 vs. 72% (P = 0.4). Perfusion imaging yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 82.1 vs. 62.9%, P = 0.01 and 79.0 vs. 95.8%, P = 0.09 respectively with a high diagnostic accuracy in both subgroups (AUC 82.0 vs. 80.5%).
3D-CMR perfusion imaging yields a high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy with regards to the detection of significant CAD irrespective of left ventricular (LV) systolic function.
Authors:Yun Sun, Jiajia Liu, Bayertai, Shasha Tang and Xiaoying Zhou
To determine the levels of gallic acid and ellagic acid by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with R software hierarchical cluster analysisin Elaeagnus angustifolia L. gathered from different locations in Xinjiang.
A chromatographic column Diamonsil C18 with a size of 4.6 × 250 mm and 5 μm was used with methanol as A and 0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution as B as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1 mL/min for the gradient elution and the injection volume was 5 μL. HPLC was performed with a detection wavelength of 260 nm and chromatographic column of 35 °C. In addition, R software hierarchical clustering method was used for studying the levels of gallic acid and ellagic acid in E. angustifolia L. from 10 areas.
Gallic acid and ellagic acid showed a good linear relationship between 7.375 and 236 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999, and between 3.625 and 116 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 respectively. The average recovery values were 103.98 and 101.57%, and the Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values were 1.92 and 1.47%.
Differences in the levels of gallic acid and ellagic acid in E. angustifolia L. leaves from different areas in Xinjiang showed that both were the highest in Kuitun.
Authors:Xiaoyan Zhang, Jie Liu, Wenbo Sun, Xiangchun Shen, Xiaojian Gong, Cong Wang, Yan Liang and Wei Zhou
Natural hemostatic compounds from Toddalia asiatica (Linn) Lam (T. asiatica) root bark had been investigated by a novel strategy, chemical fingerprint–pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (CF–PK–PD) for the first time in this study. The extract sample of T. asiatica root bark was subdivided into petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-butanol (n-B) sample by reagent extraction, EA sample showed significant hemostatic activity using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen (FIB) as evaluation indexes from rat plasma of PK experiment in hemorrhagic rat model. CF analysis was adopted to assist us to discover six natural compounds from T. asiatica root bark in actual rat plasma after sample treatment by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization (UPLC-ESI) MS, there were only lomatin and 5-methoxy-8-hydroxy psoralen showing significant hemostatic effect (P < 0.05) mainly through endogenous coagulation pathway and fibrinolytic system. In PK–PD study, six compounds in EA sample exhibited relatively rapid absorption and slow elimination characteristics. The mean Tmax and t1/2β of isopimpinellin and pimpinellin were 1.74 and 0.59 h, 5.31 and 6.89 h in rats. On the basis of Sigmoid–Emax model, PK–PD related curves of FIB in hemorrhagic rat model after treatment of T. asiatica root bark were obtained. Predicted Emax, EC50 and ke0 of FIB under isopimpinellin were 4.87 mg/mL, 1.39 μg/mL and 0.81 1/h; predicted Emax, EC50 and ke0 of FIB under pimpinellin were 4.29 mg/mL, 2.47 μg/mL and 0.77 1/h. In conclusion, hemostatic compounds from T. asiatica root bark had been materialized, there were lomatin, isopimpinellin, pimpinellin and 5-methoxy-8-hydroxy psoralen at least as its main active substances through coagulation pathways and fibrinolytic system. CF–PK–PD method as a promising method was worthy of follow-up opening, application in pharmaceutical research.
Sarecycline is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic for the treatment of acne, which is a chronic inflammatory disease of the hair follicle sebaceous glands. In the study, UPLC-MS/MS was used to establish a rapid and accurate analytical method. The sarecycline was determined with poziotinib as internal standard (IS) in rat plasma. An ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) could performe chromatographic separation with the mobile phase (methanol: water of 0.1% formic acid) with gradient elution. The ions of target fragment were m/z 488.19→410.14 for sarecycline and m/z 492.06→354.55 for poziotinib, which could quantify the electrospray ionization of positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The linear calibration curve of the concentration range was 1–1,000 ng/mL for sarecycline with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1 ng/mL. The mean recovery was between 82.46 and 95.85% for sarecycline and poziotinib in rat plasma. RSD for precision of inter-day and intra-day were between 3.24 and 13.36%, and the accuracy ranged from 105.26 to 109.75%. The developed and validated method was perfectly used in the pharmacokinetic study and bioavailability of sarecycline after intravenous and oral administration in rats.
Authors:Dorothea Wiemer, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Gerd-Dieter Burchard, Hagen Frickmann, Ulrike Loderstaedt and Ralf-Matthias Hagen
Diarrhoea is a frequent symptom associated with travelling to tropical regions, but the cause is often not found. Epidemiology was assessed including up-to-date real-time PCR approaches.
We analysed datasets of 528 patients who presented at the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine in Hamburg, Germany, between 2006 and 2010 for screening purposes or because of diarrhoea. Stool samples were obtained and investigated by microscopy, bacterial culture, two PCR assays targeting Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia duodenalis, and Cryptosporidium parvum, or Salmonella spp., Shigella/EIEC spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Yersinia spp.
