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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Tamás Csurka, Klára Pásztor-Huszár, Adrienn Tóth, Richárd Pintér, and László Ferenc Friedrich

Abstract

Blood coagulation is a process, which is initiated by certain physico-chemical effects. This process results in a change in the blood from the sol state, that is well suited for further processing, to gel state. 13 blood clotting factors take part in the cascade system of blood coagulation. Trisodium-citrate affects factor IV, the calcium, and prevents the change in blood texture. The effect of different concentrations of trisodium-citrate (0, 0.48, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 14.4, 19.2, 24 w/w%) on the texture of blood is investigated. Porcine blood was collected in 20 cm3 test tubes in a slaughterhouse directly before trisodium-citrate addition and was stored for one day under refrigerated conditions. The samples without trisodium-citrate coagulated and the samples with high trisodium-citrate (4–5 g) became solid as well because of the protein salting-out. The viscosity of successfully treated samples and the shear stress were measured with a rotational viscometer (Physica MCR 51, Anton-Paar) with concentric cylinders and Couette type method. The flow behavior of all samples could be described by the Herschel-Bulkley model. The yield point, the consistency index and the power of law index, which are determined by the equation of the model, showed that the samples with lower trisodium-citrate content coagulated “better” and the sample with high trisodium-citrate were most similar to Newtonian fluid. The results are trend-likes, but significant differences may be expected in the case of higher sample amount. The yield point of the sample, which contained 14.4 w/w% trisodium-citrate, was by 37.3% less than the sample containing 0.48% trisodium-citrate, and the consistency index of the sample with 3 g trisodium-citrate was by 20.5% higher than that of the sample with 0.48% trisodium-citrate. Thanks to these results a cheaper concentration and drying of porcine blood and blood fractions are available because no surplus water is added to the blood.

Open access

Abstract

Spray drying is a widely used process to turn slurries into dry powders and is especially important for thermally-sensitive materials, that are often found in the food or pharmaceutical industry. However, detailed insight into the drying kinetics during spray drying is difficult to investigate due to the boundary conditions in a spray drying tower. As a result, there is a lack of important information on the drying process and subsequent solidification of individual droplets. In this context, an experimental setup for a droplet positioned in a stationary ultrasonic field of an acoustic levitator is designed to enable a non-contacting measurement of the drying kinetics and the subsequent solidification process. To generate a comparable situation like in a real spray drying process, the droplet is positioned in an airflow, where air temperature, humidity, and velocity can be adjusted over wide range. Using an infrared camera to measure the surface temperature and a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) camera for object recognition, the droplet can be observed continuously and drying kinetics of the droplet can be determined from the measured surface temperature and decreasing droplet size. Result of a 10 wt.% aqueous micro particle TiO2 suspension are reported and show that the investigated method is a very valuable and fast tool to safely scale-up spray drying systems very close to real process conditions. Especially when only small sample amounts are available in an early development stage.

Open access

Abstract

The fiber intake is an important part of the human diet. The fiber-deficient nutrition may have long-term health problems. Oat (Avena sativa) is an excellent source of fiber and it has many health benefits due to its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Oats are used as flour and flakes in the food industry. The oat-flakes can be used in a variety of cakes, but it can be also consumed as breakfast cereals or porridge.

The objective of our work was to determine the effect of the sugar content and sugar types on main sensory parameters of oat-flakes biscuit. During the experiments, six different types of biscuit were made with the addition of white or brown sugar at three different concentration levels. The moisture content, color, and the frangibility of the samples were analyzed during the 4-day storage period. The sensory evaluation of the biscuit samples was also performed on the first day of storage.

The parameters of the rupture test and color measurement did not show significant changes during the storage, but the individual types of biscuits made of different types and quantities of sugar could be well distinguished. Results of sensory evaluation showed significant differences in frangibility, structure and stickiness parameters.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Dzsenifer Németh, Gábor Balázs, Zsanett Bodor, John-Lewis Zinia Zaukuu, Zoltán Kovács, and Noémi Kappel

Abstract

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important and valuable vegetable crop that nowadays has a 550ha cultivation area in Hungary. The use of grafting for cucurbits is a growing technique of interest to the food industry. Nevertheless, for melons the practice of grafting is not widespread, in contrast grafted seedlings are widely used by the watermelon growers. On the other hand, it should be mentioned that the food quality attributes can change, due to the grafting. Globally there are not many scientific articles available in this topic. The goal of our study is to provide a systematic review of literature with emphasis on the influence of grafting on melon fruit quality variations and the major advantages of this technique. Over the last few years, the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electronic tongue method became popular to measure food attributes.

