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Central European Geology
Authors:
Attila Demény
,
Alexandra Németh
,
Zoltán Kern
,
György Czuppon
,
Mihály Molnár
,
Szabolcs Leél-Őssy
,
Mihály Óvári
, and
József Stieber

Determination of the long-term behavior of cave systems and their response to changing environmental conditions is essential for further paleoclimate analyses of cave-hosted carbonate deposits. For this purpose, four actively forming stalagmites were collected in the Baradla Cave where a three-year monitoring campaign was also conducted. Based on textural characteristics and radiocarbon analyses, the stalagmites are composed of annual laminae, whose counting was used to establish age–depth relationships. Fast and slowly growing stalagmites have different stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions as well as trace element contents that could be attributed to differences in drip water migration pathways. The stable isotope compositions were compared with meteorological data of the last ∼100 years indicating that carbon isotope compositions of the stalagmites may reflect changes in precipitation amount, while oxygen isotope compositions are more related to temperature variations. The combined textural–geochemical–meteorological interpretation lead us to select the isotope record that can best reflect variations in environmental conditions and can be used for further evaluation of the climate–proxy relationships.

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Anisian Muschelkalk carbonates of the southern Germanic Basin containing silicified ooidal grainstone are interpreted as evidence of changing pH conditions triggered by increased bioproductivity (marine phytoplankton) and terrestrial input of plant debris during maximum flooding. Three distinct stages of calcite ooid replacement by silica were detected. Stage 1 reflects authigenic quartz development during the growth of the ooids, suggesting a change in the pH–temperature regime of the depositional environment. Stages 2 and 3 are found in silica-rich domains. The composition of silica-rich ooids shows significant Al2O3 and SrO but no FeO and MnO, indicating that late diagenetic alteration was minor. Silicified interparticle pore space is characterized by excellent preservation of marine prasinophytes; palynological slides show high abundance of terrestrial phytoclasts. The implications of our findings for basin dynamics reach from paleogeography to cyclostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy, since changes in the seawater chemistry and sedimentary organic matter distribution reflect both the marine conditions as well as the hinterland. Basin interior changes might overprint the influence of the Tethys Ocean through the eastern and western gate areas. Stratigraphically, such changes might enhance marine flooding signals. Ongoing research needs to address the complex interaction between an intracratonic basin and an open-ocean system by comparing local and regional biotic and abiotic signals.

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Stone masonry arch bridges in North Hungary represent cultural heritage values. For the maintenance and preservation of these bridges detailed mapping of lithologies and weathering forms are required. The purpose of this paper is to present the identified lithotypes, their conditions (weathering grade) and their petrophysical properties by using in situ lithological mapping, documentation of weathering forms, non-destructive tests and laboratory analyses. Furthermore these analyses demonstrate the difficulties of characterization and diagnostics of the historical construction materials. Additionally the results of condition assessments and the properties of the four different dimension stones from four different sites provide examples for the large dissimilarities regarding the strength parameters. The above-listed parameters are required as input data for stability calculations and modeling of these structures.

Open access

The paper provides information on the mechanical properties of granitic rocks that were subjected to heat. Two types of granitic rocks were tested under laboratory conditions at temperatures of 23 °C, 300 °C and 600 °C. The granitic rock from Bátaapáti (Mórágy Granite) is a pinkish leucocratic monzogranitic type while the second type is grey granite from Mauthausen (Austria). The samples were placed in furnace and temperature raised to 300 °C. Other set of samples were heated to 600 °C. Mechanical tests were performed on non-heated and heated samples and the test results were compared. Heating to 300 °C caused a slight increase in the uniaxial compressive strength and in indirect tensile strength, with reference to the samples kept at 23 °C. A drastic drop in both values was observed when samples were heated to 600 °C. The density of the samples did not show a major change up to 300 °C. On the contrary, a decrease in ultrasonic pulse velocity was observed, with an additional significant loss when samples subjected to 600 °C were compared to the reference samples of 23 °C. This decrease can be related to the initiation of micro-cracks. With increasing temperature the Young modulus of both granites was reduced.

