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Abstract

Background

Early identification of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease of 2019) by diagnostic tests played an important role in the isolation of infectious patients and management of this pandemic. Various methodologies and diagnostic platforms are available. The current “gold standard” for SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) diagnosis is real-time reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To overcome the limitations posed by the short supply experienced early during the pandemic and to increase our capacity, we assessed the performance of the MassARRAY System (Agena Bioscience).

Methods

MassARRAY System (Agena Bioscience) combines RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) with high-throughput mass spectrometry processing. We compared the MassARRAY performance to a research-use-only E-gene/EAV (Equine Arteritis Virus) assay and RNA Virus Master PCR. Discordant results were tested with a laboratory-developed assay using the Corman et al. E-gene primers and probes.

Results

186 patient specimens were analyzed using the MassARRAY SARS-CoV-2 Panel. The performance characteristics were as follows: the positive agreement was 85.71%, 95% CI (78.12 – 91.45), and the negative agreement was 96.67%, 95% CI (88.47 – 99.59). 19/186 (10.2%) results were found to be discordant and assessed by a different assay with the exception of 1, where the sample was not available for repeat testing. 14 out of 18 agreed with the MassARRAY after testing with the secondary assay. The overall performance after discordance testing was as follows: the positive agreement was 97.3%, 95% CI (90.58 – 99.67), and the negative agreement was 97.14%, 95% CI (91.88 – 99.41).

Conclusion

Our study demonstrates that the MassARRAY System is an accurate and sensitive method for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Following the discordant agreement with an alternate RT-PCR test, the performance was found to have sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy exceeding 97%, making it a viable diagnostic tool. It can be used as an alternative method during periods when real-time RT-PCR reagent supply chains are disrupted.

Open access

Abstract

Obesity and other unhealthy behaviors are behind cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, with the Roma population particularly at risk. The aim of our cross-sectional (questionnaire- and physical measurements-based) study was to compare the prevalence of obesity in Hungarian, Romanian, and Slovakian Hungarian-speaking Roma and non-Roma (N = 1893) in relation to lifestyle-related risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In the total sample, the proportion of extreme obesity was higher in Roma (P < 0.001) than non-Roma. The mean waist circumference was the highest in Hungary (P < 0.001). Visceral fat was higher in the Hungarian Roma sample than in the Slovak (P = 0.006) or Romanian Roma samples (P = 0.005). Hungarian Roma total cholesterol levels were lower than in the Slovak (P < 0.001) or Romanian samples (P < 0.001). Hypertension and cholesterol levels were associated with a higher risk among non-Roma men (P < 0.001), and the presence of smoking increased CVD risk among both men (P = 0.024) and women (P < 0.001) in the Roma minority. The combined presence of several risk factors was found mainly in Roma. Overall, Roma scores were found to be worse, but ethnicity did not provide clear evidence for the questions examined, but rather the level of education, which is associated with socioeconomic status.

Open access

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 infection still poses health threats especially to older and immunocompromised individuals. New emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2, including Omicron and Arcturus, have been challenging the effectiveness of humoral immunity resulting from repeated vaccination and infection. With recent study implying a wave of new mutants in vaccinated people making them more susceptible to the newest variants and fueling a rapid viral evolution, there is a need for alternative or adjunct approaches against coronavirus infections other than vaccines. Our earlier work indicated that a specific combination of micronutrients and phytochemicals can inhibit key infection mechanisms shared by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants in vitro. Here we demonstrate in vivo that an intake of this micronutrient combination before and during infection of mice with engineered SARS-CoV-2 virions and HCoV-229E virus results in a significant decrease in viral load and level of spike protein in the lungs. This was accompanied by decreased inflammatory response, including TNFα, IL1β, ILα, and IL17. These and our earlier results confirm that by targeting multiple mechanisms simultaneously by a combination treatment we can effectively and safely challenge SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E virus. If clinically confirmed, such an approach could complement already in-use preventive and therapeutic strategies against coronavirus infections.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
S. Labidi
,
A. Jánosity
,
A. Yakdhane
,
E. Yakdhane
,
B. Surányi
,
Cs. Mohácsi-Farkas
, and
G. Kiskó

