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Pandémia és különleges jogrend Magyarországon

Pandemic and law of emergency in Hungary

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Álmos Ungvári and István Sabjanics

Összefoglaló. A tanulmány a COVID–19 pandémiára adott jogalkotói lehetőségeket és válaszokat elemzi, külön figyelmet fordítva a vonatkozó hazai jogfejlődésre. A szerzők elméleti síkon haladva, de gyakorlati példákkal szemléltetve értelmezik a hazai megoldásokat, amelyeket a pandémiás válság kezelésére alkalmaztak az államok. Az alkalmazott megoldásoknak kettős feltételnek kell megfelelniük: a jogállamisági és hatékonysági szempontoknak egyidejűleg kell érvényesülniük. A demokratikus intézményeknek mindebben aktív szerepük van, ugyanakkor lényeges a meghozott intézkedések politikai elfogadottsága is.

Summary. The essay displays the possibilities and answers of the legislature and the Government of Hungary regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, with a special focus on the Hungarian constitutional traditions and development. The essay reaches out from the theoretical for practical reassurance primarily through solutions used in Hungary and secondarily in other European countries. Displaying the struggles of solution seeking in Hungary and other European countries provides a platform for a much-needed comparative approach. These practices must comply with two conditions: maintaining the rule of law and effectiveness, both of which have to prevail simultaneously. Like in the case of the delicate and ever balancing antiterrorist solutions of western democracies, two very different questions of ‘How can we survive?’ and ‘How can our way of life prevail in the end?’ must be answered with the same answer. The democratic institutions have a crucial role, and with that role these institutions have to be continuously active. In times of grave danger, with a real threat to human life, an emergency with the possibility of such a devastation that paralyses or eliminates state and society, the original role of democratic institutions to serve the people is enhanced. The political acceptance (legitimacy) of the emergency measures taken during the pandemic can make a great difference, but the question of legitimacy itself, favorable as it should be, need not be the most crucial question regarding emergency laws. Introducing emergency legislation is based on some level of real or anticipated threat. The focus and only real goal of emergency legislation, by definition, must always be ensuring the safe return to normal or peacetime legislation. So we can say with confidence that functioning democratic institutions provide a much better chance of a safe and timely return to normalcy and leaving pandemic restrictions behind.

Open access

Abstract

The Scottish Government has a strong commitment to strengthening children’s human rights, with the aim of making Scotland ‘the best place to grow up and bring up children’. The Education (Scotland) Act 2016 introduced a raft of measures to boost the rights of children with additional support needs (ASN). The programme for government in Scotland, published in September 2020, included a commitment to incorporate the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child into Scottish domestic legislation. In order to examine the extent to which the rights of Gypsy/Traveller children are being respected in practice, this paper draws on an analysis of official statistics conducted as part of an ESRC funded project entitled Autonomy, Rights and Children with Special Needs: A New Paradigm? (ES/P002641/1), which ran from 2018 to 2020. In addition, the paper uses findings from an Independent Children’s Rights Impact Assessment which was carried out in summer 2020 with a view to investigating the impact of the emergency measures implemented during the Covid-19 pandemic. Under the terms of the Coronavirus Act 2020, schools across the UK were closed, with widespread implications for children and young people, particularly those with additional support needs. The central aim of this paper is to explore the impact of the emergency measures on the recently enhanced rights of children with ASN, with a particular focus on the rights of children from Gypsy/Traveller backgrounds. I conclude that people living itinerant lives experience long-standing exclusion from mainstream schooling and wider society, and their marginal status has been reinforced during the recent pandemic when children’s human rights have been side-lined.

Open access

Abstract

Brand names are prevalent in our society: they influence consumption and future buying behaviour. As research has shown, children are also aware of brands and brand names, and brand names learned in childhood can influence their attitude towards the known brands.

The collaboration of various scientific fields including pedagogy, psycholinguistics, and marketing communication enabled us to investigate the appearance of brand names in the verbal consciousness of 4–5-year-old kindergarten children of different nationalities.