Open access
Central European Geology
Authors:
Imre Czinkota
,
János Szanyi
,
Balázs Kovács
,
András Sebők
,
Ildikó Hajdok
, and
Márton Papp

This paper aims at determining the behavior of thermal water brought to surface and how this might impact reinjection wells and the rock during reinjection. The biggest problem is that reinjection wells are predisposed to choking. We searched for a method to examine this process, including a model for physico-chemical changes in the water—rock interaction. Two different samples of powdered rock (designated α and β) were analyzed using thermal water samples from production and reinjection wells. The pH shows significant differences between the samples from wells where free water treatment was carried out, and those from the aerated thermal waters, as well as for the rock sample. Basically, a decrease in sediment volume can be obtained by increasing the pH. The salt effect was more coherent. Its result was an interesting case of W-shaped graphs from the producing well. On the other hand there is virtually no difference between the samples with acid titration.

Open access

This article evaluates the known rare earth elements (REE), Ti and Li occurrences and exploration potential in Finland, based on existing data combined with new geochemistry and mineralogy, heavy mineral studies, geophysical measurements, geologic mapping and recent drilling of new targets.

The potential rock types for REE include carbonatite (Sokli, Korsnäs), alkaline rocks (Otanmäki, Lamujärvi, and Iivaara), rapakivi granite and pegmatite (Kovela), and kaolin-bearing weathering crusts in eastern and northern Finland. The highest REE concentrations occur in late magmatic carbonatite veins in the fenite area of the Sokli carbonatite complex. Detailed mineralogical investigations have revealed three distinct types of REE mineralization as phosphates, carbonates and silicates in the studied areas. Mineralogical and mineral chemical evidence demonstrates that hydrothermal processes are responsible for the REE mineralization in the studied rocks and confirms that such processes are predominant in the formation of REE minerals in carbonatite, calc-silicate rocks and albitite. Titanium occurs as ilmenite in hard rock deposits in Paleoproterozoic subalkaline mafic intrusions. The Otanmäki ilmenite was mined together with vanadium-rich magnetite from 1953 to 1985 from a small gabbro—anorthosite complex, which still contains potential for Ti resources. Other major ilmenite deposits are within the Koivusaarenneva ilmenite gabbro intrusion and Kauhajärvi apatite—ilmenite—magnetite gabbro complex. Possible Ti resources are included in Ti-magnetite gabbro of the large layered mafic intrusions in northern Finland, such as at the former Mustavaara vanadium mine. For several years, Rare Element (RE)-pegmatite of the Kaustinen and Somero—Tammela areas has been the objective of Li exploration by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). At Kaustinen, Li-pegmatite occurs as subparallel dyke swarms in an area of 500 km2 within Paleoproterozoic mica schists and metavolcanic rocks. Li pegmatite contains more than 10% spodumene as megacrysts (1–10 cm), albite, quartz, K-feldspar, muscovite and accessory minerals such as columbite-group minerals, apatite, tourmaline, beryl, Fe-oxide minerals and garnet. The Kaustinen spodumene pegmatite and Somero—Tammela petalite—spodumene pegmatite contain potential Li resources for the battery industry in EU countries.

Open access

Magma/wet sediment interaction (e.g. autobrecciation, magma-sediment mingling, hyaloclastite and peperite-forming, etc.) is a common phenomenon, where hot magma intrudes into unconsolidated or poorly consolidated water saturated sediment. In the Eastern Borsod Basin (NE-Hungary) relatively small (2–30 m) subvolcanic bodies, sills and dykes with contact lithofacies zones were found generated by mechanical stress and quenching of the magma, and interacting with unconsolidated wet andesitic lapilli-tuff and tuff-breccia. Close to the contact between sediment and intrusions, thermal and mechanical effects may occur in the host sediment. Hydrothermal alteration and stratification of the host sediment were developed only locally along the contact zone, probably due to the paleo-hydrogeologic and paleo-rheological inhomogeneities of the lapilli-tuff–tuff-breccia deposits. Processes of magma/wet sediment interaction may be difficult to recognize because of limited exposure and/or certain similarities of the brecciated intrusions to the characteristics of the host sediment; hence detailed field work (geologic mapping or profiling) was required to demonstrate the subvolcanic origin of the brecciated andesite bodies.