Abstract

Listeria monocytogenes is able to form biofilms on food contact surfaces. Effectiveness of salt concentration, pH, and temperature on the formation of L. monocytogenes biofilms was evaluated individually and in combinations using microtiter plate assay by measuring the optical density. The tested strains differed in their biofilm formation (low, moderate, and strong) ability. At 37 °C, decreasing amounts of biofilms was observed in almost all L. monocytogenes strains when the NaCl concentration increased from 0.05 to 15%, but all strains were able to form biofilm even at 1 °C. There was no significant difference in biofilm formation between pH 4, 5, and 6, except for some strains. When stress conditions were tested in combination, the addition of 15% NaCl significantly inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes at 1 °C and 4 °C, and the weak biofilm-forming strains were less sensitive to the temperature and to NaCl treatments than the strong biofilm-forming strains. These results enhance our knowledge of the application of NaCl, temperature, and pH stresses in the food industry and provide basis to develop new strategies for control of biofilm formation of this pathogen.

Open access

Az azbesztszálak kimutatására szolgáló vizsgálatok középpontjában a levegőszennyezettségi értékek álltak, de a 21. században felmerült az igény a problémakör kiterjesztésére. Az elmúlt években megjelent nemzetközi tudományos szakirodalmak megcáfolták az évtizedeken át fennálló feltételezést, miszerint az azbeszt csupán a levegőterheltség révén vált ki kockázatot. Vízminőségi és talajminőségi kutatások által teret nyert az azbesztszálak, különösen a krizotilszálak alternatív transzportútjainak vizsgálatát célzó kutatásterület. Annak ellenére, hogy mind a települési, mind pedig a mezőgazdasági vízgazdálkodás potenciálisan érintett a krizotil-azbeszt jelenléte kapcsán, nincs nemzetközi szinten egységes és elfogadott módszer vagy küszöbérték az egyes vízforrások biztonságára vonatkozóan. A kutatások nyilvánvaló korlátja, hogy csekély mennyiségű és minőségű tudás érhető el. Az azbesztszálak megjelenése az egyes vízbázisokban jelentősen megváltoztatja mind a mezőgazdasági, mind a települési vízgazdálkodás környezeti hatásoknak való kitettségéről alkotott eddigi ismereteinket. Az öntözővizzel és a gyűjtött csapadékkal kijuttatott azbesztszálak hatásainak palettája mára túlhaladta a humán- és állategészségügyi hatásokat, immár figyelmet kell fordítani a vegetációs hatásokra is. Annak érdekében, hogy nagyobb betekintést nyerjünk az azbeszttoxicitás növényekre gyakorolt hatásaiba, sokkal több tudományos eredményre van szükség.

Jelen összefoglaló tanulmányban bemutatjuk az azbeszt, különös tekintettel a krizotil azbeszt legfontosabb tulajdonságait, humán-, állat- és növényegészségügyi kockázatait. Rávilágítunk arra, hogy ismereteink rendkívül hiányosak, valamint felhívjuk a figyelmet a települési és mezőgazdasági vízgazdálkodás érintettségének egyes faktoraira, közvetlen és közvetett kockázati tényezőire, valamint arra, hogy ezek miként hatnak az élőlényekre, kiemelt tekintettel a növényekre.

