Impaired behavioral inhibitory control (BIC) is known to play a crucial role in addictive behavior. However, research has been inconclusive as to whether this is also the case for cybersex addiction. This study aimed to investigate the time course of BIC in male individuals with tendencies towards cybersex addiction (TCA) using event-related potentials (ERPs) and to provide neurophysiological evidence of their deficient BIC.
Thirty-six individuals with TCA and 36 healthy controls (HCs) were given a Two-Choice Oddball task that required them to respond differently to frequent standard stimuli (images of people) and infrequent deviant stimuli (pornographic images) within 1,000 ms. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded as the participants performed the task.
Despite the similarity of standard stimuli between the groups in terms of reaction times (RTs), the RTs of the TCA group to deviant stimuli were much slower than those of the HC group. The behavioral difference was accompanied by group differences in the averaged amplitudes of N2 (200–300 ms) and P3 (300–500 ms) components in the deviant-standard difference wave. More specifically, compared to the HC group, the TCA group demonstrated smaller N2 and P3 amplitude differences for deviant than standard stimuli.
Discussion and conclusions
Individuals with TCA were more impulsive than HC participants and shared neuropsychological and ERP characteristics of substance use disorder or behavioral addictions, which supports the view that cybersex addiction can be conceptualized as a behavioral addiction.
Authors:Kagan Kircaburun, Hüseyin Ünübol, Gökben H. Sayar, Vasileios Stavropoulos and Mark D. Griffiths
Background and aims
To date, a number of studies have investigated the prevalence and correlates of addictive food consumption. However, these studies have mostly relied on models that comprised a narrow range of variables in often small and heterogenous samples. The purpose of the present study was to comprehensively examine the measurement aspects, the prevalence, and the psychological correlates of addictive eating among a largescale national sample of Turkish adults.
Participants (N = 24,380, 50% men, Mage = 31.79 years, age range = 18–81 years) completed a battery of tests including the Food Addiction Risk Questionnaire (FARQ), the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised.
According to analyses conducted, the FARQ had a uni-dimensional factor structure. Based on Item Response Theory (IRT) calculated cut-off scores, 2.3% of the participants were at risk of addictive eating patterns, whilst criteria varied in their discriminating ability. The correlates of addictive food consumption were being male, being younger, having lower education, presenting with higher alcohol use, psychiatric symptoms, alexithymia, positive/negative affect, and anxious attachment.
These results suggest that a minority of Turkish community are at risk for addictive food consumption and that adverse psychological states promote this problematic behavior.
Authors:Joseph T. F. Lau, Le Dang, Ray Y. H. Cheung, Meng Xuan Zhang, Juliet Honglei Chen and Anise M. S. Wu
Background and aims
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been recognized as a mental illness. Cognitive and emotional illness representations affect coping and health outcomes. Very little is known about such perceptions related to IGD, in both general and diseased populations. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) for IGD in a general population that included mostly non-cases while a small proportion of the sample was IGD cases.
An anonymous cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in a random sample of 1,501 Chinese community-dwelling adults (41.3% male; mean age = 40.42, SD = 16.85) in Macao, China.
The confirmatory factor analysis identified a modified 6-factor model (i.e., timeline cyclical, consequences, personal control, treatment control, illness coherence, and emotional representations) of 26 items that showed satisfactory model fit and internal consistency. Criterion-related validity was supported by the constructs' significant correlations with stigma (positive correlations: timeline cyclical, consequence, emotional representations; negative correlations: illness coherence). Ever-gamers, compared to never-gamers, reported higher mean scores in the subscales of personal control and illness coherence, and lower mean scores in time cyclical, consequence, and emotional representations. Among the sampled gamers, probable IGD cases were more likely than non-IGD cases to perceive IGD as cyclical and involved more negative emotions.
This study shows that the revised 26-item version of IPQ-R is a valid instrument for assessing illness representation regarding IGD in a general population of Chinese adults. It can be used in future research that examines factors of incidence and prevention related to IGD.