Open access
Central European Geology
Authors:
Arnold Gucsik
,
Tasuku Okumura
,
Hirotsugu Nishido
,
Ildikó Gyollai
,
Kiyotaka Ninagawa
,
Natalie Deseta
, and
Péter Rózsa

Quartz grains from the Ries impact structure containing shock-induced microstructures were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy in cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL), secondary electron (SEM-SE) and back-scattered electron (SEM-BSE) modes as well as Mott–Seitz analysis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the mechanism by which CL detects Planar Deformation Features (PDFs) in quartz, which is one of the most important indicators of shock metamorphism in rock-forming minerals. PDFs are micron-scale features not easily identified using optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The CL spectrum of PDFs in quartz that has suffered relatively high shock pressure shows no or a relatively weak emission band at around 385 nm, whereas an emission band with a maximum near 650 nm is observed independent of shock pressure. Thus, the ~385 nm intensity in shocked quartz demonstrates a tendency to decrease with increasing shock metamorphic stage, whereas the 650 nm band remains fairly constant. The result indicates that the emission band at 385 nm is related to the deformed structure of quartz as PDFs.

Open access

One of the most important ores for REE mineralization are iron oxide–apatite (IOA) deposits. The Posht-e-Badam Block (PBB) is a part of the Central Iranian geostructural zone which is the host of most important Fe deposits of Iran. Exploration studies of the IOA deposits within the PBB (e.g. Esphordi, Gazestan, Zarigan, Lak-e-Siah, Sechahoun, Chahgaz, Mishdovan, Cheshmeh Firouzi and Shekarab) demonstrate that these deposits contain high contents of REE. Concentrations of ΣREE in the most important IOA deposits of the PBB include the following: the Esphordi deposit varies between 1.2 and 1.88%, the Gazestan deposit between 0.17 and 1.57%, the Zarigan deposit between 0.5 and 1.2% and the Lak-e-Siah deposit varies between 0.45 and 1.36%. Concentrations of ΣREE within the apatite crystals present within the IOA ores in the Esphordi, Lak-e-Siah and Homeijan deposits have ranges between 1.9–2.54%, 1.9–2.16% and of 2.55%, respectively. These elements are mainly concentrated in apatite crystals, but other minerals such as monazite, xenotime, bastnasite, urtite, alanite, thorite, parisite–synchysite and britholite have been recognized as hosts of REEs, as small inclusions within the apatite crystals, and in subsequent carbonate, hematite–carbonate and quartz veins and veinlets. Given the extent of this block and the presence of several IOA deposits within this block, and also the high grades of REEs within these deposits, one can reasonably state that it is obvious that there are significant resources of REEs in this part of Iran.

Open access
Central European Geology
Authors:
Ádám Bede
,
Roderick B. Salisbury
,
András István Csathó
,
Péter Czukor
,
Dávid Gergely Páll
,
Gábor Szilágyi
, and
Pál Sümegi

The Ecse-halom is a burial mound (kurgan) in the Hortobágy region of Hungary. Built in the Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age by nomadic people from the east, it now stands on the border between two modern settlements. A road of medieval origin runs along this border and cuts deeply into the body of the mound. The southern half of the mound was plowed and used as a rice field, and later a military observation tower was built on top of it. Despite this disturbance, the surface of the mound is in decent condition and provides a home for regionally significant, species-rich loess steppe vegetation. The mound comprises two construction layers as indicated by magnetic susceptibility and thin-section micro-morphological analysis. Examination of organic compounds and carbonate content at various levels showed different values, which suggest a variety of natural and anthropogenic stratigraphic layers. Mid-sized siltstone fraction is dominant in the section. The layers originate from the immediate vicinity of the mound, but have different characteristics than present-day soils. These mounds contain a valuable record of cultural and environmental conditions occurring at the time of their construction, and also serve as a refuge for ancient loess vegetation; therefore their conservation is highly recommended.

Open access