Open access

Abstract

All known trachyuropodid mites (Acari: Uropodina: Trachyuropodidae) are listed together with diagnoses of the family Trachyuropodidae and trachyuropodid genera. A new illustrated key to trachyuropodid genera is also presented. The second species of the genus Trachyibana (T. kozari sp. nov.) is described and illustrated from Singapore. Forty eight new combinations are also presented: Arculatatrachys darwini (Kontschán and Starý, 2013) comb. nov.; Arculatatrachys newtoni (Kontschán, 2010) comb. nov.; Bostocktrachys berlesesellnickia (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; B. extremica (Kontschán and Starý, 2013) comb. nov.; B. kiewensis (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; B. myrmecophila (Wiśniewski and Hirschmann, 1992) comb. nov.; B. plagiata (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; B. zicsii (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; Castritrachys quadriauricularia (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; Cristicepstrachys sinuata (Berlese, 1904) comb. nov.; Cephalojanetia multituberculata (Hirschmann, 1976) comb nov.; C. tuberosa (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; C. dentata (Kontschán, 2007) comb. nov.; Cephalouropoda alapaducta (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; Excavatatrachys auricularia (Costa, 1962) comb. nov.; E. longicornuta (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; E. longicornutasimilis (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; E. poppi (Hirschmann and Zirngiebl-Nicol, 1969) comb. nov.; E. quadricornuta (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; E. sellnicki (Hirschmann and Zirngiebl-Nicol, 1969) comb. nov.; Graecatrachys bali (Kontschán and Starý, 2013) comb. nov.; G. endrodyi (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; G. ghanaensis (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; G. mesofovea (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; G. mesofoveasimilis (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; G. represa (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; G. rufipes (Hirschmann, 1976) comb nov.; Magnatrachys dacica (Huţu, 1973) comb. nov.; M. imperforata (Berlese, 1904) comb. nov.; M. mexicana (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; M. pecinai (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; M. schusteri (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; M. schusterisimilis (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; Trogulotrachys ablesi (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; T. celtica (Halbert, 1907) comb. nov.; T. hirschmanni (Pecina, 1980) comb. nov.; T. kinsella (Kontschán et al., 2010) comb. nov.; T. michaeli (Ewing, 1909) comb. nov.; T. wasmanniana (Berlese, 1903) comb. nov.; T. willmanni (Hirschmann and Zirngiebl-Nicol, 1969) comb. nov.; Urojanetia baloghi (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; U. baloghisimilis (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; U. belunensis (Lombardini, 1962) comb. nov.; U. hexaspinosa (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; U. mahunkai (Hirschmann, 1976) comb. nov.; U. similicoccinea (Hiramatsu, 1979) comb. nov.; Urotrachytes formicariasimilis (Hirschmann, 1975) comb. nov.; and Ur. ponticuli (Karg, 1989) comb. nov.

Open access

Abstract

For a long time, olive oil has been considered for formulation of biopharmaceuticals and received a prestigious place in cuisine for its unique organoleptic and nutritional properties. Nevertheless, oxidation of fatty acids in olive oil provides short shelf-life and undesirable organoleptic properties. Thus, microencapsulation of olive oil is a considerable promising approach to maintain its quality and biological activities. The objective of this investigation was to prepare extra virgin olive oil microcapsule by sequential technologies, such as water emulsification of olive oil with wall material (matrix) and freeze drying of emulsion. The effect of wall material composition was examined to prepare microcapsule of extra virgin olive oil. Different ratios of wall materials such as maltodextrin (MD), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and gum arabic (GA) were used. Furthermore, effects of emulsification technologies, such as homogenisation with rotor–stator homogeniser (RSH) and cross-flow membrane emulsification (CFME) were investigated. The stability of emulsion was higher when emulsion was prepared by RSH; however, the droplet mean diameter (D32) was lower in case of RSH compared to CFME. The highest encapsulation efficiency (EE) was found as 68.96 ± 2.6% when CFME was adopted and composition of wall materials was 15 g MD, 15 g GA, and 5 g CMC.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M.K.J. Szentmiklóssy
,
E. Jaksics
,
A. Farkas
,
É. Pusztai
,
S. Kemény
,
R. Németh
, and
S. Tömösközi

Abstract

Rye is an important raw material of bread due to tradition and its favourable nutritional and technological qualities. Despite the beneficial fibre composition, a special group of short-chain carbohydrates, the so called FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) may cause problems for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of our work was to investigate the non-starch carbohydrate (dietary fibre compounds, short-chain carbohydrates) composition of rye varieties, and of their novel milling fractions obtained from industrial milling trials and test loaves made from them. Regarding fibre and short chain carbohydrate composition, rye varieties did not show significant differences. In new subfractions, fibre and FODMAP composition were described, among profiles most of them differ from commonly used flours, independently from variety. The yeast fermentation and baking caused a decrease in water-extractable arabinoxylan content, at the same time increased the substitution pattern of water-extractable arabinoxylans. Furthermore, breadmaking process decreased the fructan content, and therefore increased the fructose level, thus modifying the short-chain carbohydrate composition. Based on our knowledge, this research is among the first ones investigating the fibre and short-chain composition of rye from the seeds to the consumable final products.

Open access