Authors:Anja DÖrschug, Julian Schwanbeck, Andreas Hahn, Anke Hillebrecht, Sabine Blaschke, Uwe Groß, Markus M. Heimesaat, Hagen Frickmann and Andreas E. Zautner
To efficiently monitor the COVID-19 pandemic for surveillance purposes, reliable serological rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are desirable for settings where well-established high-throughput bench-top solutions are not available. Here, we have evaluated such an RDT.
We have assessed the Xiamen AmonMed Biotechnology COVID-19 IgM/IgG test kit (Colloidal gold) and the EUROIMMUN benchtop assay with serum samples from patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 disease. Samples from patients with Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV) infection and blood donors were used for specificity testing.
For the colloid gold rapid test and the EUROIMMUN assay, the study indicated overall sensitivity of 15.2% and 67.4%, respectively, while specificity of 99.0% and 97.9% with the blood donor sera, as well as 100% and 96.8% with the EBV-patients, were observed, respectively. An association of the time period between positive PCR results and serum acquisition with serological test positivity could be observed for the immunologlobulin G subclass of the EUROIMMUN assay only.
In spite of acceptable specificity of the assessed RDT, the detected poor sensitivity leaves room for improvement. The test results remain difficult to interpret and therefore the RDT can currently not be recommended for routine diagnostic or surveillance use.
Authors:Valentin Flaudias, Sylvain Iceta, Oulmann Zerhouni, Rachel F Rodgers, JoËl Billieux, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Jordane Boudesseul, Ingrid de Chazeron, Lucia Romo, Pierre Maurage, Ludovic Samalin, Laurent BÈgue, Mickael Naassila, Georges Brousse and Sébastien Guillaume
Background and aims
Since mid-March 2020, over 3 billion people have been confined as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Problematic eating behaviors are likely to be impacted by the pandemic through multiple pathways. This study examined the relationships between stress related to lockdown measures and binge eating and dietary restriction in a population of French students during the first week of confinement.
A sample of undergraduate students (N = 5,738) completed an online questionnaire 7 days after lockdown measures were introduced. The survey comprised variables related to lockdown measures and the COVID-19-pandemic, mood, stress, body image, binge eating and dietary restriction during the past 7 days, as well as intent to binge eat and restrict in the following 15 days.
Stress related to the lockdown was associated with greater likelihood of binge eating and dietary restriction over the past week and intentions to binge eat and restrict over the next 15 days. Greater exposure to COVID-19-related media was associated with increased eating restriction over the past week. Binge eating and restriction (past and intentions) were associated with established risk factors, including female gender, low impulse regulation, high body dissatisfaction, and having a concurrent probable eating disorder.
Discussion and conclusion
The higher the stress related to the first week of confinement, the higher the risk of problematic eating behaviors among students, particularly those characterized by eating-related concerns. Screening for risk factors and providing targeted interventions might help decrease problematic eating behaviors among those who are most vulnerable.
Authors:Katerina Lukavská, Jaroslav Vacek and Roman Gabhelík
Background and aims
Problematic internet use (PIU) is a highly prevalent condition with severe adverse effects. The literature suggests that parent-child bonding and parental behavioral control exert protective effects against PIU. However, the most relevant studies rely on simplistic measurement of parenting, cross-sectional designs and mixed-aged samples. Our study analyzed the effect of maternal and paternal parenting on PIU by using a prospective design and a cohort sample of same-aged children.
Data from 1,019 Czech 12-year-old sixth-graders who were followed until ninth grade were used. Maternal and paternal responsiveness and strictness were reported by children using the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) and the Parental Control Scale (PCS). PIU was measured by the Excessive Internet Use Scale (EIUS).
The self-reported PIU prevalence in nine-graders (15-year-old) was 8.1%. Parenting, reported by adolescents 18 months before PIU screening, showed significant relationships with PIU: parental responsiveness was negatively and moderately associated, while maternal strictness showed a weak positive association; the authoritative parenting style in both parents decreased PIU, with a PIU probability of 3.21%, while a combination of maternal authoritarian and paternal neglectful parenting was associated with PIU probability as high as 20.9%.
Discussion and conclusions
The self-reported prevalence of PIU in Czech adolescents was found to be high. The effects of parenting on PIU were similar to the effects of parenting on other problematic behavior among adolescents. Our findings showed the need for interventions to prevent PIU by helping parents to apply optimal parenting styles.
Authors:Tarek Elawady, Fawzia Ibrahim, Alaa Khedr and Fathalla Belal
A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of ezetimibe (EZE), atorvastatin calcium (ATO), and simvastatin (SMV) in combined dosage forms and human plasma. Successful separation of the studied drugs was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column (3.0 × 150 mm, 5 µm) using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water (65:35, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min−1. Total run time was 9.3 min and diclofenac sodium was used as internal standard (IS). Positive selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was applied where, the monitored ions were those at m/z values of 392.1, 559.3, 296.0, and 441.4 corresponding to EZE, ATO, IS, and SMV, respectively. The method was fully validated according to the ICH guidelines. The intraday and interday precision showed relative SD values not more than 1.77 and 1.99%; respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.25, 0.25, and 0.75 ng mL−1 while the limits of quantification (LOQ) were 1.25, 0.75, and 2.5 ng mL−1 for EZE, ATO, and SMV, respectively. The developed method was applied on two types of combined tablets concerning drug assay with mean percent recoveries within acceptable range. The method has been extended to the determination of the studied drugs in human plasma where, a solid phase extraction method was optimized for their extraction with percent recovery not less than 97%.
