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Abstract

Fusarium spp. are phytopathogens causing fusarium head blight in wheat. They produce mycotoxins, mainly fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone. The study was conducted during two growing seasons (2020 and 2021) at the experimental field and laboratories of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE). The aim of the study was to determine the influence of growing season, nitrogen fertilisation, and wheat variety on Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production in wheat kernel. Zearalenone was not detected during the two growing seasons and deoxynivalenol was only detected in 2020. The results indicate that nitrogen fertilisation and wheat variety did not have statistically significant influence on Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production. The growing season had statistically significant influence on Fusarium infection and fumonisins production due to higher rainfall in 2021 compared to 2020 during the flowering period when the wheat spike is the most vulnerable to Fusarium infection.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors: B. Schmidt-Szantner, M. Gasztonyi, P. Milotay, and R. Tömösközi-Farkas

Abstract

A three-year (2016–2018) open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation, fertilisation, and seasonal variation on the main bioactive components, such as carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotene), total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and tocopherols of processed Uno Rosso F1 tomato. The statistical evaluation of measurements proved that the multi-year data set cannot be evaluated as combined data set; the values obtained in different years must be evaluated separately. The impact of irrigation on the content of bioactive components varied from year to year. The correlation was negative between irrigation and α-tocopherol content in 2016 and 2018 (r = –0.567 and –0.605, respectively), polyphenol content in 2016 (r = –0.668), γ-tocopherol content in 2017 (r = –0.662), while positive correlation was observed between concentration of vitamin C (r = 0.533) in 2017, lycopene content (r = 0.473) in 2018 and irrigation intensity. A weak correlation was proved between K levels and concentrations of lycopene and polyphenols in 2016 (r = 0.301 and r = 0.392, respectively).

Open access

Abstract

Nitrogen (N) is one of the most essential nutrients affecting the yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.). A field experiment was conducted at the experimental plot of the Department of Agronomy, The Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Hungary, to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the yield and quality of maize. The experimental site included four observation plots with a net of 2 × 5 m size. Four N levels of T1, T2, T3, and T4 were sprayed at indicated plants in four replications according to treatment viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg N ha−1. Nitrogen application in general does not significantly affect maize yield, its components, or grain quality. However, out of the four N treatments, the optimal N application between 50–100 kg N ha−1 potentially increased the yield, also the total expression of protein and starch contents in maize can be achieved with the right amount of N fertiliser, indicating that the treatment could produce a high grain yield as well as high protein and starch contents. Good N fertilising practice will boost the maize's nutritional value and make it more significant in the agriculture in the future. In addition, more research and assessment are essential to acquire the most benefit from the effect of optimal N application on maize yield and quality, and the findings could be beneficial to researchers and growers.

Open access
Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Norbert Túri, János Körösparti, Balázs Kajári, György Kerezsi, Mohammed Zain, János Rakonczai, and Csaba Bozán

Due to extreme meteorological and soil hydrological situations the agricultural production security is highly unpredictable. To release the extent and duration of inland excess water (IEW) inundations or two-phase soil conditions during the period intended for cultivation, subsurface drainage (SD) has been used as a best practice in several countries. SD interventions took place between 1960’s and 1990 in Hungary. After 1989, land ownership conditions changed, thus professional operation and the necessary maintenance of the SD networks designed as a complex system became insignificant. In this paper, our aim was to present the IEW hazard in one of the most equipped areas by SD in Hungary. The occurrence frequency of IEW inundations in drained and non-drained (control) areas in different time intervals were compared. According to our results, we could state that the frequency of IEW on the subsurface drained areas was moderately lower in only a few periods compared to the control areas. IEW hazard of the arable areas at the Körös Interfluve was classified as nonhazarded in 52.7% of the area. Another 38.2% were moderately hazarded, 8.26% of the lands were meanly hazarded and less than 1% were highly hazarded area by IEW.

Open access

The Westsik’s long-term crop rotation experiment was set up in 1929 at the Nyíregyháza Experimental Station (NE Hungary) on a slightly acidic Arenosol. Besides fallow crop rotation (CR), effects of different organic amendments (lupine as green manure, lupine as main crop, straw manure, and farmyard manure (FYM) were studied with or without N or NPK-fertilizers. The crop rotation consisted of rye, potato, lupine, and oat with common vetch. The soil of potato plots was analysed in 2019 at the 90th anniversary of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment.

