The Construction Industry Development Council (CIDC) of India has been calculating and publishing the Construction Cost Index (CCI), monthly, since 1998. Construction cost variations interrogate different kinds of projects such as roads, power plants, buildings, industrial structures, railways and bridges. The success rate of completion of construction project is diminished due to the lack of prediction knowledge in CCI. Predicting CCI in greater accuracy is quite difficult for contractor and academicians. The following factors are influenced higher in CCI such as population, unemployment rate, consumer price index (CPI), long term interest rate, domestic credit growth, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and money supply (M4). CCI can be used to forecast the construction cost. The relevant resource data was collected across the nation between 2003 and 2018. As outcome-based, non-econometric tools such as smoothing techniques, artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machines (SVMs) have produced a better outcome. Among these, smoothing techniques have given the notable low error and high accuracy. This accuracy has measured by Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Mean Square Error (MSE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The major objective of this research is to help the cost estimator to avoid underestimation and overestimation.
Authors:Rayan Gh. Thannoun, Salim A. Fanoosh, and Hadeer Gh. M. Adeeb
Satellite thematic maps in geological field studies are an important tool for the delineation, interpretation, representation, and visualization of geological processes, while the development of seismic sections offers an increasingly detailed analysis of subsurface geology and inferring and understanding the subsurface structure of the earth. This combination promoted a fast-growing research in the fields of morphotectonics and neotectonics. The area under investigation is one of the most significant Iraqi places which includes several oil fields. The study area is located in northern Iraq and administratively follows Kirkuk governorate. Landscapes in this area are characterized by asymmetrical, cylindrical and extended folds. Kirkuk, Bai-Hasan and Qarachuq Anticlines reflect these structural elements and their fold axis trends towards northwest-southeast within the Zagros folded zone. The main objective of this study is to use the visual and digital interpretation of Landsat image to discriminate the sudden breaks and omissions of rock beds in the study area. Therefore, a morphotectonic map was created, the accurate location of the sudden breaks was provided and the zones affected by tectonic deformation, which left its imprint on the successive lithological units were detected. Seismic data were used to assess the tectonic impact on subsurface formations and their reflections on exposure rocks. The seismic lines were selected based on the locations of the identified sudden breaks as interpreted from satellite images. The hypothesis derived from this study is that the sudden breaks in the study area were triggered by a series of faults. In addition, the region was affected by the vertical stresses resulting from these faults and morphological aspects of the region were determined by the temporal variations of the above stresses.
The study deals with the numerical analysis aspects that are necessary for identifying of modal parameters of the tower structure as the most important part of the horizontal axis wind turbine, which are basic for the dynamic response analysis. In the present study, the modal behavior of an actual 55-m-high steel tower of 850 KW wind turbine (GAMESA G52/850 model) is investigated by using three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element (FE) method. The model was used to identify natural frequencies, their corresponding mode shapes and mass participation ratios, and the suggestions to avoid resonance for tower structure under the action wind. The results indicate that there is a very good agreement with the fundamental vibration theory of Euler-Bernoulli beam with lamped masse in bending vibration modes. When the rotor of the wind turbine runs at the speed of less than or equal to 25.9 rpm it will not have resonant problems (stiff–stiff tower design). Furthermore, in case the rotor runs at the speed of between 25.9 and 30.8 rpm, the adequate controller is necessary in order to avoid the corresponding resonant susceptible area of the tower structure (soft–stiff tower design).
This paper involves the study on the hardened and durability properties of the concrete at two different grades containing silica fume (SF) with various replacement percentages. Investigation on the performance of the SF was performed for M25 and M40 grades concrete with 0, 5, 10, and 15 % replacement levels at 7, 14, 28, and 90 days. The behavior of SF on the autogenous shrinkage of the concrete was studied for both the grades of concrete in the sealed (SC) and unsealed conditions (USC). The workability of the SF concrete was examined at various levels of replacement by the slump cone test. The hardened properties of the SF concrete were investigated through the estimation of compressive strength (CS) and elastic modulus (EM) at 7, 14, 28, and 90 days, respectively. Acid attack was conducted at 28 days and autogenous shrinkage of the SF concrete was investigated using length comparator at 28 day in SC and USC. Results indicate that upon increase in the percentage of SF, the hardened properties of the concrete increases at higher ages of curing and the shrinkage of the concrete tends to increase for both the grades of concrete.
Authors:Attila Vámosi, Levente Czégé, and Imre Kocsis
Due to the technological progress, new approaches such as model-based design are spreading in the development process in the automotive industry to meet the increased requirements related to lower fuel consumption and reduced emission. This work is part of a research project which focuses on dynamic modeling of vehicles aimed at analyzing and optimizing the emission and fuel consumption. To model the driver behavior, the simulation control algorithm requires a predetermined speed-time curve as an input. The completeness of this driving cycle is a crucial factor in the simulation, and as far as the legislative driving cycles are not accurate enough, it is indispensable to develop our own one representing our narrower area and driving conditions. This article considers two common drive cycle design methods, comparing the micro-trip-based approach and the Markov-chain approach. The new driving cycle has been developed applying the Markov-chain approach and compared to a driving cycle introduced in our recent paper using the micro-trip method. The comparison basis is the Speed-Acceleration Probability Distribution, which sufficiently reflects the dynamic behavior of the vehicle, and the root mean square error, including parameters such as the average speed, average cruising speed, average acceleration, average deceleration, root mean square acceleration, and idle time percentage. The representative Bus Driving Cycle for Debrecen is prepared to be applied in the vehicle dynamics simulation for evaluating and improving the fuel economy of vehicles, selecting the proper power source for various applications and the optimization of the powertrain and the energy consumption in researches to be continued.
