Nowadays, digital technology and measurement are improving to measure some systems in accurate conditions without errors. From these improvements and developments, it is necessary to analyse performances and condition of bicycle and biker before high level computations. In this experimental investigation, a high quality and very light bicycle and a well-equipped trained biker were trained to test the system with different road and region conditions. The purpose of this investigation is to predict unwanted conditions of bicycle before computations and activity. Otherwise, this kind of experimental trained testing will give some information from unwanted bicycle accidents. Moreover, in this experimental work, a power meter and measurement instrument with sensors are used to measure real time parameters. As can be concluded from experimental results and the analysis, the proposed work has a good design and analysis for good material bicycles. The displacement analysis is also outlined with load of a 63 kg biker.
Authors:Mahmood Hasan Al-Hafadhi and Gyorgy Krallics
A numerical simulation procedure is presented to predict residual stress states in multi-pass welds in oil transportation pipes. In this paper, a two-dimensional thermo-mechanical finite element model is used to calculate the temperature distribution, hardness, and the distribution of residual stresses during multi-pass welding of pipes of dissimilar metals and varying thicknesses. In this model, the temperature dependence of the thermal and mechanical properties of the material was considered. The present model was validated using the hardness measurement. Good agreement was found between the measurement and the numerical simulation results. The simulated result shows that the two-dimensional model can be effectively used to simulate the hardness test and predict the residual stress in the pipe weld. The simulation results and measurements suggest that the model with moving heat source can obtain a good prediction of residual welding stress. Both the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional modeling can be used to estimate the residual stresses in different weld regions and help saving time.
Authors:Istvan Ervin Haber, Gergely Bencsik, Basma Naili, and Istvan Szabo
Energy storage on grid level is still a critical issue. Inventions related to development and control of smart buildings, including integrated solar systems can be easily realized by smart control of building management including storage. At buildings, which have high heat capacitance the part of the stored heat can be used for grid stabilization. This means the grid can be balanced with well-set up heating/cooling strategy and well-scheduled timetable via intelligent control of buildings. A possible solution is introduced in this paper, where the surplus production is used for overcooling the building, while the building thermodynamic properties are making it possible to store this amount of energy for days. This paper analyses a cost-effective solution of grid energy storage through a case study.
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Limited Liability Partnership as one of the best ‘localized’ overseas design companies in China, has participated in more than ten large-scale urban design projects in Wuhan, which has greatly changed the urban image and architectural style of Wuhan. Its space model of ‘grid road system + high-rise building’ replaces the traditional urban pattern of ‘street + residence’, causing huge cultural conflicts and historical rupture. Based on the planning of Wuhan Hanzheng street as an example, this paper attempts to uncover the cause of formation, the motivation mechanism of ‘grid road system + high-rise buildings’ space model, and to explore how Chinese cities realize the urban modernization with Chinese characteristics.
Authors:G. Lizia Thankam, T.R. Neelakantan, and S. Christopher Gnanaraj
Fly ash-based geopolymer fine aggregate is a potential replacement material for the natural river sand as it has similar physicochemical properties. This paper reports the experimental investigation of a study conducted using this fine aggregate in concrete with a focus on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. The geopolymer fine aggregate was developed by air curing process and oven curing method. The oven curing method yielded relatively better mechanical properties in concrete specimens. The oven curing results in better behavior at later age also. Laboratory tests were conducted to ascertain the fresh concrete density, slump value, hardened concrete density, compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength of the concrete specimens. The microstructure of the concrete specimens was analyzed using scanning electron microscope which indicated the agglomeration of the fly ash particles with few voids demonstrating the higher water adsorption capacity of the same. The unreacted particles noted in the microstructure later tend to merge with the lime obtained from the hydration of cement so as to develop improved later age mechanical strength. The results on mechanical properties of the concrete indicate much similar results to that of the concrete developed with the normal river sand, which confirms that the geopolymer sand is an ideal replacement choice for natural river sand.
Authors:Hajar Benzeroual, Abdellatif Khamlichi, and Alia Zakriti
Rail monitoring is an important activity which aims to preserve the safety and availability of railways. According to statistics, the primary cause of railway accidents is due to transverse defects that occur in the rail head. These special defects develop generally in a plane orthogonal to the rail running direction. The detection of these defects is a priority to increase the safety of rail transportation. Rail control monitoring techniques mostly rely on infrared thermography, eddy currents, air-coupled acoustic sensors, and ultrasounds. The present research studies the rail diagnosis by means of a non-contact device. The focus is on ultrasonic based methods where excitation is generated by thermal elastic coupling following laser irradiation of the rail head. For the reception of echoes, a special ultrasound sensor was used. In order to sense defects, phased array elements, which use multiple transducers and electronic time delays, are used to increase and to focalise the signal intensity. Flaws that have a moderate extension are better detected by the proposed method than with laser irradiation consisting of a single spot.
