Authors:Jahangir Khan, Zoobia Bashir, Aqeel Ahmad, Wajeeha Tariq, Anam Yousaf, and Madiha Gohar
This study mathematically correlates incidence of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), environmental factors (i.e., rainfall, humidity and temperature), and silverleaf whitefly population in agricultural system of Pakistan. It has been concluded that the disease is directly linked with rainfall and humidity. The third most influential factor in defining CLCuV incidence is the vector population, which is also strictly dependent upon monthly mean temperature of Pakistan. Developed mathematical interrelation is capable of predicting disease incidence of future months. Therefore, it will help agriculturists to control disease in agricultural areas of Pakistan. It is strongly advised on the basis of current research that vector population controlling practices should be immediately applied after detecting small elevations in mean monthly temperature.
Authors:Pascal Meylan, Luc Paris, and Oliver Liesenfeld
Detection of IgG and IgM antibodies is commonly performed for the diagnosis of infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We determined the accuracy of the Elecsys Toxo IgG and IgM test at four European laboratories compared to local reference methods. Coefficients of variation for reproducibility ranged from 1.0 to 6.5% for IgG and from 0.8 to 3.2% for IgM. Seroconversion panels revealed high overall concordance with the reference tests. The Elecsys test detected IgG antibodies earlier than the Cobas Core IgG test in 19 of 47 panels; persisting IgM antibodies were observed in the VIDAS but not the Elecsys test in five of 47 panels. In 31.4% of latent stage sera with persistent IgM antibodies (positive LIASON IgM), the Elecsys IgM test gave negative results indicating increased “clinical” specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys IgG assay ranged from 99.45 to 100% and 87.50–99.80%, respectively, and 91.11–95.74 and 98.45–99.79% for the Elecsys IgM assay, respectively.
In conclusion, excellent reproducibility and accuracy make the Elecsys Toxo G and M tests highly suitable for the detection of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. The lower detection rates for persistent IgM in the Elecsys IgM test increase “clinical” specificity and decrease the need for follow-up testing.
Authors:Philipp Warnke, Thomas Köller, Paul Stoll, and Andreas Podbielski
We report the case of a nosocomial infection due to Enterococcus cecorum isolated from a blood culture of a 75-year-old septic male patient. Matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Vitek 2 succeeded in identification of the isolate.
Authors:Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Alejandra Mendoza-Larios, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, José Francisco Pérez-Ochoa, Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Rábago-Sánchez, and Oliver Liesenfeld
The presence of tissue cysts of Toxoplasma gondii has only poorly been investigated in autopsy series. We determined the presence of T. gondii cysts in a series of 51 autopsies in a public hospital using immunohistochemistry of brain and heart tissues. The association of tissue cysts with the general characteristics of the autopsy cases was also investigated.
Of the 51 cases studied, five (9.8%) were positive by immunohistochemistry for T. gondii cysts in the brain. None of the heart specimens was positive for T. gondii cysts. The presence of T. gondii cysts in brains did not vary with age, sex, birthplace, residence, education, occupation, or the presence of pathology in the brain. In contrast, multivariate analysis showed that the presence of T. gondii cysts was associated with undernourishment (OR = 33.90; 95% CI: 2.82–406.32; P = 0.005).
We demonstrated cerebral T. gondii cysts in an autopsy series in Durango City, Mexico. Results suggest that T. gondii can be more readily found in brain than in heart of infected individuals. This is the first report of an association between the presence of T. gondii in brains and undernourishment.
Authors:C. Alvarado-Esquivel, S. J. Pacheco-Vega, M. Salcedo-Jaquez, L. F. Sánchez-Anguiano, J. Hernández-Tinoco, E. Rábago-Sánchez, M. M. Centeno-Tinoco, I. D. Flores-Garcia, A. Ramos-Nevarez, S. M. Cerrillo-Soto, C. A. Guido-Arreola, I. Beristain-García, O. Liesenfeld, L. O. Berumen-Segovia, L. Saenz-Soto, and A. Sifuentes-Álvarez
Through a cross-sectional study design, 150 women attending public health centers with a history of stillbirths were examined for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in Durango City, Mexico. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the women with stillbirth history.
Of the 150 women (mean age: 32.09 ± 9.16 years) studied, 14 (9.3%) had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and six (42.9%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with high frequency (4–7 days a week) of eating meat (OR = 5.52; 95% CI: 1.48–20.59; P = 0.01), history of lymphadenopathy (OR = 4.52; 95% CI: 1.14–17.82; P = 0.03), and history of surgery (OR = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.04–72.15; P = 0.04).
This is the first study on the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in women with a history of stillbirths in Mexico. The association of T. gondii exposure with a history of surgery warrants for further research. Risk factors for T. gondii infection found in the present survey may help to design optimal educational programs to avoid T. gondii infection.
A fully functioning immune system is essential in order to maintain good health. However, the immune system deteriorates with advancing age, and this contributes to increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmunity, and cancer in the older population. Progress has been made in identifying age-related defects in the adaptive immune system. In contrast, relatively little research has been carried out on the impact of ageing on the innate immune response. This area requires further research as the innate immune system plays a crucial role in protection against infection and represents a first line of defence. Macrophages are central effector cells of the innate immune system and have many diverse functions. As a result, age-related impairments in macrophage function are likely to have important consequences for the health of the older population. It has been reported that ageing in macrophages impacts on many processes including toll-like receptor signalling, polarisation, phagocytosis, and wound repair. A detailed understanding of the impact of ageing on macrophages is required in order to develop therapeutics that will boost immune responses in the older population.
