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A pandémia hatása a személyes kapcsolathálózati struktúrára.

Otthoni munkavégzés: védelem a vírustól vagy társas izoláltság?

Effect of Covid-19 on personal network structures

Home office: virus protection or social isolation?
Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Beáta Dávid, Boglárka Herke, Éva Huszti, Gergely Tóth, Emese Túry-Angyal, and Fruzsina Albert

Összefoglaló. Jelen írásban a biztonság három dimenziójának (egészség, munka, emberi kapcsolatok) összefüggésében a home office pozitív és negatív jellemzőit vizsgáljuk meg a pandémiás időszakban. Tanulmányunk egy 2020 májusában, reprezentatív mintán lekérdezett felmérés adataira épül, mely a vírushelyzetre vonatkozó kérdéseket és egy kapcsolati naplót tartalmazott. Az eredmények alapján a home office-ban dolgozók kevésbé voltak kitéve a fertőzésveszélynek: kevesebb időt töltöttek saját otthonukon kívül és tömegközlekedést is kevésbé használtak. Másrészt az otthonról dolgozók átlagosan kevesebb emberrel is találkoztak személyesen. A találkozásokban mutatkozó különbséget ugyanakkor kifejezetten a munkatársi kapcsolatok magyarázzák, míg a családi és baráti kapcsolataik megvédték az otthonról dolgozókat a társas izoláció veszélyétől.

Summary. The emergence of the Covid-19 virus in spring 2020 has significantly transformed the daily lives of the population. One of the major changes affecting the world of work is that many people have been able to work remotely from home. In this paper, we focus on the home office phenomenon with regard to the three dimensions of security (health, work and human relations) and examine its positive and negative impacts in the context of human relations during the pandemic. It is assumed that home office is more secure against the virus, as those working from home may choose not to leave their homes at all and thus protect themselves from the virus by being physically isolated. On the other hand, it is also assumed that home office workers encounter fewer people than non-home office workers and are therefore more vulnerable to social isolation.

In our study, we compare the characteristics of these two groups using descriptive statistics based on data from a national representative sample of 1,001 people contacted by telephone in May 2020. The survey included questions on the pandemic situation on the one hand, and a so-called contact diary on the other hand, in which respondents were asked to name all persons (and their characteristics) with whom they had spoken on that day beyond saying hello. First, the results show that home office workers were indeed less exposed to the risk of infection, as they spent significantly less time away from home, used public transport less, and none of them were abroad. Second, our data also show that there is a significant difference in the number of face-to-face encounters between home and non-home workers. Home office workers met on average two people face-to-face on the day of the survey, while non-home office workers met on average five people. While no significant difference was found in the number of relatives – whether or not they lived under the same roof as the respondent – between home office workers and those who went to work, the number of encounters with non-relatives was significantly higher among non-home office workers. The difference was mainly due to workplace contacts. This suggests that those working from home were protected from the risk of social isolation by their emotionally and physically close relationships. These results further support the finding that, in a crisis situation, the security provided by family ties is particularly valued and strong bonds are essential for the individual.

Open access

A politikai filozófia a világjárványról

The Pandemic, from the Perspective of Political Philosophy

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Ferenc Hörcher

Összefoglaló. Ez a filozófiai esszé arra tesz kísérletet, hogy megpróbálja nyomon követni a világjárvány kibontakozását, a változatos védelmi stratégiákat, valamint a mégiscsak bekövetkező tragédiákat a politikai filozófia perspektívájából. Mégpedig valós időben. Az esszé abból a hipotézisből indul ki, hogy az emberiséget váratlanul érte ugyan a járvány, mégis igen gyorsan tudott reagálni (lásd az oltóanyag előállításának gyorsaságát), az egyes emberek azonban nem tudtak kilépni saját természetük korlátai közül. Ennek megfelelően a hatalom ismét elkövette a szokásos hibákat, a lázadók lázadtak, és a politika továbbra is a konfliktusok kezelésének művészete maradt. A politikával foglalkozóknak azonban kincsesbánya ez a korszak a politika természetének elemzéséhez.

Summary. This paper, written in the genre of the literary essay, tries to keep track of the birth and development of the pandemic, the various defence strategies and the tragedies that took place anyhow, from the perspective of the discipline of political philosophy.

Now political philosophy is not characteristically ready to react promptly to the events of the day. It has got a long term perspective, and therefore has no intention to keep an eye on the headlines of the online news portals. It has got long term debits, which cannot be easily paid back in cash.

