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School Meals on the Menu

Studies on the Practices of Children's Catering

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author:
Anikó Báti
Open access

Abstract

This article traces references to nature and naturalism (understood as an attempt to ground and legitimize art in natural phenomena) in Ligeti's writings, but also in selected aspects of his oeuvre. The references to nature recur here in various manifestations, with romantic depictions of nature appearing alongside more recent, modernist approaches. The concept of nature is associated with the romantic setting for human emotions, with the discovery of scientific laws, with listening to soundscape, with phenomena of auditory perception and with the spectral explorations of sound. Although nature is not a central, strategic concept for Ligeti, it remains a constant, even if hidden, context for his work, a point of reference.

Open access

Abstract

Sándor Weöres's poetry was a life-long passion and source of inspiration for György Ligeti. This article explores the role Weöres played in Ligeti's early development as a composer by providing insight into the genesis of all of his 13 early settings of Weöres, including the unpublished choral works Hajnal [Dawn] and Tél [Winter], the incomplete song “Nagypapa leszállt a tóba” [Grandpa descended in the pond], and the unfinished oratorio “Istar pokoljárása” [Ishtar's Journey to Hell], and by making some analytical observations on them. Ligeti's early settings of Weöres were composed in three periods. The first stage in 1946–1947 was his compositional discovery of Weöres's poetry, which seems to have acted as a fuel and a challenge for him, triggering something of a musical self-liberation. His Weöres settings in 1949–1950 may be seen as a sign of solidarity with the poet effectively silenced by Communist state authorities, while in 1952–1955, Weöres texts seem to have served specifically as material for Ligeti's experimentation with static music and serialism.

Open access

Abstract

Children are a vulnerable group in terms of obesity: nearly 20% of Hungarian kindergarten and school-aged children are overweight or obese. School catering plays a decisive role in shaping children's nutritional behavior. To support the prevention of obesity and to increase the quality of children's diets, legislation passed in 2014 included provisions on school catering. This paper provides a qualitative content analysis of a roundtable discussion on the school catering system that took place at an interdisciplinary conference, with the aim of identifying the most important messages about school meals conveyed by the discussion. During the qualitative analysis of the roundtable discussion, seven main categories emerged: factors supporting the acceptance/implementation of public catering; factors hindering the acceptance/implementation of public catering; everyday problems in the implementation of public catering; the task of caterers and public catering; the transformation of public catering; cooperation among parties with an interest in public catering; and factors helping children to cooperate. The co-occurrence network of subcategories and values can be broken down into one large component and several separate, small components. Thus, it can be concluded that the majority of subthemes and values are grouped into a coherent system. The results point to the key role of school catering in healthy nutrition and nutrition education, and the importance of close cooperation among parties with an interest in school catering to promote the social acceptance of catering and the prevention of childhood obesity.

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Abstract

The starting point for the present study is the thematization of the concept of “Jewish cultural heritage” and, in this context, the outlining of the role and position of cemeteries in Jewish tradition. The case study focuses on the Hungarian village of Apc, which was home to a Jewish community of just over a hundred people before World War II. After the Holocaust, only a few survivors returned to the settlement; some of them emigrated, while others remained in Apc for the rest of their lives. In recent decades, what has become of the cemetery, one of the most important sites for the former Jewish community of Apc? This paper explores the process of the heritagization of the local Jewish cemetery, one of the activities carried out by the Together for Apc Association, a civil society initiative launched two decades ago. In 2003, the dilapidated and abandoned “Israelite cemetery” was the first of the settlement's deteriorating assets to be declared as local cultural heritage. With the involvement of various actors from the local community (volunteers and local entrepreneurs), and in contact with Jewish organizations (the Federation of Hungarian Jewish Communities, the Foundation for Hungarian Jewish Cemeteries), the cemetery was restored over a period of two years and was “inaugurated” in 2006 in the presence of a rabbi, a cantor, a Jewish secular leader, Holocaust survivors and members of the local society. In the fifteen years since then, care has been taken to ensure that the achievements are sustainable and maintained, and the cemetery has been kept open not only for the descendants of the Jewish community but for all interested parties. But the salvaging of the Apc Jewish cemetery is not only an example of the preservation of the built heritage of a single community: while for the village residents it forms part of their local identity, for the Jewish organizations it represents part of their Jewish identity. What happens when two communities stake a claim to the heritagization of the same site? As a shared goal, or “cause,” the “bipolar” process of the heritagization of the Jewish cemetery in Apc has provided an opportunity for dialogue, collective thinking, and problem solving between Jewish and non-Jewish society, even if the various heritagization goals, coming from different directions, have in many cases generated tensions.

