Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) with high antioxidant capacity is distributed all over the world, but has never been used as a natural antioxidant in oils to replace synthetic antioxidants. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of sea buckthorn extract in comparison to a common natural antioxidant rosemary extract and a synthetic antioxidant on retarding lipid oxidation. First the extracts were characterised, and it was found that sea buckthorn extract had higher polyphenol contents, radical scavenging activity, and higher antioxidant capacity. Then the proper concentrations for the use of these antioxidants were determined. Additionally, the progress of lipid oxidation during cycles of frying was assessed in terms of free fatty acids content, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX value, colour, total polar compounds, and Induction period. The general order of effectiveness for inhibition of high oleic sunflower oil degradation during frying was: sea buckthorn > BHT > rosemary > control (P <0.05).
Tomato is rich in different bioactive compounds, especially the carotenoid lycopene, which intake is associated with various health benefits. Post-harvest use of ultraviolet light (UV) and light-emitting diode (LED) has been shown to increase the concentration of tomato bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (A and C) and red-blue LED light on the concentration of carotenoids during a 7-days storage trial of mature green tomatoes. Exposure to combined UV and LED light nearly doubled the total carotenoid concentration and had no negative impact on sensory attributes.
The contribution of food production to the environmental burden is considerable, therefore, numerous countries have been trying to create a sustainable food supply chain to ensure food and nutrition security. The scope of this study was to analyse the association between water footprint and healthiness based on dietary records. Furthermore, it was aimed to create a classification of integrative dietary indicators of sustainable nutrition. With these methodological aims, the dietary records of 25 healthy adults were assessed. The dietary quality scores and dietary water footprint were calculated and Spearman's rank correlation was tested between them. The indicator nutrients were classified based on their advantageous or disadvantageous health impact and association with water footprint. There was a significant positive correlation between the meat consumption and water footprint, while significant negative correlations were found between the dietary quality score and water footprint and dietary quality score and meat consumption (P < 0.05). Protein, energy, sodium, and saturated fatty acids as integrated indicator nutrients could be identified for both dietary quality and water footprint. The improvement in dietary quality could simultaneously decrease the dietary water footprint. The integration of environmental impact into the analysis of diets could be the future direction in the counseling practice of nutritionists.
After wheat, rye is the second most important raw material for bread and bakery products, and it is one of the most excellent sources of dietary fibres and bioactive compounds. Besides, rye is utilised in more and more other food products as well, such as breakfast cereals, porridges, pasta, snack products, etc. Interestingly, its production is decreasing worldwide, probably because of the expansion of other cereals (e.g. triticale), but also the effect of climate change can also play a role therein. However, there is no doubt that scientific research aimed at studying the possible health benefits and the potential of rye in the development of novel food products has intensified over the past decade.
The aim of our paper is to make a comprehensive review of the latest results on the compositional and technological properties of rye that fundamentally influence its utilisation for food purposes. Furthermore, this review aims to identify the current development directions and trends of rye products.
Kutatásunk során Magyarország két dél-alföldi réti csernozjom talajú területét vizsgáltuk azon céllal, hogy in situ körülmények között számszerűsítsük a különböző szélesemények által okozott talajveszteség mértékét, az ezzel együtt járó humusz- és tápanyagáthalmozás nagyságrendjét, valamint a két terület defláció érzékenységében tapasztalt különbségek okait.
Vizsgálati területeink Békés megyében, Makótól K-re mintegy 10 km-re, Apátfalva külterületén, valamint Csongrád megyében Szegedtől ÉNy-ra 2 km-re helyezkedtek el. Kutatásunk célkitűzései az alábbiak voltak: terepi szélcsatornás mérésekre alapozott laboratóriumi mérések alapján különböző szerkezeti állapotú csernozjom talajokra meghatározni
◾a szélerózióval áthalmozott szedimentben mért makroelem, és humuszanyag feldúsulását,
◾valamint az ezekre ható talajtani tényezőket.