And yet the claim of the paper is that in fact we are confronted by a state of affairs when political philosophy is obliged to take note of contemporary events. And it has to try to respond to those events almost “real time” or directly. We are aware of 4 million dead, by now, which is an unacceptable number.

To tackle states of emergency parliaments are usually ready to offer exceptional measures for government action, even in parliamentary democracies. Yet politicians do not necessarily want to take on board the struggle with the virus – they can easily drop it out from the issues of the day –, claiming that public health should not be politicized. Yet by leaving the stage to let professional experts make the decisions, they give up their chance to unite the camp. Statesmen can only unite their camp behind them, if they make use of the window of opportunity opened by an emergency situation, and if they are able to make use of the phobias and anxieties of everyday people, in the fashionable populist, plebeian manner.

The essay analyses two basic relationships influenced by the pandemic. One is claimed to be the intergovernmental, or global scene. Here, the great and developing powers are competing with each other, through the still mostly acceptable international norms of taking advantage of inequality. The other is the inner political scene, where there is a growing distrust between the authorities and the ordinary people, fuelled by restrictions, fake news, and forms either of controlling society by illegal means, or of influencing leaders by indirect means.

The last part of the essay presents three major aspects from where one can analyse the happenings: a social, a communicational and an economic perspective on its effects.

The essay finishes with some cautionary, sceptical notes on human nature, in order to keep vigilance in emergency situations on the loss of balance, either internal or external, to avoid the major dangers.

Open access

Stílusváltozatok a világ rendészeti járványkezelésében

Varieties of Style in Law Enforcement Dealing with the Pandemic

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Géza Finszter and Péter Cieleszky

Összefoglaló. A világjárvány a Föld minden országát fenyegeti. Az ellene folytatott küzdelem eredményeit és kudarcait akkor lehet felmérni, ha a veszély elmúlt. Addig csak a vírus támadásának a más társadalmi kockázatoktól eltérő egyedi tulajdonságai tárhatóak fel. Tanulmányozásra várnak az egyes országokban bevezetett rendkívüli intézkedések és az Egészségügyi Világszervezet (WHO) globális védekezésre tett kezdeményezései.

Summary. The time has not yet come for a comprehensive assessment of the COVID-19 pandemic situation. At this stage, it is possible to collect information, formulate incomplete hypotheses, and define possible research directions and methodology. With this in mind, our paper will focus primarily on domestic practices. We will study the legislation, the constitutional basis of the special legal order, the functioning of public administration organisation, the reactions of criminal substantive and procedural law and, finally, the changed tasks and functions of law enforcement administration in the emergency situation.

On the basis of the information available to us, we are seeking answers to three questions.

Firstly, can the pandemic be considered a global threat to societies, one with specific characteristics that are different from all other threats?

Secondly, what role do the state, government in general, and public administration authorities and law enforcement in particular, have to play in combating the pandemic?

Thirdly, can international cooperation achieve such a level of global capacity for action that is needed to tackle the global threat?

In response to the first question, the study describes the specificities that justify the uniqueness of the pandemic in nine points:

  • the classification as the highest risk,

  • the three hazards theory,

  • the incomparable nature of the consequences of pandemics and natural disasters,

  • the exclusion of any prior consideration of risk-taking,

  • the application of the tolerable and intolerable distinction,

  • the inconsistency of the typology of internal and external risks,

  • a characteristic that cannot be predicted by legislation,

  • the mathematical measurability of consequences, and

  • the impact on the world economy.

Our second aim was to present the domestic practice of combating the epidemic through the special legal order, drawing on the evaluations of legal scholars on the subject published since 2020. We have reviewed the constitutionality of the special legal order, its impact on central state and municipal administration, on substantive and procedural criminal law, and on law enforcement administration. Attention was paid to a specific institution dictated by the exceptional situation: the hospital command system. The police officers temporarily appointed to this post are responsible for supporting the organisational work in health institutions, which cannot include medical activities requiring medical training.

The third theme focused on the World Health Organisation’s response to the epidemic from a global perspective. We recalled that the idea of an international treaty was first raised by the President of the European Council, Charles Michel, at the Paris Peace Forum in November 2020 and subsequently endorsed by the G7 leaders on 19 February 2021. EU leaders then expressed their commitment to start work on the preparation of an international treaty on pandemics in the framework of the World Health Organisation.