The following chemical and microbiological soil parameters were determined: soil pH, available nutrient contents, organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (ON) contents, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), soil respiration, net nitrification, and activity of some soil enzymes.

In the CRs, the soil pHH2O varied from acidic to weakly alkaline and it largely differed from pHKCl. The results showed a significant increase in the content of nitrate, available phosphorus and potassium in most of the fertilized plots. Applying straw, green manure, or FYM significantly increased the OC and ON contents. The total count of cultivable bacteria increased upon the application of the organic manures. Combined application of straw manure and N-fertilization heavily improved the abundance of the microscopic fungi.

While all the applied organic manures significantly enhanced the MBC, the MBN increased only by the green manure amendment. Our results revealed higher soil respiration rate in the plots receiving straw or FYM than in the control. Both green manure and FYM elevated the net nitrification rate. Phosphatase, saccharase, urease, and dehydrogenase enzymes showed a hesitating response to the manure application in the different CRs.

The soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity correlated to most of the measured chemical parameters. Among microbiological properties, the MBC and MBN, as well as dehydrogenase and other enzyme activities displayed a positive correlation. Results proved the need for the exogenous application of organic matter in the form of organic manures to enhance the nutritional status and health of the soil.

Open access

Greenhouse plastic contaminations in agricultural soils were studied to quantify and examine the macroplastic and microplastic contaminants on the soil surface, soil profile, and groundwater under greenhouse farmland. Random sampling was used to select three areas in a greenhouse farm where macroplastic and microplastic data were collected. Four composite samples were collected from shallow (0–20 cm) and deep (20–40 cm) soils for each sampling point, respectively. Three soil profiles were dug, and samples were collected at intervals of 20 cm. Groundwater samples were also collected from the same profiles at a depth of 100 cm. Microplastics were extracted using predigestion of organic matter with 30% H2O2 and density separation with ZnCl2. The total mass of macroplastics in the greenhouse farmland was 6.4 kg ha–1. Polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride were the dominant plastic structures, and the dominant sizes were 1–5 and 0.5–1.0 cm, respectively. Overall, the average abundance of microplastics in the greenhouse soil was 225 ± 61.69 pieces/kg, and the dominant size structure was 2–3 mm. The average microplastic concentrations at depths of 0–20 and 20–40 cm were 300 ± 93 and 150.0 ± 76.3 pieces/kg, respectively. The average microplastic concentration in the groundwater was 2.3 pieces/l, and fibers were the dominant plastic structure. Given that microplastics were found in greenhouse soil, soil profiles, and groundwater, we recommend the careful cleaning and disposal of plastics on greenhouse farmland and further research to shed light on the level of microplastic contamination in the soil profiles and groundwater.

Open access

Abstract

Soybean seeds were germinated on an industrial scale after soaking for 0–56 h to produce a special additive for food industrial use. The germination process of three soybean varieties was monitored with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy based on changes in the amount, status, or character of the water. This paper evaluates the “waterless” NIR spectra of sound, germinated, and heat treated seeds to try to follow the fine details of the germination process. The germination process was analysed with the help of cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and polar qualification system (PQS) as statistical and chemometric methods. PCA proved to be the most sensitive spectrum evaluation method to follow the fine details of germination. The applied NIR method is suitable for non-destructively, real-time monitoring of the non-linear nature of germination.

Open access

Abstract

Fungal disease resistant (PIWI) interspecific grape varieties are playing an important role as an alternative for organic wine production. Organic (bio) wines are demanded by numerous conscious consumers around the globe. They choose this kind of wines predominantly because of the absence of synthetic pesticides, fertilisers and sustainable agriculture. Resistant grape growing moreover results in additional environmental and health benefits. Nero and Bianca are among Hungary's most promising interspecific grape cultivars gaining international interest recently, there are, however, limited vitivinicultural knowledge on them. Our aim was to examine the flavonoid and anthocyanin composition for both interspecific varieties during different harvest times in two consecutive vintages. The date of harvest and vintage played a significant effect on grape and wine quality.