A hasonló mechanikai összetételű, Szeged és Apátfalva melletti réti csernozjom talajok aggregátum összetételében, valamint a CaCO3 és humusztartalomban megfigyelhető különbségek hatására a Szeged melletti csernozjom mintaterület talaja defláció érzékenyebb. A Szegedtől É-ra eső csernozjomokon 6,5–9,0 m s–1 közötti indítósebesség értékeket mértünk, míg Apátfalván 13,0 m s–1 volt az indítósebesség értéke. Az apátfalvi terület talajának magasabb karbonát- és humusztartalma, valamint aggregátum összetételében mért magasabb morzsa arány az indítósebességérték növelésének irányába hat. A feltalajban a 0,5 mm-nél kisebb aggregátumok magasabb aránya következtében nemcsak kisebb indítósebesség értékeket, hanem nagyobb áthalmozódó talajmennyiséget, valamint ezzel együtt nagyobb mennyiségű humusz- és foszfor elmozdulást mértünk az egységesen 10-10 perces fújatási kísérleteink alkalmával a szegedi mintaterületen. Megállapítható tehát, hogy egyazon talajtípusba eső, s azonos textúrájú (homokos vályog) talajok esetében az aggregátum összetételben, valamint a CaCO3 és humusztartalomban megfigyelhető eltérések hatására jelentős különbségek tapasztalhatók a defláció érzékenység, az indítósebesség, a szediment szállítás módja és a humusz- és elemáthalmozás mértéke között.
In our research, two Chernozem soil areas were examined in the southern part of the Great Hungarian Plain in order to quantify the amount of the soil loss, humus and nutrient transport caused by different wind events and in order to show the causes of the differences in the sensitivity of deflation between the two areas.
Our study areas were located in Békés County, one of them was near Apátfalva, about 10 km east of Makó, and the other one was 2 km northeast of Szeged in Csongrád County. Our in situ wind tunnel experiments were accomplished on 2–4 June 2011 at Apátfalva and in July 2013 in Szeged. The objectives of our research were the followings:
◾determination of the enrichment ratios for humus, macro- and microelements in the wind eroded sediments in the case of Chernozem soils with different structures based on field experiments and laboratory measurements;
◾determination the affecting actual soil factors;
◾estimation of soil loss and element rearrangement trends on Chernozem arable lands under different wind velocity on plot scale.
Because of the differences in the aggregate size distribution, CaCO3 and humus content, Chernozem soil near Szeged is more sensitive to deflation than near Apátfalva. Threshold friction velocity was measured between 6.5 and 9.0 m s–1 near Szeged, while the same parameter was 13.0 m s–1 at Apátfalva. The higher carbonate and humus content and the higher crumb ratio of the soil on the Apátfalva area result increasing threshold friction velocity. Due to the higher proportion of aggregates smaller than 0.5 mm in the topsoil, we have measured not only lower threshold friction velocities, but also a larger quantity of transported soil and a larger humus and phosphorus loss during the uniform 10-10 minute long wind tunnel experiments in the Szeged sample area. It can be concluded that even in spite of the same soil type and same texture there are significant differences between deflation sensitivity, threshold friction velocity, sediment transport mode, humus and nutrient transportation because of the significant differences in aggregate size distribution, CaCO3 and humus content.
It means that the agronomic structure of the soils greatly influences the mitigation and aggravation of the soil the stress effects caused by climate change. Extreme weather situations have drawn attention to the fact that improperly applied cultivation methods, tools, and overuse of Chernozem soils can modify the soil structure. One of the most serious affect is the dusting of the surface layer of the soil. During this process the larger macroaggregates disintegrate into microaggregates and the resulting smaller fractions are more exposed to wind erosion.
The dust load affecting our settlements is mainly originated from arable lands. The mitigation of this emission is fundamentally based on the regulation of land use, farming practices and deflation. “Best Management Practices” (BMPs) mean a group of selected tools that can reduce or eliminate the transport of pollutants from diffuse sources before, during and/or after agricultural activities. However, these diffuse agricultural loads caused by wind erosion can only be quantified if the magnitude and spatial movement of the dust and pollutants is monitored.