We are convinced that this threefold approach will be worth pursuing when the opportunity arises to assess good and bad practices in epidemic management. However, this will be a task for the post-COVID era.

Open access

Válaszkeresés járvány idején a felmerülő erkölcsi kérdésekre

Searching for answers to moral issues that arise during an epidemic

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Mihály Kránitz

Összefoglaló. Most már második éve általános tapasztalat – és nemcsak egy kis területen, hanem az egész világon – a COVID–19 halálos járvány terjedése (az elnevezés pontosan: SARS-CoV-2), amelyet már nem lehetett egyszerű megfázásnak vagy gyorsan elmúló betegségnek tekinteni, hanem egy olyan súlyos állapotnak, mely fenyegeti minden ember életét, függetlenül attól, hogy ki hol él. Az egészségügyi kutatók az ellenanyag kifejlesztéséért küzdöttek, mely megállíthatja a vírus terjedését. A gyógyítás kérdései mellett azonban filozófiai és vallási kérdések is felmerültek, melyekre pszichológusok és hittudósok is keresik a választ. Az ember teremtettségéből és szabad akaratából kiindulva a jelen tanulmány a Bibliában közölt kinyilatkoztatás és a keresztény tanítás alapján vállalkozik nemcsak lehetséges válaszokat adni, hanem a járvány komolyságával számolva a jelenség hitbeli és teológiai magyarázatát is megfogalmazni.

Summary. The Covid-19 epidemic, which began in late 2019 and early 2020, has reached everyone: the family, the workplace, and public life. The phenomenon also requires a comprehensive solution. The unfortunate experience has taught everyone that there is no age limit for the virus because it affects everyone equally. It has become clear that it is not individual solutions that are needed, but only community path finding, that no one lives alone in isolation. Throughout its two-thousand-year history, Christianity has accompanied man in both its successes and failures.

God’s revelation-based teaching is unchanged and to this day He provides His resulting answers to everyone by placing the whole man before God. This Christian-minded anthropology means that man lives in a personal relationship that assigns him to God alone. In terms of faith, it thus approaches the crisis, the disease, the drama of being, in a different way, which sees the reality of life and death in a greater context.

The spread of the current epidemic has been interpreted by many as a divine punishment. But God, the Creator, who is good, cannot be the source of good and evil at the same time, he cannot be the starting point of evil. It is precisely because of these characteristics that spiritual and moral behavior is valued in the epidemiological situation. Christianity does not see God-consciously directing punitive action in unpleasant events for people and humanity, as God is first and foremost a Father.

In the Old Testament, there is no connection between a particular disease or other plague and the personal sins of those who suffer it. Far from the New Testament, the conclusion is that it links the plagues, diseases, and epidemics we experience to the sins committed by individual people. The turn of the New Testament, then, is also significant in the presentation of God. It is no longer the image of the fearsome and terrible God that emerges, but the teaching of Jesus, who says of His Father, “God is love.” The God of the New Testament is a God of co-suffering and compassion who thinks not of punishment but of forgiveness.

Troubles are not necessarily attributable to the sins of individuals, but actually to the sins of all mankind. Therefore, it is necessary for everyone to feel somehow responsible for the other when they see that their sins continue. However, the viral situation has also shown unparalleled human behaviors and values, especially on the part of healthcare professionals. Perhaps involuntarily, among those who acted for others, man’s better self manifested itself, so they were able to make sacrifices as well. Of them, too, Jesus said, just before his suffering, that “no one loves more than he who gives his life for his friends.” It is love that overcomes fear, that can be the cure for a virus.

Open access

A válságok hatása a politikai rendszerekre

The impact of crisis on political systems

Scientia et Securitas
Author: István Stumpf

Összefoglaló. A második világháborút követően talán nem volt egyetlen esemény sem, amely olyan hatást gyakorolt a világ országaira, mint a koronavírus-járvány kirobbanása. A vírus-válság felgyorsította a liberális világrend erózióját, kiélezte a nagyhatalmak közötti ellentéteket, válságforgatókönyvek és prognózisok készültek. A válság rávilágított arra is, hogy kudarcra vannak ítélve azok a kormányzatok, amelyek nem ruháztak be a közösségi infrastruktúrába, és elhanyagolták a közszolgálati tudást. Az is kiderült, hogy a kormányzati intézményeknek szakértőkre és nem lojális mamelukokra van szüksége a válsághelyzetből fakadó közpolitikai gondok megoldása során. Egy világméretű és példátlan sebességgel terjedő válság elleni eredményes fellépés elsődleges frontvonala tehát a nemzetállam maradt.