A Szerző Vámossy Ferenc munkatársaként 2000 óta segítette az Építés – Építészettudomány folyóirat megjelenését. E rövid visszatekintésben a közös munka állomásai, az idősödő professzor módszerei és hatása szerepelnek, hogyan segítette részletes tanácsaival, módszertani javaslataival a fiatalabb szerzőket, hogyan gondoskodott a lap tudományos színvonaláról. A folyóirat érdekében 60 éven át végzett, kimagasló munkáját 2017-ben zárta le egy magyar és angol nyelven megjelent, összefoglaló, visszaemlékező tanulmánnyal.
Summary. As a colleague of Ferenc Vámossy, the author has been helping to publish the journal Építés – Építészettudomány since 2000. This brief review includes the stages of the joint work, the methods and impact of the elderly professor, how he helped the younger authors with his detailed advice and methodological suggestions, and how he ensured the scientific quality of the journal. He concluded his outstanding work for 60 years in the interest of the journal in 2017 with a summary, reminiscent study published in Hungarian and English.
A Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem Építészettörténeti és Műemléki Tanszékén a műemléki és történeti épületek felmérése évszázados múltra tekint vissza. Az oktatásban is rendkívül fontos szerepet betöltő felmérőtáborok hagyományát oktatóink, dr. Istvánfi Gyula és dr. Kalmár Miklós hosszú évtizedeken keresztül éltették tovább megszerettetve hallgatóikkal – így velünk is – a régi házak, szerkezetek megfigyelését, rajzolását és kutatását. Tanulmányunkban a Tanszék által 2017-ben a Pest megyei Ipolytölgyesen szervezett nyári felmérőtábor emlékét és tanulságait történeti és néprajzi kitekintéssel szeretnénk összefűzni. A tábor során felmért tíz portát főleg építészeti szempontból vizsgáltuk és dokumentáltuk, de ahogyan az minden épület tanulmányozása esetén fennáll, betekintést nyerhettünk a falu mindennapi életébe és értékeibe is.
Surveying monuments and historical buildings at the Department of History of Architecture and Monument Preservation of Budapest University of Technology and Economics dates back to age-old traditions. The tradition of survey camps, that played an all-important educational role, had been kept alive for decades by our tutors Gyula Istvánfi and Miklós Kalmár, thus winning the affection of the students – and so ours – towards observing, drawing and studying historical buildings and structures. In our study, we wish to incorporate the memory and lessons of the 2017 survey camp organized by the Department in Ipolytölgyes, Pest county, with a historical and an ethnographical outlook. During the camp, we studied, surveyed and documented ten vernacular houses with their service buildings, mainly from an architectural point of view, but we could also inspect the everyday life and values of the village.
Authors:Zhihan Zheng, Xiaobin Li, Fangfang Gao, Huitao Liu and Yuan Gao
A sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) enrichment model was established for the determination of three chlorophenols (CPs) in cosmetics, namely, bithionol, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The optimum electrophoretic conditions were 20 mM NaH2PO4-80 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 30% (v/v) acetonitrile (pH 2.3). The optimum on-line concentration conditions were as follows: sample matrix, 100 mM NaH2PO4; pressure injection at 20.67 kPa (3 psi) for 25 s. The linear range of bithionol, PCP, and 2,4,6-TCP are 0.20–4.00 μg mL−1, 0.10–2.00 μg mL−1, and 0.05–2.00 μg mL−1 respectively, with correlation coefficient (r) over 0.9972. The limits of detection (LOD) based on three times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N = 3) are in the range of 0.0061–0.024 μg mL−1. Recoveries for the three CPs in powder and lotion samples are between 79.7 and 110.2% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.38–5.54% and 92.2–121.3% with RSD of 0.72–6.09%, respectively. The proposed method can provide reference for the determination of trace CPs in different sample matrix.
Authors:Danling Sun, Xitian Peng, Maomin Peng, Xian Zhang, Hong Xia, Zhimin Xu and Xizhou Hu
This study focused on developing an effective and environmentally friendly method to measure ligustrazine in rat serum by using polymer monolith micro-extraction (PMME) technique. A poly (methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) material was used to extract ligustrazine through hydrophobic and ion-exchange interaction. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed by a liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. After optimization of several PMME conditions, the developed method exhibited excellent extraction performance to the ligustrazine. Good linearity was acquired ranging from 10 to 2,000 ng mL−1, and the limit of detection of the proposed method was 0.14 ng mL−1. The recoveries measured by spiking three different concentrations in rat serum ranged from 82.6 to 95.3%, and excellent precision was found with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 8.3% for intra-day and 9.7% for inter-day, respectively. At last, the applicability of the method was further confirmed through continuous monitoring of ligustrazine in rat serum after dosing of ligustrazine tablets to rats.