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Abstract

The optimization of high-rise office buildings' envelope and the application of energy-efficient measures have become a priority nowadays. Therefore, this investigation aims to assess the role of the façade's geometry design factors, e.g., folded façade perforation, window orientation, and window-to-wall ratio on building comfort and energy performance. The energy simulations were performed using IDA ICE 4.8 thermal simulation program to evaluate the thermal and visual comfort and the energy consumption of various façade test models. The optimization resulted in a façade model with a great level of thermal and visual comfort as well as a total energy reduction of 14%, representing a good compromise solution in the trade-off between thermal and visual comfort as well as energy efficiency.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors: Patrik Márk Máder, Olivér Rák, Nándor Bakai, József Etlinger, and Márk Zagorácz

Abstract

Nowadays, it is increasingly important to develop economical construction processes and determine predictable costs. The current level of technology offers countless, even undeveloped opportunities to support architectural, engineering, and construction processes. Building information models created as results of design processes and databases associated with them can provide an appropriate base to fulfill the requirements. However, this information is mainly available only for the largest projects; the possibilities offered by traditional editable vector files (e.g., *.DWG) should also be examined. This study analyzes the efficiency increasing possibilities that can be achieved using low-detail 3D models generated by algorithms and applying 2D-based digital quantity estimation workflows.

Open access

Abstract

Frame structures are defined as structures built of straight, less often curved bars, which are dimensioned to carry a planar or spatial load. These frames are generally considered statically indeterminate structures so that several methods can be used to determine their loads, but all of them require some simplification. This paper is not concerned with investigating these theories for determining the stresses but with the optimum design of a frame structure for a given geometry. Several different loads have been considered, where the value of the wind load in the horizontal direction has been considered. The optimization problem is mathematically formulated so that both compressive forces and bending moments acting on the horizontal beam and the vertical column, and their composite loads, are below the limit set by the material properties. The column connections were assumed to be fully rigid, and welded I-section were considered for both columns. For local bending conditions, the Eurocode 3 specification was applied. Several steel grades were tested during the investigations, and fire loading was considered an additional load. In this case, a higher safety factor was assumed to make the times to collapse comparable.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors: Hui Cao, Anna Mária Tamás, Gergely Sztranyák, and Erqing Zhang

Abstract

Vernacular architecture is the source of the historical development of architecture and the carrier of traditional culture. It is also the emotional sustenance of contemporary Chinese people’s beautiful homesickness. With the rapid expansion of urbanization in China, a widespread phenomenon of “hollow villages” has emerged in rural areas, and there are many abandoned rural buildings all over the countryside. Therefore, the protection and sustainable development of rural architecture are imminent. Based on the author’s rural construction project in China, this research integrates environmental psychology and architecture and tries to build a high-quality living environment, aiming to explore a new design strategy to meet the challenges in the future.

Open access

Abstract

Because of thin wall thicknesses and closed bottom ends of the extruded aerosol can, the necking limit analysis needs intensive investigation. The numerical analysis of the necking process of 0.45 mm thickness pure aluminum aerosol can was carried out. The result indicated that the length of the aerosol can wall, which is not fixed by the bottom die and the angle of inclination of necking tools are important factors that affect the development of deformation boundary limits due to plastic instability of local buckling. The fraction of taper angle of tool becomes more series parameter while necking at larger free length and it needs more concentration. Instead, the ratio of necking tool displacement to the total free length to initiate buckling was increased while increasing free length.

Open access

Abstract

China has a lengthy and glorious history spanning thousands of years. Traditional dwellings represent distinct regional cultural origins, and different forms of housing constructions have arisen as a result. However, traditional dwellings preserve area culture and specific life memories as a fundamental component of rural life. From the perspective of conventional dwellings, this paper takes the representative Manchu folk houses in Northeast China as an example. It discusses the architectural structure, appearance style, and overall style of Manchu folk dwellings and the cultural dimension of architecture and its distinctive value under the impact of regional culture.