Summary. In times of crisis, all political systems give the executive exceptional powers, as it is not possible to face new and rapidly changing challenges within the framework of existing laws. One of the American founding fathers, Alexander Hamilton, who feared the excessive power of central government, believed that in times of emergency the system of checks and balances should be suspended. Constitutional democracy will be threatened if the rule of law is not restored after the emergency has passed.

Perhaps no event since the Second World War has had such an impact on the countries of the world as the outbreak of the coronavirus epidemic. The virus crisis accelerated the erosion of the liberal world order, sharpened the antagonism between the great powers, especially the US and China, and highlighted the vulnerability of the production chains that had been outsourced to the Far East in the hope of cheap labour. Crisis scenarios and forecasts were drawn up, and prominent scientists and researchers expressed the view that there would be no return to the world before the virus. The virus crisis has also highlighted the failure of governments that have not invested in community infrastructure and have neglected public knowledge. It has also shown that government institutions need experts, not loyal mamelukes, to solve public policy problems arising from the crisis.

The coronavirus is the most pressing challenge of this century so far, and in responding to it, localism is being valorised as a crucial centre of solidarity and problem-solving. Forecasters fear that rising inequalities and the erosion of family savings could trigger a wave of political discontent that is more angry and violent than ever before. The majority of people will not be able to manage their children’s digital education and work from home without a separate room and computing infrastructure, so governments will need to develop special programmes to address this, and people’s health and the capacity of public health to cope will come to the fore.

The pandemic crisis has provided a new argument for those who argued for the reinvention of the state and the importance of governments’ ability to act quickly to deal effectively with natural and economic crises. In recent decades, many have buried the nation state, arguing that successful responses to global problems in a globalised world cannot be found within the framework of a nation state. The Covid-19 crisis has shown that the nation state remains the first front line for effective action against a crisis that is spreading at an unprecedented global scale and speed. Different countries have followed different crisis management strategies and very significant differences in contagion rates have emerged. The crisis has reassessed the role of nation states and borders, which already played an important role in receiving migration flows.

Open access

Abstract

According to Victor Hugo (1802–1885), “He who opens a school door, closes a prison”. This powerful statement demonstrates the importance of school in the development of a nation and the lives of individuals. It has been proven that the language used in early childhood education has an impact on the cognitive development and learning achievement of children in their educational arena.

Most countries in Africa are still discussing the language to be used as a medium of instruction in their educational system.

Ghana, which is known as a multilingual society with over 80 languages is not excluded from this controversy. The language policy of education in Ghana has had a complex history since the colonial era. The question of international schools in Ghana is critically examined; most of these schools do not teach any of the Ghanaian languages, but a foreign language.

Ghana, however, has been a strong advocate of the so-called African personality and the use of English as the medium of instruction is in overt opposition to this ideology. The argument about which language to be used as a medium of instruction in Ghanaian Schools has been going on for a long time without coming to a specific conclusion.

Open access

Abstract

Education is the proven guarantor of gender equality and sustainable development. Empirical evidence from previous studies in European countries (Favara, 2012; Geerdink & Dekkers, 2011; OECD, 2009) shows that women are incompletely represented in many areas of technical and scientific education. This study examined the impact of gender stereotypes and factors related to family background, university criteria, and the main factors influencing students’ academic choices at the University of Debrecen. The research question was: what is the impact of gender stereotypes and demographic factors on students’ academic choices? The research relied on a qualitative approach. 12 qualitative interviews were conducted with international students at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The research used semi-structured interviews with five main blocks of questions. The dimensions explored included the following: 1. introduction and context of the interviewee, 2. gender stereotypes, 3. family background, 4. university characteristics, 5. factors motivating academic selection. After data collection, the transcripts were analysed using an open coding method, which involved line-by-line and word-by-word analysis (Khandkar, 2009). This helped to identify the most important factors influencing students’ academic choices. The socio-educational role of the family, the scholarship Stependium Hungaricum, the facilities and services of the university, the geopolitical academic location, the UNIDEB ranking, the quality of life and study, the scholarships, the realistic, materialistic goals of future life, and the impact of gender stereotypes expressed by the students (as a product of society, choice and belief, the liberal generation) influenced the academic choice of the international students at the University of Debrecen.