In the case of fruit syrups, consumers prefer thicker, deep-coloured ones because they remind them of good old homemade ones. Physical properties – as viscosity, colour, refractive index, soluble solid content (SSC), and electrical impedance - of fruit syrups flavoured with raspberry or orange juice were determined. The change of the measured physical properties was determined in three different experiments: 1. evaluating the effect of sugar and sweetener content 2. evaluating the effect of fruit juice composition and 3. evaluating the effect of sugar content on syrups containing raspberry or orange juice only. Variations in fruit and sugar content had a definite effect on the physical properties of squashes. Viscosity, SSC value, refractive index, and impedance magnitude increased with increasing sugar content and decreased with replacement of sugar with sweeteners although colour characteristics were defined mostly by the colorant added to the squash. Changes in the fruit composition of syrups could influence viscosity, refractive index, and SSC values but the magnitude of impedance showed little changes for all samples. The characteristics of squashes containing only raspberry or orange juice and different sugar content did not follow any trends, which emphasized that additives had a significant effect on the physical properties.
Little is known on the abundance of the pathogens Bacillus anthracis and Burkholderia pseudomallei in environmental samples in Cameroon. Therefore, 100 respective samples were assessed in a proof-of-principle assessment.
DNA residuals from nucleic acid extractions of 100 environmental samples, which were collected between 2011 and 2013 in the Mapé Basin of Cameroon, were screened for B. anthracis and B. pseudomallei by real-time PCR. The samples comprised soil samples with water contact (n = 88), soil samples without water contact (n = 6), plant material with water contact (n = 3), water (n = 2), and soil from a hospital dressing room (n = 1).
B. anthracis and B. pseudomallei were detected in none of the samples assessed.
The results indicate that at least a quantitatively overwhelming, ubiquitous occurrence of B. anthracis and B. pseudomallei in the environment in Cameroon is highly unlikely. However, the number and choice of the assessed samples limit the interpretability of the results.
Napping is one of the rapid sensory profiling methods, which was established recently to meet the needs of sensory and consumer researchers. This approach provides a holistic evaluation of the tested sample through their positioning in a 2-dimensional space. The protocol of the analysis is somewhat different from the traditionally applied descriptive methods, like Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. In our review, we focus on the applicability of Napping in the field of fermented goods. The accompanying procedures are also investigated (typically Flash Profiling, CATA, and further methods), in order to understand how the combined datasets facilitate the understanding of the sensory characteristics of the products.
Consuming enough protein is a very important part of a balanced and healthy diet. Complete proteins are those in which all essential amino acids are present. In meat products, like hams, many different reactions occur during ageing and storage. For example, the production of free amino acids or the production of biogenic amines is formed by decarboxylation. In this study, the presence of these amino acids and biogenic amines, as well as the quality properties of cured hams during curing and ageing, were investigated.
The meat samples were immersed into 100 g L−1 NaCl brine. The curing took 20 days, followed by smoking and ageing for 35 days (12 °C, 75% RH). The wet-cured ham samples were analysed for changes in NaCl concentration (at 3 parts: surface, core, bottom layer). Moreover, color, water activity, denaturation temperature and enthalpy (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), free amino acids (FAAs) and biogenic amines (BAs) were also evaluated.
One of the most important components in spreads is the fat phase. The characteristics of the used fat determine most of the quality factors of the products such as viscosity, texture, colour, shelf life, etc. In these kinds of products, the commonly used fat is palm fat, however, in recent years it has had a bad press due to its negative environmental impact and health concerns. Therefore, the aim of our research was to develop a palm oil free hazelnut spread. We investigated the effect of replacing the fat in the fat phase with milk fat or coconut fat to the apparent viscosity, colour and texture properties of the product. According to our results the palm fat had the highest and coconut fat had the lowest viscosity. In texture analyses palm fat and milk fat showed no significant difference in hardness and in work of penetration. Coconut fat was significantly different in every texture attributes from the other samples. In the case of colour measurement all samples were significantly different. Despite the observed differences in some parameters the suitability of milk fat for hazelnut spread production should be further investigated (sensory analyses, shelf-life).