Authors:Philip W.S. Newall, Lukasz Walasek, Rebecca Vázquez Kiesel, Elliot A. Ludvig and Caroline Meyer
Background and aims
Request-a-bet services are a modern gambling product delivered via the social network Twitter, which allow sports bettors to design custom bets. The public nature of Twitter data provided a unique opportunity to investigate patterns of bettor preference and the bookmaker profit margin in soccer, the UK’s favorite sport.
Two multi-method studies. Twitter users’ engagement with request-a-bet services was monitored unobtrusively (n = 1,406), meaning that potential patterns across users’ requests could be observed, and the bookmaker profit margin could be estimated. Twitter users were also surveyed directly (n = 55), providing self-report measures of request-a-bet usage.
Twitter users requested bets with an average potential payoff of £56.5 per £1 risked (median = £9). Overall, 9.7% of requested bets paid-off, but these were mostly bets at short odds. This meant that requests yielded a high bookmaker profit margin of 43.7% (roughly eight times higher than current margins in conventional soccer bets), which increased to 74.6% for bets at longer odds. Requested bets also tended to involve star players from the best teams. Finally, 92.7% of surveyed Twitter users reported placing at least one bet via request-a-bet services (mean = 44.4 bets).
Discussion and conclusions
Researchers can use request-a-bet products to increase their understanding of sports betting behavior. Sports bettors should be given information about how much higher the bookmaker profit margin can be in modern sports bets compared to the conventional sports bets that they may be more familiar with.
This paper sheds light on the treatment of initial gemination in Qassimi Arabic (QA), a Najdi dialect spoken in the Al-Qassim region in central Saudi Arabia, within the framework of Parallelism, an Optimality Theory (OT) model. The study concludes that initial geminates, which are non-actual surface forms in QA, result from the assimilation of the prefix /t-/ to stem-initial consonants of Arabic verb forms II and III, as well as hollow verbs, to avoid violation of the Obligatory Contour Principle (OCP). On the other hand, initial semisyllables, as moraic consonants, originate from initial gemination and consequently motivate prosthesis; that is, the purpose of prosthesis is to affiliate a semisyllable to the syllable node without causing violation of the Strict Layer Hypothesis (SLH). Sequences of assimilation of prefix /t-/ plus prosthesis do not occur simultaneously, whereas regressive assimilation feeds the prosthetic vowel [i], which, in turn, feeds the prosthetic glottal stop [ʔ] to concur with the Onset Principle. These sequences thus indicate transparent rule interactions, that is, feeding. Parallel OT is then successfully utilized to account for this type of phonological derivation.
Assessment of pressure ulcers is an indicator of nursing care quality. In physically handicapped patients, the risk is elevated, due to the neuropathy and incontinence that frequently accompany paresis and paralysis. We conducted a systematic review of 4 assessment scales to assess their use and usefulness for these patients.
We searched 5 databases for articles published between 2016 and 2018 that included terms related to the risk of pressure ulcers in physically handicapped patients, including the names of 4 assessment scales (Norton, Braden, Waterlow and Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer Scale). One hundred and three sources were returned, from which we selected 10. We also selected an earlier source, for a total of 11.
The Braden and Waterlow scales are popular in clinical practice. The Norton scale is used for scientific comparisons and in clinical practice only sporadically. Expert opinion suggests that acceptance of the Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer Scale could reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in physically handicapped patients.
Introduction of a scale designed for handicapped patients, combined with better preventive measures, could result in the bedsore reduction of pressure ulcers. Research testing the effectiveness of the Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer Scale in the Czech population is needed to validate its use in clinical practice.