Open access

Az Európai Unió és a tagállamok válasza a COVID–19 pandémiára – a szabad mozgás jogának közegészségügyi korlátozásai

European Union and Member State Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic – Restricting the Free Movement of EU citizens on Public Health Grounds

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Laura Gyeney and Marcel Szabó

Összefoglaló. A szabad mozgás és tartózkodás joga az uniós polgárság alapintézményének egyik leglényegesebb eleme. A 2020-ban kirobbant koronavírus világjárvány következtében az Európai Unió tagállamai az Európai Unió történetében először kénytelenek voltak radikális, korábban nem alkalmazott eszközökkel korlátozni a szabad mozgás és tartózkodás jogát annak érdekében, hogy megakadályozzák a vírus terjedését. A tanulmány keretében a COVID–19 világjárvány miatt bevezetett korlátozások alapulvételével annak vizsgálatára kerül sor, hogy a szabad mozgás joga közegészségügyi okból történő korlátozása milyen sajátosságokkal bír más, az Európai Unió alapszerződéseiben ugyancsak nevesített kivételekhez (közrend, közbiztonság) képest. A tanulmány ugyancsak vizsgálja azt a kérdést, hogy az Európai Unió által kibocsátott digitális zöldútlevél (vakcinaigazolvány) a Sinopharm és Szputynik-V vakcinával beoltott uniós polgárok számára is biztosítandó-e az uniós jog rendelkezései alapján.

Summary. The right of free movement of EU citizens is the cornerstone of Union citizenship. To control the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19) and to protect the health and well-being of all Europeans, Member States gave a surprisingly quick response, taking unilateral restrictive measures affecting the operation of the internal market in an unprecedented way. On the one hand they have implemented serious travel restrictions at internal borders of the EU. On the other hand, several States have coupled travel bans/restrictions with a temporary reintroduction of border controls at their borders with other Members of the Schengen Area. During the first wave of the pandemic, altogether 17 Schengen States sent notifications regarding the reintroduction of border controls, which is particularly disheartening given that the lifting of EU internal border controls in the Schengen Area is one of the integration’s greatest achievements.

There is no doubt that the Member States’ restrictions on free movement detailed in the paper are well-founded from the point of view of both public international law and European law. As to how they should be put into practice: that is another issue. Still, it is the preferential role of free movement as a part of integration that requires a deeper examination of controversial measures to ascertain whether these are in compliance with EU legal principles. Among the elements to be reviewed are proportionality and the prohibition on discrimination.

It is beyond doubt that COVID-19 can definitely be regarded as a ‘disease with epidemic potential’ that can justify restrictions on free movement. However, the question arises whether Article 29 TFEU provides for the introduction of public health restrictions with general effect. In other words, does it allow for restrictions not based on individual assessment, as opposed to individual threats to public policy and public security? In answering the above question the paper puts a special emphasis on the delimitation of Member States’ public health and public policy/security justifications.

At the time of writing (June 2021) several Member States have already started to issue EU Covid-19 passports. The article also seeks answer to the question whether the Digital Green Certificate could (or, at least, should) be provided for Union citizens vaccinated with Sinopharm or Sputnik-V (vaccines approved by Hungary as a Member State, under European Union law).

Open access

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of project on children’s attitude toward environmental balance. This study is a qualitative study using a holistic single case study design involving “compost cases”, at a kindergarten in Perak, Malaysia. The participants consisted of a focus group of 18 children and an educator. The data was obtained through triangulation results from unstructured interview, observation, and unofficial documents such as children notebooks, sketches, and pictures of investigative activities. The findings showed that the children understand the negative impact of using chemicals on Earth. The finding also showed that children able to give suggestions on producing compost, burying food scraps in the soil and use the compost dining set for banquet to deal with waste management problems. In addition, the finding showed that children able to classify waste materials which is easily decompose for compost production. The finding also showed that activities project able to develop entrepreneurial attitudes in children to sell the product produced. The valuable experience through observation and hands-on activities from early childhood will help the continuity of learning process throughout their lives.