Open access

Egy köles tájfajta műtrágya-reakciójának vizsgálata

Examination of the reaction to fertilization of regional millet variety

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Zsembeli Zsadány, Sinka Lúcia, Tüdősné Budai Júlia, Kovács Györgyi, Tuba Géza, and Zsembeli József

Kutatómunkák általános célja olyan kísérletek végzése, amelyek feltárják az adott régióban perspektivikusan termeszthető fajták, illetve tájfajták optimális műtrágyázási igényeit. Tanulmányunkban a Karcagon nemesített és fenntartott ’Maxi’ köles tájfajta tápanyagreakciójának vizsgálatából származó eredményeinket mutatjuk be a módosított Országos Műtrágyázási Tartamkísérlet (OMTK) 2017. évi és az annak figyelembevételével 2021-ben beállított Műtrágyázási Kísérleti Kert (MKK) adatai alapján. A kísérleteket Karcagon, a MATE Karcagi Kutatóintézetben, egy mélyben szolonyeces réti csernozjom talajon állítottuk be. 2017-ben a módosított OMTK kezelései 4 nitrogén (40, 80, 120, 160 kg ha 1), 4 foszfor (0, 40, 80, 100 kg ha 1) és 3 kálium (0, 60, 90 kg ha 1) dózis kombinációjából adódtak, illetve volt egy műtrágyázás nélküli abszolút kontroll. 2021-ben az MKK kezelései 3 nitrogén (40, 80, 120 kg ha 1), 3 foszfor (0, 40, 80 kg ha 1) és 2 kálium (0, 60 kg ha 1) dózis kombinációját foglalták magukba, illetve mindegyik parcella felére növénykondicionáló szert juttatunk ki. A termesztett növény mindkét évben a karcagi nemesítésű ’Maxi’ kölesfajta volt. A különböző kezeléscsoportok termésre gyakorolt hatásának statisztikai értékelését egytényezős varianciaanalízissel végeztük el. Mindkét vizsgálati évben a 80 kg ha 1 hatóanyag mennyiségben kijuttatott nitrogén műtrágyázás bizonyult a leginkább megfelelőnek. A magas foszfor dózisok a legtöbb esetben termésdepresszióhoz vezettek. Eredményeink alapján még a közepes – jó kálium ellátottságú karcagi talajokon is hasznos lehet a kálium kijuttatása, bár a káliumtrágyázás termésre gyakorolt hatását a varianciaanalízis nem igazolta. Az Algomel PUSH szerrel végzett növénykondicionálás statisztikailag is igazolhatóan, mintegy 10%-kal növelte a termés nagyságát. Kutatómunkánk folytatásával pontosabban meghatározható lesz számos tájfajta tápanyagreakciója és fajtaspecifikus, a helyi agroökológiai viszonyokat is figyelembe vevő tápanyag dózisok és kombinációk ajánlhatók a gazdálkodóknak.

The general objective of our research is to carry out experiments that are suitable to reveal the optimal fertilization demand of regionally bred or potentially producible crop varieties for a specific region. In our recent study, the results gained from the examination of the nutrient reaction of the regional millet variety ‘Maxi’ bred and maintained in Karcag are introduced based on the data originating from the modified Long-term National Fertilization Experiments (OMTK) in 2017 and from the Fertilization Experimental Garden (MKK) established at Karcag in 2021. Both experiments were set up in the MATE Research Institute of Karcag on a meadow chernozem soil salty in the deeper layers. In 2017, there were 4 nitrogen (40, 80, 120, 160 kg ha−1), 4 phosphorus (0, 40, 80, 100 kg ha−1), and 3 potassium (0, 60, 90 kg ha−1) dosage combinations applied and one unfertilized absolute control in the OMTK trial. In 2021, in the MKK experiment, treatments involved 3 nitrogen (40, 80, 120 kg ha−1), 3 phosphorus (0, 40, 80 kg ha−1), and 2 potassium (0, 60 kg ha−1) dosage combinations, furthermore, on half of the plots a plant conditioner was sprayed. Millet variety ‘Maxi’ bred at Karcag was the indicator crop in both years. For the statistical analysis of the effect of the various treatment groups on yields, One-way ANOVA tests were used. We considered the 80 kg ha−1 nitrogen substance dose the most suitable in both years. High dosage of phosphorus application resulted in yield depression in most of the cases. Based on our results, potassium fertilization can be effective even on the soils of Karcag with medium to good potassium supplies, though the analysis of variance did not justify the effect of K-fertilization on yields. The 10% yields increase due to plant conditioning with Algomel PUSH was statistically proven. By continuing or research, the reaction to fertilization of several regional crop varieties can be determined more precisely, and variety-specific nutrient doses and combinations can be determined and suggested to the local famers taking the regional agri-ecological conditions into consideration.

Open access