Authors:Mona M. Fawzy, Mohamed S. Kamar, and Gehad M. Saleh
In this study, the mineralogical content of Abu Rusheid mylonite sample was investigated and revealed that the sample is essentially composed of quartz and feldspar (72.14% mass), muscovite (16.6% mass), and contains heavy economic polymetallic minerals of about 2.65% by mass. By studying the differences in the physical properties of this mineral content, a proposed flow sheet was set up to explain the successive physical upgrading steps for concentrating and separating the valuable minerals content and getting rid of the associated gangue minerals. Industrial, economic and strategic polymetallic minerals were identified at Abu Rusheid mylonite sample, including cassiterite, titanite, brass, kasolite, monazite, and uranothorite. A group of sulfide minerals also existed as pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena, and molybdenite in addition to the presence of fluorite and iron oxides bearing rare earth elements (REEs) and base metals. Using dry high intensity magnetic separation followed by wet gravity separation and flotation, three concentrates were obtained; heavy paramagnetic concentrate (monazite, columbite, brass, and jarosite), heavy diamagnetic concentrate (zircon, kasolite, uranothorite, cassiterite, and sulphide minerals) and muscovite concentrate for industrial uses. Physical processing of Abu Rusheid mylonite sample was carried out to produce high grade mineral concentrate used as a raw material for chemical treatment to extract economic elements that necessary for several industries.
Authors:Muaayed F. Al-Rawi and Muhanned F. Al-Rawi
Most applications in engineering use a data acquisition device hooked up to a personal computer for data processing. Finding less costly, easily accessible and reliable devices will make personal computer (PC) based data acquisition systems less difficult. A soundcard may be used as such a device for it is standard in almost every PC. It can also process any voltage signal within its limits. This paper proposes a way to enable the PC to be used as an oscilloscope. A voltage signal is acquired via the soundcard LINE IN port. The maximum and minimum input signal amplitude requirements for the soundcard are established to be +1 V and –1 V respectively. Based on these findings, hardware circuitry is designed to clip any high amplitude input signals to the range of ±1 V while allowing low amplitude signals to go through to the soundcard unclipped. MATLAB is then employed to acquire, process and display the signal. The final output from MATLAB is compared with the original signal to determine accuracy of the designed oscilloscope. Analysis of the results obtained shows that the final oscilloscope designed enables the soundcard to process input signals with a high level of accuracy. The final design yields a hardware cost at a fraction of an iPod while providing an elegant user interface. This makes it suitable for college students, basement hackers and even professional engineers.
Authors:Siddavatam Naresh Kumar Reddy and Mohmad Marouf Wani
The study aims to examine the effects of palm biodiesel blended with additives in the compression ignition (CI) engine. Biodiesel as fuel was limited by challenges such as lower calorific value (CV) and higher viscosity while increasing brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Nanoparticles and antioxidant additives added to biodiesel play an essential role in avoiding the hindrances of biodiesel. The antioxidants combined with biodiesel reduced NOx emissions by eliminating decomposing peroxides, free radicals, and preventing free radicals' chain reaction. The Significant characteristics of nanoparticles are high CV, high thermal conductivity, and higher surface to volume ratio. These characteristics are used to improve the CI engine's performance and emissions by using nanoparticles blended with biodiesel. Five different test blends of Diesel, B20, B20TO, B20AO, and B20AOTO were prepared. The result showed high brake thermal efficiency (BTHE) and decreased BSFC, exhaust gas temperature (EGT), hydrocarbons (HC), NOx, and HC emissions by using the B20AOTO fuel blend contrasted with other biodiesel blends.
Authors:Ali Kareem Abdulrazzaq, György Bognár, and Balázs Plesz
This paper presents a combined electro-thermal model to serve the aim of accurate output power prediction of photovoltaic systems, based on the concept of the thermal energy balance. The electrical sub-model is built based on fitting a surface to the current-voltage curves collected under wide range temperatures and irradiances. For this purpose, the current-voltage characteristic curves are reproduced using two different methods. The thermal sub-model considers all the effective heat transfer mechanisms to estimate the photovoltaic module junction temperature. The Newton-Raphson iterative method is used as a solving algorithm to calculate the photovoltaic junction temperature. The collected results prove the applicability of the model under a wide range of environmental conditions.