Among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, 51% tested positive for bacteria or parasites, of which 66% had a known enteropathogenic potential. In patients without diarrhoea, 53% (n = 80) were positive, and 33% of these cases harboured agents of pathogenic potential. Association with clinical symptoms was primarily found for bacterial infections. Blastocystis hominis, however, was more frequent in asymptomatic than in symptomatic travellers.
In conclusion, the study stresses the etiological relevance of bacterial gastroenteritis in travellers returning from the tropics, the need for molecular approaches to increase diagnostic sensitivity and demonstrates that asymptomatic carriage of enteropathogens after prolonged stays in the tropics is similarly frequent compared with symptomatic infections in travellers.
Mobile phone addiction (MPA) is frequently reported to be correlated with anxiety, depression, stress, impulsivity, and sleep quality among college students. However, to date, there is no consensus on the extent to which those factors are correlated with MPA among college students. We thus performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively synthesize the previous findings.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and Chinese Biological Medicine (CBM) databases from inception to August 1, 2020. Pooled Pearson's correlation coefficients between MPA and anxiety, depression, impulsivity, and sleep quality were calculated by R software using random effects model.
Forty studies involving a total of 33, 650 college students were identified. Weak-to-moderate positive correlations were found between MPA and anxiety, depression, impulsivity and sleep quality (anxiety: summary r = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.34–0.45, P < 0.001, I2 = 84.9%; depression: summary r = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.32–0.40, P < 0.001, I2 = 84.2%; impulsivity: summary r = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.28–0.47, P < 0.001, I2 = 94.7%; sleep quality: summary r = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.22–0.33, P < 0.001, I2 = 85.6%). The pooled correlations revealed some discrepancies when stratified by some moderators. The robustness of our findings was further confirmed by sensitivity analyses.
The current meta-analysis provided solid evidence that MPA was positively correlated with anxiety, depression, impulsivity, and sleep quality. This indicated that college students with MPA were more likely to develop high levels of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity and suffer from poor sleep quality. More studies, especially large prospective studies, are warranted to verify our findings.
Authors:Monnica T. Williams, Sara Reed and Jamilah George
Psychedelic medicine is an emerging field of research and practice that examines the psychotherapeutic effects of substances classified as hallucinogens on the human mind, body, and spirit. Current research explores the safety and efficacy of these substances for mental health disorders including anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although current studies explore psychotherapeutic effects from a biomedical perspective, gaps in awareness around cultural issues in the therapeutic process are prominent. African Americans have been absent from psychedelic research as both participants and researchers, and little attention has been paid to the potential of psychedelics to address traumas caused by racialization. This paper examines cultural themes and clinical applications from the one-time use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as part of an US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved clinical trial and training exercise for three African American female therapists. The primary themes that emerged across the varied experiences centered on strength, safety, connection, and managing oppression/racialization. The participants' experiences were found to be personally meaningful and instructive for how Western models of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy could be more effective and accessible to the Black community. Included is a discussion of the importance of facilitator training to make best use of emerging material when it includes cultural, racial, and spiritual themes. A lack of knowledge and epistemic humility can create barriers to treatment for underserved populations. Implications for future research and practice for marginalized cultural groups are also discussed, including consideration of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) as an adjunct to the psychedelic-therapy approaches currently advanced. As women of color are among the most stigmatized groups of people, it is essential to incorporate their perspectives into the literature to expand conversations about health equity.
Authors:Monnica T. Williams, Amy Bartlett, Tim Michaels, Jae Sevelius and Jamilah R. George
Equity and diversity are essential to the development of inclusive psychedelic research. However, oversights and misattributions are common, particularly when it comes to accounts of important psychedelic moments and key figures. Dr. Valentina Pavlovna Wasson is an important early contributor to the growth of Western psychedelic science but remains under-recognized. Psychedelic researchers must continue to address the glaring need to ask questions and examine the foundations of what we think we know about psychedelic studies—to question our assumptions with a critical and intersectional eye to resist replicating social and cultural inequalities in psychedelic research and history.
Impaired behavioral inhibitory control (BIC) is known to play a crucial role in addictive behavior. However, research has been inconclusive as to whether this is also the case for cybersex addiction. This study aimed to investigate the time course of BIC in male individuals with tendencies towards cybersex addiction (TCA) using event-related potentials (ERPs) and to provide neurophysiological evidence of their deficient BIC.
Thirty-six individuals with TCA and 36 healthy controls (HCs) were given a Two-Choice Oddball task that required them to respond differently to frequent standard stimuli (images of people) and infrequent deviant stimuli (pornographic images) within 1,000 ms. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded as the participants performed the task.
Despite the similarity of standard stimuli between the groups in terms of reaction times (RTs), the RTs of the TCA group to deviant stimuli were much slower than those of the HC group. The behavioral difference was accompanied by group differences in the averaged amplitudes of N2 (200–300 ms) and P3 (300–500 ms) components in the deviant-standard difference wave. More specifically, compared to the HC group, the TCA group demonstrated smaller N2 and P3 amplitude differences for deviant than standard stimuli.
Discussion and conclusions
Individuals with TCA were more impulsive than HC participants and shared neuropsychological and ERP characteristics of substance use disorder or behavioral addictions, which supports the view that cybersex addiction can be conceptualized as a behavioral addiction.