Open access

Abstract

Since significant percentage of fruits and vegetables go to waste during processing, investigation of how to improve the valuable products of extraction from the wastes is an undeniably effective way to save the planet. Beetroot (root, peel, and stalk) is a chief source of natural betalain color compounds and phenolic compounds with copious radical scavenging activity. The major emphasis of this work is to optimize process variables which are extraction time (10–60 min), operating temperature (20–50 °C), and aqueous ethanol solvent with the concentration of (25–75%) for effective extraction of valuable compounds such as betalains, total polyphenols, and antioxidant activity from beetroot peel. Spectrophotometric analysis was applied for quantification of those compounds. Amongst which, lowest solvent concentration (25% v/v) together with the highest temperature (50 °C) and extraction time (50 min) brought yielded higher results. The process optimization was carried out using Design Expert (11.0.3) statistical software. Overall, it can be noted that extraction process can be improved by controlling operating time and temperature, avoiding unnecessary overuse of costly solvent.

Open access

Abstract

Minimal processing technologies, like High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP), heat treatments at low temperatures have an increasing role in food industry. Eggs are considered as functional foods, but for high retention of biological active compounds adequate minimal processing technologies are needed during preservation procedure. In our study, liquid egg yolk (LEY) was examined to meet consumer's expectations.

Combinations of pasteurization (57–63 °C, 5–7 min) and HHP (350–400 MPa, 5 min) were used to provide microbiological stability of LEY. After these treatments samples were examined for mesophyll aerobes and Enterobacteriaceae cell counts (using Nutrient agar an incubation of 30 °C, 48 h) and viscosity attributes (Anton Paar MCR 92).

Our results show that microbiological stability is significantly influenced by the different parameters of heat treatments and HHP. Heat treatment effected at least 3 orders of magnitude decrease in cell count. Viscosity attributes point out that higher pressure of HHP have a stronger effect on viscosity than the temperature of pasteurization.

The results point out a great opportunity for industrial use of minimal processing technologies for LEY. Microbiological safety is strongly influenced by the order of treatments, but viscosity may be independent from the order of the treatments.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Emna Ayari, Csaba Németh, Karina Ilona Hidas, Adrienn Tóth, Dávid Láng, and László Friedrich

Abstract

Starting from mechanical revolution, each day new methods and new equipment have emerged. Today, the Ultra Heat Treatment (UHT) is one of the important technologies that permits to the industry to reduce processing time while maintaining the same quality of the products. Egg and egg products are known as heat-sensitive products, so the UHT enables us to preserve their qualities after a heat treatment.

Our aim is to study the effect of UHT treatment (approximately 67 °C for 190 s) on the Liquid Egg Yolk (LEY). For twenty-one days, the color and the apparent viscosity were measured every seven days, we also studied the damage of protein using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry).

Comparing the two graphs of DSC, the denaturation of protein is distinct. The endothermic peak decreased. This could be seen also on the rheological curves. The apparent viscosity is diminished from 231 mPa.s on the 1st day of storage to 224 mPa.s on 21st day. However, the treated LEY could be stored for longer period than the raw LEY.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Katalin Badak-Kerti, Viktória Zsom-Muha, Tamás Zsom, Dávid Nagy, and József Felföldi

Abstract

In the experiments, the sound generated during the breaking of chocolate samples was examined. The fracture was performed by a precision penetrometer, the breaking sound was recorded. Texture index (TI) was calculated from the resulting signal. First the change of the resulting TI was monitored as a function of the samples' temperature. The sample groups of the same dark chocolate with different temperatures were completely separated from each other with statistical tool (LDA, linear discriminant analyses), but no trend was found to describe the change. Secondly, based on the TI, we could identify and classify the chocolate samples in the appropriate groups (based on cocoa content from 40 to 85%). According to linear discriminant analyses chocolates with different cocoa content were completely separated and showed a certain pattern. Based on the obtained results, it can be stated that the cocoa content of chocolate can be determined on the basis of TI obtained by acoustic method.

Open access

Abstract

Grapevine berry shape has important marketing value in the table grape commerce, hence variability evaluation of this characteristic is highly important. In this study berry shape of 5 table grape genotypes: “Fanny”, “Lidi”, “Hamburgi muskotály”, “Moldova”, and “Orsi” were compared. To evaluate the shape variability graphic reconstruction and elliptic Fourier analysis have been carried out. Shape outlines have been investigated and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been performed with the SHAPE software package. PCA of the contours showed that 6 out of the 77 principal components were effective to describe shape attributes. The first 6 PCs explained 94.51% of the total variance. PC1 associated with the width and length of the berry. PC2 related to the shape of the top and bottom of the berries, while PC3 linked to the ratio of the top and the bottom width. ANOVA of the principal component scores revealed significant difference among the genotypes. Results suggest that morphology of the berry is a variable not only among but within the accessions. Our findings confirmed that elliptic Fourier descriptors (EFDs) would be a powerful tool for quantifying grapevine berry morphological diversity.

Open access

Abstract

The engineering application's design process starts with a concept, based on our theoretical knowledge and continues with a numerical simulation. In our paper, we review the finite volume method (FVM) which is used generally for heat and fluid dynamic simulations.

We compare three different computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software (based in the fine volume method) for validating a NACA airfoil, which can be used for example in the aerospace industry for an airplane's wing profile, and it can be used for example in the renewable industry for a wind turbine's blade or a water turbine's impeller profile. At the end of this paper, the result of our simulations will be compared with a validation case and the difference between the CFD software and the measured data will be presented.

Open access