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Abstract

Elephant ivory, a prestigious and valuable raw material in the post-Roman West and Byzantium between the 5th and 7th centuries AD, may originate from various sources. While both written and art historical evidence suggests that in the case of early medieval artefacts, African provenance is more likely than Asian, no data at hand is conclusive. The present paper investigates, with the help of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, carbon and nitrogen concentration and nitrogen isotope (δ15N) analyses, the material resources of elephant ivory artefacts discovered in 6th- and 7th-century AD archaeological context in the Carpathian Basin to contribute to our understanding of late antique long-distance trade networks and economic relations.

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Abstract

The Gepid Period row cemetery at Tiszaug-Országúti bevágás was unearthed in 2018–2019. Grave 301 was one of the outstanding burials amongst the 194 graves unearthed thus far. It kept the remains of a 9–11-year old boy, who was laid to rest in a scale-down burial created according to the funerary customs of the area and era but dressed in a mortuary costume and provided with goods befitting adult men. He had a purse hanging from his belt, containing an iron knife, and some pieces of flint. A double-row antler comb was placed beside his head. A cast copper alloy belt buckle with a shield-shaped pin base and punch-mark decoration fastened his clothing on the front. While buckles of this type were widely used at that time, the closest analogies to the punch-mark decoration could be collected from the Carpathian Basin. Based on those, the burial could be dated to the mid or late 6th century AD. Another outstanding feature of the cemetery was the four burials (including Grave 301) where the deceased were laid to rest in coffins made from or imitating log boats.

Grave 301 also contained a rounded conical ivory object. The optical microscope and vibration spectroscopy analyses confirmed the initial hypotheses of the finders about the raw material of the artefact. Despite carrying out a comprehensive survey for analogies and an analysis of production and use-related marks, we could not determine what the object could have been used for; it may be a semi-finished product, but it could also be a toy or amulet. At any rate, it was made from a raw material which was extremely rare in the eastern part of the Carpathian Basin in the period in question. Grave 301 was positioned in a cluster comprising more child burials, with the graves of two adult women at the fringes; the ongoing archaeogenetical investigations may shed light on the connections between them.

Open access

Проблемы поэтики раннего Чехова в соотношении с газетным дискурсом

Список как формат текста

The Problems of Chekhov’s Early Poetics in Correlation with Newspaper Discourse: The List as a Text Format

Studia Slavica
Author:
Dominika Zoltán

В статье рассматриваются некоторые особенности поэтики ранних работ (1880–1885) А. П. Чехова в сопоставлении с современной ему газетой в качестве дискурса. В первой половине 1880-х годов завершается процесс, в результате которого ежедневная газета выдвигается как доминирующий орган в новой системе печати. Этим зарождается массовая коммуникации в России, необходимой частью которой являлась «малая пресса», то есть сфера юмористических журналов, тонких журна-лов и ежедневных газет, в которых Чехов начал публиковаться.

В статье суммируются выводы исследований, реконструирующих культурное пространство рос-сийских газет и журналов обозначенного периода. Вводимое в целях сравнения понятие «газетный дискурс» понимается в статье как новое, единое пространство, которое стремится к универсально-му моделированию мира производством текстов. Газетный дискурс как термин отделяется от по-нятий «малой прессы» и «журналистики». В конце первой части рассматривается также понятие дискурсивной практики и интердискурсивности как один из видов интертекстуальности по клас-сификации Н. Фэркло.

Во второй части суммируется типология, созданная А. Степановым для ранних текстов Чехова на основе смешения или смещения в них высказываний разных речевых жанров. В дальнейшем на основе типологии выделяются те юморески, в которых обыгрываются газетные речевые жан-ры. Для сравнения с практикой газет наиболее интересным из структурных типов ранних текстов является метонимическое рядоположение не имеющих общего референта высказываний одного или разных речевых жанров. И. Сухих считает, что в принципе метонимического упорядочения мелочишек (создание циклов, серий и списков) проявляется требование газет и журналов того времени. «Мысли читателей газет и журналов» и «Записка» интерпретируются как построенные по принципу списка юморески, высмеивающие общую практику газетного дискурса – стремление к универсальности.

В двух юморесках освещается элемент пародийного интердискурса: построение по принципу спи-ска. Этот структурный тип в общем плане в творческой эволюции Чехова ведет к более сложным, составным структурам типа «Жалобной книги». Часто используемый молодым Чеховым газетный жанр реклам и объявлений также может быть переосмыслен как составная структура типа серий или списка. Интердискурсивный элемент в творческой лаборатории Чехова трансформируется в художественный прием: метонимическая логика составления списка становится индексом состо-яния, духовности, атмосферы изображаемой действительности.