Authors:Manja Boehm, Judith Lind, Steffen Backert, and Nicole Tegtmeyer
Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen of foodborne illness. Transmigration across the intestinal epithelial barrier and invasion are considered as primary reasons for tissue damage triggered by C. jejuni. Using knockout mutants, it was shown that the serine protease HtrA may be important for stress tolerance and physiology of C. jejuni. HtrA is also secreted in the extracellular environment, where it can cleave junctional host cell proteins such as E-cadherin. Aim of the present study was to establish a genetic complementation system in two C. jejuni strains in order to introduce the wild-type htrA gene in trans, test known htrA phenotypes, and provide the basis to perform further mutagenesis. We confirm that reexpression of the htrA wild-type gene in ΔhtrA mutants restored the following phenotypes: 1) C. jejuni growth at high temperature (44 °C), 2) growth under high oxygen stress conditions, 3) expression of proteolytically active HtrA oligomers, 4) secretion of HtrA into the supernatant, 5) cell attachment and invasion, and 6) transmigration across polarized epithelial cells. These results establish a genetic complementation system for htrA in C. jejuni, exclude polar effects in the ΔhtrA mutants, confirm important HtrA properties, and permit the discovery and dissection of new functions.
Malignantly transformed (cancer) cells of multicellular hosts, including human cells, operate activated biochemical pathways that recognizably derived from unicellular ancestors. The descendant heat shock proteins of thermophile archaea now chaperon oncoproteins. The ABC cassettes of toxin-producer zooxantella Symbiodinia algae pump out the cytoplasmic toxin molecules; malignantly transformed cells utilize the derivatives of these cassettes to get rid of chemotherapeuticals. High mobility group helix-loop-helix proteins, protein arginine methyltransferases, proliferating cell nuclear antigens, and Ki-67 nuclear proteins, that protect and repair DNA in unicellular life forms, support oncogenes in transformed cells. The cell survival pathways of Wnt–β-catenin, Hedgehog, PI3K, MAPK–ERK, STAT, Ets, JAK, Pak, Myb, achaete scute, circadian rhythms, Bruton kinase and others, which are physiological in uni- and early multicellular eukaryotic life forms, are constitutively encoded in complex oncogenic pathways in selected single cells of advanced multicellular eukaryotic hosts. Oncogenes and oncoproteins in advanced multicellular hosts recreate selected independently living and immortalized unicellular life forms, which are similar to extinct and extant protists. These uni cellular life forms are recognized at the clinics as autologous “cancer cells”.
Authors:B. Wangala, A. Vovor, R. Gantin, Y. Agbeko, C. Lechner, X. Huang, Peter Soboslay, and C. Köhler
Chemokine a nd antibody response profiles were investigated in children and adults with severe or uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria; the aim was to reveal which profiles are associated with severe disease, as often seen in nonimmune children, or with mild and uncomplicated disease, as seen in semi-immune adults. Blood samples were obtained from children under 5 years of age as well as adults with falciparum malaria. Classification of malaria was performed according to parasite densities and hemoglobin concentrations. Plasma levels of chemokines (IL-8, IP-10, MCP-4, TARC, PARC, MIP-1δ, eotaxins) were quantified, and antibody responses (IgE, IgG1, and IgG4) to P. falciparum, Entamoeba histolytica-specific antigen, and mite allergen extracts were determined. In children with severe malaria proinflammatory, IL-8, IP10, MIP-1δ, and LARC were at highly elevated levels, suggesting an association with severe disease. In contrast, the Th2-type chemokines TARC, PARC, and eotaxin-2 attained in children the same levels as in adults suggesting the evolution of immune regulatory components. In children with severe malaria, an elevated IgG1 and IgE reactivity to mite allergens and intestinal protozoan parasites was observed. In conclusion, exacerbated proinflammatory chemokines together with IgE responses to mite allergens or E. histolytica-specific antigen extract were observed in children with severe falciparum malaria.
Authors:Hagen Frickmann, Rebecca Hinz, and Ralf Hagen
Here, we assessed the extraction efficiency of a deployable bench-top nucleic acid extractor EZ1 in comparison to the column-based approach with complex sample matrices.A total of 48 EDTA blood samples and 81 stool samples were extracted by EZ1 automated extraction and the column-based QIAamp DNA Mini Kit. Blood sample extractions were assessed by two real-time malaria PCRs, while stool samples were analyzed by six multiplex real-time PCR assays targeting bacterial, viral, and parasitic stool pathogens. Inhibition control PCR testing was performed as well.In total, 147 concordant and 13 discordant pathogen-specific PCR results were obtained. The latter comprised 11 positive results after column-based extraction only and two positive results after EZ1 extraction only. EZ1 extraction showed a higher frequency of inhibition. This phenomenon was, however, inconsistent for the different PCR schemes. In case of concordant PCR results, relevant differences of cycle threshold numbers for the compared extraction schemes were not observed.Switches from well-established column-based extraction to extraction with the automated EZ1 system do not lead to a relevantly reduced yield of target DNA when complex sample matrices are used. If sample inhibition is observed, column-based extraction from another sample aliquot may be considered.