A lack of movement in adolescence is a pressing issue for modern society. Physical education at school can have a major influence on the movement habits of adolescents, since it can offer curriculum that gives students ideas for leisure time while entertaining them and also respecting physical fitness goals. The aim of this work is to analyze student satisfaction with physical education classes at secondary vocational schools.
Categories were created based on week-long monitoring of walking. Based on the number of steps, students were divided into four categories: active girls/boys and hypoactive girls/boys. In another part of the study, the students filled out the questionnaire created by Antala et al. (2012). Responses to questions regarding questions about unpopular activities, dread of specific activities, and more frequent inclusion of specific activities in PE classes. A χ2 independence test was used to compare data between individual student categories in the combination table.
The health recommendations for minimum daily number of steps are met by 65.4% of boys and 75.8% of girls aged 15–16 years. Chi-squared test showed the greatest difference in satisfaction with physical education (P-value <0.001) between the hypoactive groups of students. Hypoactive boys are significantly more satisfied with the activities in PE class than hypoactive girls. Dread is more often present among girls than boys and is particularly associated with gymnastics. Activities that students wanted to do more often included ball games (football for boys, volleyball for girls), strength training (listed by 32% of hypoactive boys) and exercise to music (listed by 49% of hypoactive girls).
We believe that the proper choice of PE activities can increase the popularity of the class, and thus influence the exercise habits of adolescents, including those who are found to have insufficient physical activity.
Authors:Ivett Judit Kovács, Judit Szivák, and Erzsébet Czachesz
In Hungary, the teacher qualification and promotion system was extended with the missing Master teacher grade in 2016. The analysis of the five-year plans of the Master teacher candidates provides an opportunity to get an overview of the vision of experienced and highly qualified teachers about the current situation and the potentials of the educational sector. The research explores the Master programmes of 95 Master teacher candidates from the early years sector to understand what issues they identify in their everyday work, which motivates them for professional learning and for setting innovative goals. The qualitative research uses document analysis to explore the programmes that is followed by semi-structured interviews. The Master kindergarten teachers consider teacher fluctuation and the changes in the legislation the main issues that induce extra tasks to deal with. They also plan to enrich their practice with innovative methods. Collaborative methods for professional learning and planning are frequently mentioned in the programmes, but the terrain of knowledge sharing is mainly their community of practice. Even though opposition is visible in the teachers' attitude against the qualification network, the majority of the Master teachers claim to consider their master programme as an enhancement of their professional work.
Data-driven decision-making (DDDM) has been playing an increasing role in contemporary teaching, since it includes systematic collection, analysis, and application of data to improve students’ educational performance. However, little is known about the affective factors that influence this data-based practice. Thus, the purpose of this study was to systematically examine previous research on the affective factors that influence DDDM based on the following criteria: (1) the level of DDDM usage; (2) the emphasis of affective factors; and (3) the nature of the interventions and their effects on teachers. According to the findings, this literature review showed how little DDDM-related affective factors have been researched, even though the knowledge of DDDM can help expand its application in the educational field. For example, although the most widely used tool is the Data-Driven Decision-Making Efficacy and Anxiety Inventory (3D-MEA), which has shown promising results in terms of measuring the efficacy and development of data literacy, other affective components have yet to be tested, due to their novelty in the field. The implication of the findings is that obtaining more information about DDDM and its affective elements can help reduce teachers’ anxiety toward this approach and ultimately enhance the overall educational process.
Compared to other developing countries, the reading achievement of Azerbaijani students remains low. Using the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016 data, this study examines potential predictors of Grade 4 student reading achievement in Azerbaijan.
Background of the research
The study is guided by an exploratory model and considers various student and family factors which could be influenced by the policies to improve student reading achievement in Azerbaijan. The study differs from previous research in that it simultaneously examines multiple predictors of student reading achievement in a previously under-researched country.
This study conducts a secondary analysis of the PIRLS 2016 data. Regression model is utilized to examine the effects of student and family factors on reading achievement.
The study finds that student characteristics (gender, liking reading, and confidence in reading) and family factors (home resources for learning, preschool attendance) are significantly associated with reading achievement of Grade 4 students in Azerbaijan. The model explains 17% of the variance in student reading achievement.
This study discusses recommendations related to the effects of various factors on reading literacy scores.
Authors:Marie-Helene Zimmerman Nilsson and Colette Murphy
This case study contributes with a new coteaching design, in which experienced teachers from two different aesthetic subjects are planning, teaching and evaluating together in higher education, more specifically in general preschool teacher education. The aim of the study is to analyse how two drama teachers and a music teacher reflect on their coteaching. Coteaching, when teachers teach together with shared responsibility to meet their students’ learning needs, is a pedagogical approach to enable an active learning process. Research and practice in coteaching have emerged, mostly designed with coteachers within the same subject. However, more research is needed about teachers from different subjects coteaching together. The theoretical framework is sociocultural, with special emphasis on aspects of learning from ‘the other’ in praxis by working in a zone of proximal development (ZPD). Analysed data consist of field notes and audio-recorded teacher group conversations. Main findings show synergies in subject parallels, based on the analysis of coteachers’ reflections as learning processes within their ZPD. In conclusion, a major contribution in terms of synergy in coteaching appears in subject parallels related to specific subject matter concepts, where music and drama are intertwined in the classroom as “music-drama”, as a new dimension.
This research focuses on the question whether novelties of criminal law are mirrored in legal consciousness. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a representative national sample of the adult Hungarian population and in this paper, the responses related to the age-limit of criminal responsibility for property offences are analysed. The hypothesis that the average person has a fragmented knowledge, even about this sector of criminal law, has been verified. It was not substantiated that this knowledge of law is substantially affected by socio-economic factors, including media consumption and encountering criminality. The cognitive answers were, however, strongly influenced by the attitudes of the respondents.
The issues of continuity and discontinuity are rather complex in case of the minorities’ legal status. The main focus of the paper is the transition from the monarchy to the republic in 1918. During the first Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938) the legal status of minorities was substantially influenced by the traditions from the period of monarchy as these were used by the new state. The most extensive legal regulation of minorities’ status in Czech history existed in interwar Czechoslovakia.
Sustainability, as comp ared to the rule of law, human rights, sovereignty or democracy, is a relatively new constitutional key concept. It is mentioned explicitly more and more in constitutional discourses, and – even more importantly – it helps to reconstruct a number of current constitutional debates under one conceptual umbrella. Sustainability comprises different responses to long term social challenges which cannot efficiently be responded to via democratic mechanisms. Democratic mechanisms are based on election terms and which are, consequently, structurally short-sighted. By ‘European constitutional law’, I mean in this paper both the primary law of the EU and domestic constitutional documents. In the present paper is am first going to sketch the nature and the types of the sustainability challenges that contemporary societies face, with a special focus on Europe (environmental, demographic and financial). In the main part of the paper, I am going to show possible constitutional responses to these challenges. Finally, I will summarise the main argument of the paper which is a suggestion to set up an economic constitutional court consisting of economists with the power to annul laws if these contradict the principles of sustainability.
Scientific discussions concerning local governments are pervaded by paradigms at all times, which are questioned from time to time (paradigm crisis). As a result, participants of these discussions either defend their points, or a new paradigm appears (change in paradigm). I examine the system of local governments from this aspect. What kind of and how many paradigms characterise the system of local governments? Are these explainable by the paradigm? If not, is there another explanation? In this study, I gather all the current and emerging (perhaps former) characteristics of the local government system. In that regard, I determined the principles that, in my opinion, either apply at the level of the local government system, or they are in crisis.