Open access

Abstract

Gastronomy and meals have always played a key role in shaping cultural characteristics, and it is for this very reason that cultural anthropology pays particular attention to these topics. In this paper, we present several analytical dimensions that can be applied to the analysis of food culture, partly from a cultural anthropological perspective and partly from a socio-semiotic perspective. Firstly, we review those aspects of gastro-semiotics that help us to organize foods according to various dichotomies and polarities. We discuss, on the one hand, those aspects that may indicate differences between cultures and subcultures, and on the other those that relate to temporal differences in food consumption and those that are rooted in material differences among foods. We then list the dimensions that, in the form of general status symbols, may also play a role in the analysis of food. In the present paper we also discuss our longitudinal study The Symbols of Hungarianness (1997 and 2021/22), conducted on a nationwide representative sample of 1,000 people, in which we asked about foods and drinks that are characteristic in terms of national identity and that are thus also suitable for presenting certain typical features of Hungarian cuisine.

Open access

Egy új megközelítés az árokkeretek szarmata temetkezési rítusokban betöltött szerepének vizsgálatához

New approach to the study of the role of encircling ditches in Sarmatian burial rites

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Author:
Balázs Wieszner

Absztrakt

A tanulmány a szarmata árokkereteknek a temetkezési rítusokban betöltött szerepének újfajta megközelítését célozza meg, amely elsősorban a bennük elhelyezett különböző típusú deponálások strukturális mintázatait figyelembe vevő térhasználati modellen alapszik. Az árokkeretekben viszonylagos gyakorisággal kerülnek elő különböző típusú áldozati jellegű edény- és állategyüttesek. A korábbi kutatások ezeket a leleteket csak másodlagosan említették a különböző interpretációkban és azokat az őskultusszal vagy a halotti lakomával hozták összefüggésbe. Pedig az árokkeretekben elhelyezett deponálások egy olyan kötött, szelektivitáson alapuló, ismétlődő viselkedési mintázatot mutatnak, ami az árokkeretek strukturális különbségeinek ellenére is egységesnek tekinthető. Emiatt az árokkeretek temetkezési rítusokban betöltött szerepét célszerűbb a bennük elhelyezett deponálások, illetve azok ismétlődő, standardizáló térhasználati mintázatai révén értelmezni. Az elemzés eredményeként az árokkereteknek a temetkezési rítusokban betöltött szerepében egy olyan egységes társadalmi logika mutatható ki, ami hozzájárulhat a szarmaták társadalmi szerveződésének felvázolásához és megértéséhez.

Open access

Abstract

The paper is dealing with 194 Aucissa brooches from 27 sites in the Roman province of Pannonia, based on the results and methodology of international archaeological and historical research. Aucissa fibulae, as costume items, are one of the leading artefacts of the early imperial period, initially used mainly by soldiers (sagum), and are therefore an important archaeological source for the Roman expansion, occupation and Romanisation. In Pannonia 98% of the Aucissa fibulae were recovered from settlements, mainly from the early layers of military forts and later towns. The material of the fibulae is bronze, there is only a single known item being silver-plated. The formal, technological and chronological analysis of the Aucissa fibulae in Pannonia is followed by a costume, historical and archaeological analysis. The Aucissa brooches in Pannonia can be dated from the beginning of the 1st century A.D. to the first decades of the 2nd century A.D. The earliest types (subtypes A242.1,2,3) are found in military forts along the Roman expansion trail. The Aucissa brooches come from the areas of the East–West military expansion route (the Drava-Save interfluve, Siscia, Sirmium, Gomolava), the North–South expansion route to the Danube (Amber Road, Salla, Savaria, Carnuntum) and the Danube limes (Brigetio, Matrica, Rittium). The smaller number of later types of fibulae (subtypes A242.4,5,6) found in the interior of the province of Pannonia (vici) indicates a process of Romanisation of the local population (Bátaszék, Csákberény, Mezőörs). The Aucissa brooches can also refer to cultural and trade relations with the Barbaricum (Púchov culture); they can indicate the movement of the Roman army (Devín, Mušov) and also the mobility of people (Veresegyház, Szeged). In some places Aucissa brooches later appeared in the clothing of civilians and women (Emona).

Open access

Abstract

Copper is one of the most important raw materials in the Carpathian Basin, and its extraction, processing and trade can be traced at least from the Bronze Age to the Middle Ages and beyond. Drawing on a variety of sources and research methods, the authors explore the patterns of distribution of this raw material in Europe. The aim of the diachronic analysis is to uncover the networks of connections – commercial, cultural, and migratory – that can be traced over the long term in the Central European region. It also draws attention to other, less stable links in the Carpathian Basin, which have also influenced the history of the region in certain periods.

Open access

Abstract

This paper covers the mould-blown scallop bowls from Late Roman Pannonia (Hungary), which merit a discussion because compared to other regions of the Roman Empire, scallop bowls have a relatively dense distribution in this province (Fig. 6). All the bowls described and discussed here were part of the grave goods recovered from burials, providing a good context for these vessels.

Open access