Open access

The effect of the Danube diversion on the soil moisture conditions in Csallóköz and Szigetköz

A Duna-elterelés hatása a Csallóköz és a Szigetköz talajnedvesség-viszonyaira

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Gábor Koltai, Zsolt Giczi, Viliam Nagy, Gábor Illés, and Kálmán Rajkai

Summary. Following the commissioning of the Gabčíkovo (Bős) hydroelectric power plant in 1992, a monitoring program was launched to assess the agricultural and forestry consequences of the diversion of the Danube into a newly built derivation channel in the Žitný ostrov (Csallóköz) and Szigetköz areas. Prior to the Danube diversion, groundwater played a significant role in the water supply of plants, therefore it is of primary importance to monitor the changes in groundwater levels and soil moisture. Correlation between the groundwater depth and soil moisture time series taken at four measurement points of Szigetköz (T-03, T-04, T-09, T-16) between 1995 and 2012 was analysed. Average and extreme water levels (quartiles 1 and 4) were examined for the 18-year time series, in which 2nd and 3rd quartiles of the groundwater levels were treated together as characteristic water level. It was found that groundwater significantly correlated with soil moisture storage below the rooting zone of field crops.

Összefoglalás. A Gabčíkovo (Bős) vízerőművet 1992-ben helyezték üzembe. A dunacsúnyi duzzasztó vize a bősi erőművön átfolyva a Szlovákiában épített vízlevezető csatornából 40 km után tért vissza a korábbi Duna főmederbe. A régi Duna főmederbe emiatt az elterelt szakaszon a korábbi vízmennyiség ötöde került. Minthogy mind a szlovákiai, mind a magyarországi mezőgazdasági és erdőterületek vízellátásában a talajvíz és a dunai árhullámok jelentős szerepet játszottak, 1995-től a Duna-elterelés hatásának felmérésére talajvízszint és talajnedvesség monitoring program indult a Csallóközben és a Szigetközben. A szlovák megfigyelések publikált anyagainak megállapításait és a Szigetközből két szántóföld, egy kaszálórét és egy nyárfaültetvény 1995 és 2012 közötti mérési adatait dolgoztuk fel. A talajvízmélység és a 10 cm-es talajrétegek mért térfogatszázalékos (v.%) nedvességtartalmából számított talajvízkészletek közötti korrelációt számítottuk. A 18 éves idősoron külön vizsgáltuk a jellemző, illetve a szélsőséges vízszintek (1. és 4. kvartilisek) hatását. A jellemző vízszintek hatásának vizsgálatához a talajvízszint értékek 2. és 3. kvartilisét egyben kezeltük. Megállapítottuk, hogy szignifikáns, ill. közel szignifikáns összefüggés csupán az átlagosnál a talajfelszínhez közelebbi (Q1) talajvízmélység esetén volt kimutatható mind a mély (T-03), mind a sekély talajrétegű (T-09) szántóföld 210–300 cm-es, illetve 120–140 cm-es talajszintjében. Vagyis a szántóföldi kultúrák számára az átlagos talajvízmélység nem jelentett vízpótlást. A régi Duna főmederhez közeli kaszálóréten (T-04) a talajvízmélység helyett a dunaremetei medervízszint adatok és a talajnedvességkészlet között még a 140 cm-es mélységben található kavicsos alapkőzet fölötti 20 cm-es talajrétegben sem volt jelentős kapcsolat. A mély talajrétegű (300 cm) erdészeti mérőhely (T-16) talajvízmélység és talajnedvességkészlet korrelációja csupán a 210–300 cm-es talajréteg esetében volt közel szignifikáns. A nyárültetvények fejlődéséhez szükséges éves 700–900 mm vízigény biztosítására emiatt a régi Duna főmederbe engedett többletvízre lenne szükség. A szántóföldi kultúrák terméshozama is elsősorban az adott év csapadékmennyisége és eloszlása szerint alakul. Amennyiben az időjárási feltételek kedvezőtlenek, megoldásként öntözni szükséges.

Beszámoltunk továbbá arról, hogy két éve négy mérőhely üzemel, ami a naponta óránként mért 6 órás átlag talajnedvesség-adatokat gyűjti. A folyamatos talajnedvesség-adatgyűjtés célja az időjárás, a növényi vízfelhasználás és a talajvízből történő nedvesítés nyomon követése és a talajvízforgalom-modell leírásának a kontrollja. A közeljövő feladata az évente 12-14 alkalommal az ezeken a mérőhelyeken is gyűjtött kapacitívszondás és a folyamatos nedvességmérési eredmények megfeleltetése, minthogy a bemutatott közel azonos példa mellett több helyen és mélységben időben párhuzamos módon változik ugyan a kétféle érték, azonban akár több, mint 5 v.% különbséggel.

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