Open access

Abstract

Building Information Modelling (BIM) involves management efforts, tools and applications for enhancing information flow and, therefore, productivity of projects; adoption of BIM and the increasing use of digital technologies (e.g. data centers) in construction and operation of buildings, as well as in maintenance can transform the way how the industry works. Telecommunication cabinets equipped with large number of components of different types are inevitable parts of data centers having a significant influence on the efficiency and the reliability of data centers. Since the layout of equipment inside telecommunication cabinets is crucial in data centers and the ideal location of equipment inside each cabinet can be unique, an algorithmic and automated process is necessary for the cabinet façade scheme design; manually created diagrams can lead to errors. Furthermore, precise and up-to-date pieces of information about the special layout of equipment in each cabinet are also important for the further operation and maintenance. As an answer to this challenge, a BIM-based approach and method are presented in this article that can result in significant cost savings. When designing data centers, special attention must be paid to the location of telecommunication cabinets, the design of cable routes, and the layout of equipment inside. The novel cabinet family for BIM technology-based method has been developed for the improvement of data center design. Cable trays plug-in can lead to higher quality and efficiency of construction and the facility management as well.

The main goal of the case study: optimization of the design process of structured cabling systems (SCS) in data centers (DC) using new additional BIM capabilities.

The novel dynamic cabinet family have several distinctive features:

  • the ability to select in the properties which equipment will be inside the cabinet and which unit will occupy;

  • possibility to change and add equipment inside the cabinet;

  • creation of cabinet façade scheme based on equipment inside the cabinet;

  • automatically created specification;

Cable tray plug-in can improve and automate the design process in the following areas:

  • place trays depending on the installation method (wall, floor, ceiling);

  • place elements of the trays (hangers, consoles, racks) in a user-defined interval;

  • place tray connectors based on selected connector type and tray type at user-selectable spacing;

  • adding a tray cover and a partition in the tray properties;

  • automatically created specification of all cable trays elements.

The model created in BIM can be used for further operation and maintenance. To reach it, each of the elements or groups of elements contains a unique number that allows to bind its parameters and geometry for further export and use in the production model.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of this study is the manufacturing analysis of five spur gear pairs where the initial geometric parameters are the same only the pressure angle is different. Firstly, the gears must be designed and modelled. After that, I analyse the modification of this geometric parameter for the manufacturing parameters of the pinion and the gear in the case of gear cutting by module disc milling cutter. Using this technology the one tooth cutting can repeat from tooth to tooth in the function of the number of teeth. I would like to find correlations between the pressure angle and the manufacturing parameters. For this purpose, I define the initial technological parameters and calculate necessary technological parameters for the manufacturing process in a general way. I also define the manufacturing parameters for the given gear geometries. This analysis is practical and theoretical at the same time since the results and the process can help the manufacturing engineers to develop the gear manufacturing processes and applying my results for similar manufacturing problems.

Open access

Abstract

The study presents a mathematical model for building heating control. The buildings are connected to district heating or to central heating. The task of the heating control is to maintain a preset constant indoor air temperature. Control disturbance is caused by external meteorological conditions, firstly by outdoor air temperature. The control action can be the change in heat transfer capacity of the radiators, whereby the indoor air temperature can be commanded back to the present value to offset the effect of the disturbance. Just the control can be a follower or of predictive type. The expected indoor air temperature can be calculated from the energy balances. These are composed of differential equations, describing dynamic equilibrium of heat transfer through the external walls, as well as heat storage in the walls and indoor air. Type of differential equations is linear, inhomogeneous, of first or second order.

Solution of the differential equation results in describing the change in indoor air temperature in time as a function of outdoor air temperature. Further on, the equation determines the function of the necessary heating capacity to keep the indoor air temperature constant. By the model several heating programs can be evaluated. The physical model is shown in Fig. 1. Intermediate variable is the average temperature of the external walls. Heat conduction and convection through the walls is calculated by the difference of the indoor air temperature and of the average wall temperature by using relevant R 1 and R 2 heat resistance factors. The model is adequate when the heat transport within the building sections is neglectable, and the thermodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of the walls are identical. Thereby the model describes the heat balance of representative premises, but the results can be transferred to similar other premises, too.

Open access

Abstract

This study focuses on the supply chain actors’ QCD framework. The authors present an innovative tool that illustrates the operating system of different actors in the supply chain by combining virtual and physical reality. The study aims to present and “visualize” the QCD coherence system with the help of the PaTeNt© – QCD spatial model. The study, therefore, focuses on the supplier, the central company; the relationship between the supply chain actors and the QCD framework, which is suitable for the agile, proactive collaboration.

The parts of the model, which is the result of the development:

  • the elements of quality,

  • the elements of cost,

  • the elements of delivery.

The development of the model was brought to life by the tasks which need to be solved and this model helps the understanding and transparency during the work.

Open access