Authors:István Szűcs, Andrea Bauerné Gáthy, Angéla Soltész, and Laura Mihály-Karnai
Increasing food demand poses a challenge for the economy and places a burden on the environment. In agricultural food production, each product chain stage shows scarce resources and negative environmental impacts are becoming increasingly significant. Food consumption has a significant impact on the environment and on human health. Sustainable food consumption is characterised by health and environmental consciousness. This study focuses on the relationship between perceived and real consciousness – more specifically on environmental and health consciousness – concerning food consumption. Following a concise overview of the conceptual background, the definitions of conscious consumption, conscious food consumption, health conscious consumer and environmentally conscious consumer behaviour are explained based on the available literature. The primary research draws conclusions from the results of a 500-person questionnaire survey among the students attending the University of Debrecen on the relationship between perceived and real health and environmental consciousness regarding food consumption. It was concluded that environmental consciousness (10.0%) was less characteristic of students than health consciousness (18.2%); the relationship between perceived and real consciousness is significant; the role of price in determining food purchases is less pronounced for those claiming to be self-conscious food consumers than those who are neither health conscious, nor environmentally conscious.
The helical gear pair is widely used in different mechanical constructions such as vehicle industry and working machine industry. The main property of them is the skew tooth direction with which better tooth connections could be available than in case of straight tooth direction. The analysis of the effect of the addendum modification coefficient for the normal stress and the normal deformation is the aim of the research which could be determined by finite element analysis. Five helical gear types are designed and modelled. The difference among them is only the different addendum modification coefficients. All of the other initial parameters are constant. After the result we determine the conclusions based on the diagram's results which are received by the mechanical parameters and the addendum modification coefficients.
In this project an ECG measurement and wave identification system was made. The measuring system hardware is based on a Texas Instruments ADS1298ECG amplifier and analog-to-digital converter board. The measurement and processing software was created in LabVIEW environment using the built-in functions of the Biomedical toolkit. Initially, the theory behind heartbeat and its effect on the skin surface potential are presented. Then the measurement techniques of these are described. The research group provide information on the mathematical background of how the ECG curve is processed and the waves are identified. The HRV analysis, the statistical analysis of identified R waves are described. Subsequently, publications dealing with electrocardiographic examinations in various fields will be presented. Then an overview of the specifications of the amplifiers used in this work and the capabilities of their original software are given. The final device structure is presented. The system validation process and the properties of the reference devices are illustrated.
Authors:Gusztáv Áron Szíki, Attila Szántó, and Tamás Mankovits
Nowadays, vehicles with alternative drives are playing an increasingly important role in road transport. Among the various types of alternative-drives, the most widespread ones are hybrid and electric ones, thanks for the rapid development of modern batteries, and hybrid and electrical systems. The above fact establishes the importance of research on various types of electric motors. The Faculty of Engineering of the University of Debrecen has more than a decade of experience in developing prototype race cars with pneumatic and electric drive. For the more effective and conscious development and racing a simulation program has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment for the computation of the dynamic functions of a vehicle moving in a linear path. The program is characterized by a modular structure, so the different structural units (vehicle body, front and rear wheels, power train, motor) are modelled and simulated separately. In this study we present models and simulation programs for different electric motor types (series-wound DC and brushless DC motors) in MATLAB/Simulink and apply them in our vehicle dynamics simulation program. From the simulation results the performance of a vehicle – driven by an electric motor – can be predicted in a race situation, consequently the most suitable motor with the optimal characteristics can be selected to it.
Authors:Nihal D. Salman, György Pillinger, and Péter Kiss
This study intends to examine the soil behaviour in the case of finite thickness, represented by the hard layer under a soft layer of soil. A further aim is to define load-bearing capacity parameters (n and k). The experimental work is carried out under laboratory conditions by using hydraulic bevameter to apply the load. A circular plate with a diameter of 100 mm is used to push down the load over the targeted area with a penetration rate of about 9 cm/min for sinkage plates. The study was conducted in a soil bin (length of 200 cm, width of 100 cm and variable thickness) using a sandy loam soil. First, the study has been done with loose soil with a thickness of 11 cm, which maintained with 10% moisture content and initial density of 1.190 g/cm3. After that, a two thickness of 6 and 18 cm with 8% moisture content and initial soil density of 1.375 g/cm3 were tested to explain the effect of thickness. In each test, the bevameter plate was loaded at multiple locations, the result showed the soil was near uniform. The result suggests that it is not easy to obtain one equation for the load bearing capacity because the layer near to the surface behaves like soil with infinite thickness and the deeper layer like soil with finite thickness.