In the frames of this research, brand names were identified by the application of an interdisciplinary and comparative word association experiment conducted with 100 Hungarian, 100 Russian, and 100 Laotian children, from the 4–5-year-old age group. The experiment is a traditional word association experiment and the research design was not set into the context of any brands or consumption habits research.

Results show that in the experiment, several globally known brand names were elicited (e.g. Lego, My Little Pony, Batman), however significant cross-cultural dissimilarities were also revealed. Most activated brand names can be connected to the world of children (e.g. toy brands), but in the experiment spontaneously elicited brands reflect not only the conception of childhood but also the society and culture surrounding the children.

Open access

Demencia prevenció: A korai diagnózistól a személyre szabott intervencióig

Dementia Prevention: From Early Diagnosis to Personalised Intervention

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Annamária Manga, Menta Havadi-Nagy, Orsolya Székely, and Zoltán Vidnyánszky
Open access

Abstract

Taiwan government consolidated the kindergarten and daycare systems in 2012, and launched a new national curriculum framework, Early Childhood Education & Care Curriculum Framework (ECECCF), as a guidance for quality early childhood education programs. Research has shown that the effects of a new educational program highly depended on the fidelity of its implementation. It has thus been suggested that the degree of implantation of a program needs be evaluated before conducting further program evaluation.

Thus, the purpose of this study was to construct an Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework Implementation Scale (ECECCF Implementation Scale) for Taiwanese preschool programs. 216 preschool classes in Taiwan were involved. The study consisted of two stages: In Stage 1, the exploratory factor analysis showed that the implementation of ECECCF could mostly be explained by four factors, and all the factors extracted had acceptable reliability and validity. In Stage 2, rubrics were constructed for each item and factor analysis was re-conducted, resulting in a 19-item scale of four factors (Awareness and Adjustment, Learning Centers Arrangement, Teaching Guidance and Curriculum Development). The reliability and validity tests shows that: (1) the final version of the ECECCF Implementation Scale is a valid and reliable instrument, explaining 62.9% of the total variance; (2) the criterion validity indicated that the ECECCF scale can not only be used for assessing the implementation of ECECCF, but also can be used for understanding teachers’ needs in instructional and operational curriculum for further professional development.

Open access

Abstract

The recognition of the importance of early childhood education (ECE) has been growing continuously in recent years. Early childhood institutions are where professional pedagogy and child-rearing practices meet first in someones' life (Tobin et al., 2009), it has great significance in education. Acknowledgement of the existence of the needs of young children's education is evident, however, we have limited chances to compare different education systems outside of Europe and the United States. Realizing this situation, we came to the conclusion that it is highly necessary and required to publish such an analytical issue in the Hungarian Education Research Journal. Teacher's views and their narratives of childhood are relevant if we aim to understand the fundamental differences of ECE institutions in any region or country. In our present investigation we collected data from Hungary, Laos and Malaysia in order to acquire greater knowledge on the conceptions of early childhood in the three countries. We assumed however that the teachers' qualification and the early childcare system is diverse, yet we have found similarities among the teachers' perception.

Open access

Abstract

This paper addresses the current educational rights of the Roma community (in the Czech Republic). The aim of the paper is to present the educational system, its advantages and disadvantages and the ways in which the legal system supports educational rights. The second part of the paper focuses on the exercising and negotiation of rights in the contemporary social context. The work is based on ethnographic research conducted since 2005 by the Levínská, Bittnerová, & Doubek team in socially excluded localities. The data analysis is based on the theoretical concept of cognitive anthropology and the cultural models theory (D’Andrare, & Strauss, 1992). Cultural models and the ways in which parents, students and teachers negotiate rights are presented. The tension between rationality and morality (Bateson, 1958) is demonstrated by the models’ endurance; communication, cognitive and material support; and independence. Although the system itself provides equal opportunities, the prospects that education affords are a fundamental problem. One obstacle is racial bias, which influences members of the dominant group. Another significant obstacle is poverty and the costs of higher education, which are beyond the financial capacity of poor families. A third obstacle is knowledge, which is insufficient in excluded localities and poor families, and that families are unable to give students adequate support in navigating the full scope of student responsibilities.

Open access