Open access

This study aims to answer the question whether the ancient Cēra kings sailed the seas and, if so, whether their technology was suitable for crossing the Indian Ocean, while it tries to summarize what we know about shipbuilding in ancient Southwest India. On the following pages, an attempt is made to introduce the most important passages of the Old Tamil Caṅkam literary sources in order to analyse their data in the light of Greek and Latin sources, and of Indian and Mediterranean inscriptions. It can be concluded that although inscriptions of Tamil traders can be found from Egypt to Thailand, and the Cēra kings built a maritime fleet for probably the first time in the history of ancient South India in order to punish their enemy, the kaṭampu tribe by sailing on the seas, their nautical contribution to the long-distance trade of the Arabian Sea as well as their engagement in coastal shipping can be classified as moderate and incidental in the antiquity.

Open access

Győr-Kálvária összevont lelőhely késő vaskori embertani leleteinek biológiai antropológiai vizsgálata

Biological anthropological analysis of human remains from a Late Iron Age burial of Győr-Kálvária merged site

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors:
Katalin Gyenesei
,
Krisztián Kiss
,
Tamás Szeniczey
,
Ferenc Ujvári
,
Krisztina Pesti
, and
Tamás Hajdu

Absztrakt

A tanulmány a Győr-Kálvária összevont lelőhelyen feltárt húsz csontvázas és két hamvasztásos késő vaskori kelta temetkezésből előkerült emberi maradványok klasszikus embertani és makroszkópos paleopatológiai eredményeit mutatja be.

Open access

Four Proto-Kartvelian words with initial *γw- are traditionally held to be borrowings from either Proto-Indo-European or Proto-Armenian. Based on recent progress in Indo-European and Kartvelian linguistics, this paper argues that all four proposed PIE loanwords in PK are untenable; two out of these cannot be Proto-Armenian loanwords either. The third one, the word for ‘wine’, could be a Proto-Armenian loan in PK, but it has formal problems and the alternative proposed here, a Proto-Zan loan in Proto-Armenian, provides a more regular solution. Combined with the last case (the word for ‘juniper’), which also receives a regular solution only as a Proto-Zan loan, we have two Proto-Zan loans in Proto-Armenian instead of PIE/Proto-Armenian loans in Proto-Kartvelian.

Open access

Abstract

The treatise De vino Tokaiensi (On Tokaj Wine) written by Sámuel Domby of Gálfalva (1729–1807), is a valuable source on Hungarian history of culture and science which has become widely accessible thanks to its facsimile edition. This medical doctoral dissertation published in 1758 in Utrecht presents a study of the medicinal effects of Tokaj wine, mirroring the norms of philosophical-scientific literature in eighteenth century Hungary. It is unequivocally an exceptional document of the intellectual heritage of the educated classes in the early modern age regarding growth habitat, viticulture and winemaking, with specific reference to Tokaj-Hegyalja, a wine region and cultural landscape of historic importance in Northeast Hungary. The present paper aims at identifying the perceptions detailed in the candidate's argument in pedological terms.

Open access

Abstract

A popular trend in 16th-century Hungarian Neo-Latin poetry was the transposition of biblical, especially Old Testament books and texts. Georg Purkircher (Georgius Purkircher) paraphrased the Book of Wisdom, Péter Laskai Csókás (Petrus C. Lascovius) the Song of Songs, János Bocatius (Johannes Bocatius) the Book of Sirach/Ecclesiasticus, and Leonhardus Mokoschinus (Leonhardus Mokoschinus) a part of the Old Testament books (from Genesis to II Kings) in Latin. Internationally, only Mokoschinus' paraphrase of the Old Testament is known to any extent. In the present paper I will attempt to outline the main similarities and differences between the paraphrases of the Old Testament in Germany and in Hungary by means of a detailed philological analysis of the domestic corpus of texts and by highlighting some related parallels in Germany.

Open access

Abstract

Originally a small market town in Northern Hungary, Sárospatak (Patak) deserves attention for more than just the role it played in a series of historical events that were to define the future of this country throughout the 17th–18th centuries. The cultural, educational and musical legacy of the period is also outstanding, and the functioning of the Patak College (Pataki Kollégium), which soon gained considerable prestige, played a key part in this. The aim of this paper is to present the musical aspects of this most valuable set of interconnected cultural assets.

Open access