Authors:Emily Blatchford, Stephen Bright and Liam Engel
There is increasing evidence that psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy is effective for a range of psychological conditions. There are likely numerous mechanisms of action that contribute to these clinical effects. One such mechanism of action might involve psychedelics increasing levels of empathic functioning. This paper synthesises research concerning the relationship between psychedelics and empathy, emphasising neuroscientific and clinical contexts. We conclude that neuropsychological and clinical evidence imply psychedelics could lead to increased empathic functioning. The effects of psychedelics on the 5-HT system, default mode network, neural connectivity and ego dissolution are implicated in these changes. Changes in empathic functioning also likely relate to increases in the personality trait of openness associated with psychedelic drug use, which is well documented. Increased empathic function likely has clinical implications, leading to increased social connectedness as well as prosocial attitudes and behaviours more broadly.
Authors:Orsolya Kutasi, Orsolya Fehér, Sára Sárdi, Nándor Balogh, Anna Nagy, Leticia Moravszki, Emese Bódai and Ottó Szenci
West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes between wild birds (natural hosts) and other vertebrates. Horses and humans are incidental, dead-end hosts, but can develop severe neurological disorders. Owing to the close contact of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with the extracellular fluid of the brain, the analysis of CSF composition can reflect central nervous system (CNS) impairments enabling the diagnosis and understanding of various neurodegenerative CNS disorders. Our objective was to compare the findings from the CSF samples of horses with neuroinvasive WNV infection with those of healthy controls. We compared findings from fifteen CSF samples of 13 horses with acute WNV encephalomyelitis with those of 20 healthy controls. Protein, particular enzymes and ions, glucose and lactate showed abnormal levels in a significant number of WNV cases. None of the six horses with elevated glucose concentrations survived. Rather neutrophilic than mononuclear pleocytosis was identified with WNV infection. Neutrophils probably play a role in the development of inflammatory response and brain damage. Although elevated glucose levels reliably predicted the outcome, they might be the consequence of increased plasma levels and reflect general stress rather than CNS pathophysiology. The CSF findings of WNV encephalomyelitis patients are non-specific and variable but facilitate the differential diagnosis.
Authors:Barbara Ujvári, Levente Szeredi and Tibor Magyar
In this paper we report the phenotypic and partial genetic characterisation of a novel bacterium strain isolated from a cat with severe nephritis. Multilocus sequence analysis was performed on the 16S rRNA and three housekeeping (recN, rpoB, infB) gene sequences obtained by PCR. In accordance with the results of phenotypic tests, the phylogenetic analyses confirmed the relatedness of the new strain (6036) to the family Pasteurellaceae. On the phylogenetic trees, strain 6036 appeared in a separate branch, closest to that of the type species (Frederiksenia canicola) of the genus Frederiksenia. These two bacteria shared 95.14 and 76.88% identity in their partial 16S rRNA and recN gene sequences, respectively. The rpoB- and infB-based phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain 6036 is most closely related to Bibersteinia trehalosi (with 90.58% identity) and [Haemophilus] felis ATCC 49733 (89.50% identity), respectively. The predicted genome identity values, based on the recN gene sequences, suggested that strain 6036 can be classified into the genus Frederiksenia as a novel species. A PCR method, specific to strain 6036, was developed to allow its rapid and accurate identification and differentiation from F. canicola and other species of Pasteurellaceae. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 18 antimicrobial agents for strain 6036 were also determined.
Authors:Eszter Balogh, Anna Boglárka Dálnoki, László Rózsa, Viktória Johanna Debnár, Orsolya Varga-Balogh, József Rátky, Attila Zsolnai and István Anton
When using artificial insemination in porcine reproduction, one of the most important requirements is the suitable quality of semen regarding its total motility (TM) and progressive motility (PM). Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) is an appropriate method to analyse the quality of semen. Recently a portable instrument has been developed to help specialists in their everyday field work. In our study, semen quality was measured simultaneously by the portable device (Ongo) and a laboratory CASA system (Microptic) to compare TM and PM values obtained by these appliances at a concentration of 50 × 106 spermatozoa/mL. Agreement between measurements was evaluated with a Bland-Altman plot. Strong correlation was found between the investigated instruments for all the three parameters, i.e. sperm concentration, TM and PM. However, a few measurements fell outside the defined range of acceptance.