Background: From birth onwards, interoceptive information and its higher level of integration play an important role in survival and psychological functioning. Only a minority of this vast amount of information reach consciousness. Interoception can be divided into three categories: interoceptive accuracy, interoceptive sensitivity and interoceptive awareness. Aim: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the developmental aspects of interoception and to present empirical findings on correlated of interoception in childhood and opportunities for its improvement. Method: We first review how interoception is included in different developmental theories, then we present the empirical results available in the literature, and finally we summarise the options for improvement. Results: Of the various theorists, György Ádám gives the most complex approach; the central element of his theory is that the individual’s attention is increasingly directed towards external stimuli after birth. Nevertheless, it seems that the perception of interoceptive feelings can be relearned later. Some factors, such as symptoms of anxiety and panic, show a positive correlation with interoceptive accuracy already in childhood. In other cases, such as obesity or chronic tic disorder, a negative association was found while in autism spectrum disorder results were ambiguous. Regarding the improvement of different aspects of interoception, findings obtained mainly from adult participants show that interoceptive sensibility can be improved through various interventions; with respect to accuracy, some contemplative interventions and body panning may have a positive effect. Conclusions: The higher number of positive results on interoceptive sensibility may be explained by the fact that interoceptive accuracy becomes stable in adulthood, but it is assumed that it may still be possible to influence it in childhood.
Volunteering is a prosocial behavior that affects the psychological and social well-being, physical health and physiological markers of both the volunteer and the beneficiary of volunteering. The aim of our study is to explore the most important domestic and international research conducted on the relationship between volunteering and physical and mental health in recent decades and to present a systematic review of it. The results of international research suggest that the relationship between volunteering and well-being is bilateral: most volunteers already report high well-being at the outset of volunteering, but the activity itself has a demonstrable positive impact on a person’s physical, psychological, and social well-being, which varies across individuals in interaction with the duration, frequency and type of volunteering, and other personal characteristics (eg. age, health condition). A substantial body of research agrees that volunteering is associated with reduced depression, functional limitations, and mortality rates, with the strongest connections observed in volunteers of older age. Research has identified an increase in psychological (e.g. self-efficacy, self-esteem, life satisfaction) and social resources (social integration and support), more frequent positive mood states and less frequent negative mood states as factors that impact mental health. Increased physical activity caused increased physical well-being, which, in turn, lead to a more favourable hormonal, immune, and cardiovascular profile. Through these mechanisms, volunteering may become a key mediator for healthy ageing, and its effect on public health shall be considered outstanding for prevention and intervention both.
Theoretical background: Facing serious physical illness can be understood as a traumatic experience. Patients’ narratives of their illness can help to structure the physical and psychological burdens, that are difficult to narrate, reinterpret the experience of illness as a psychological stressor, thereby reducing psychological distress and improving coping and thus recovery. For this reason, the practice of health psychology requires the use of methods that can accurately and effectively explore the narratives of the illness trajectory based on simple tools. Objective: The aim of our study was the Hungarian adaptation of the Emotional Graph of Illness Trajectory, a tool for exploring the emotional perspective of the illness narrative, in patients operated on for chronic disease or malignant tumour. Methods: Our mixed methods study involved 120 patients. In addition to the Emotional Graph of Illness Trajectory based on the visual elicitation technique, we used the Spielberger State -Trait Anxiety Inventory, the short form of Beck Depression Inventory, the short form of Perceived Stress Scale, the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results: The main results of the convergent validity test showed that the total intensity value of the graphical emotion showed a significant, positive, moderate-strength correlation with the depression score (r = 0.33; p < 0.001). For those who depicted negative emotion, there was a moderate-strength, positive directional correlation between the mean value of the intensity of the graphically depicted emotion with the scores for state (r = 0.31; p = 0.004) and trait anxiety (r = 0.30; p = 0.004), illness perception (r = 0.35; p = 0.001), perceived stress (r = 0.37; p < 0.001) and depression (r = 0.41); p < 0.001), and there was also a moderately strong, positive, significant relationship between the total intensity value of the graphical emotion and the perception of illness (r = 0.34; p = 0.001), the level of perceived stress (r = 0.32; p = 0.002) and depression (r = 0.40; p < 0.001), and between the emotion intensity score of final event and the state anxiety (r = 0.33; p = 0.002) and depression (r = 0.31; p = 0.003) scores. Results for individuals depicting positive emotion showed a significant, negative direction, moderate strength correlation between the intensity value of the graphically depicted emotion associated with the closing event and the score of state (r = -0.36; p = 0.048) and trait anxiety (r = -0.36; p = 0.045). The main results of the test of concurrent validity showed a significant, positive, moderate-strength correlation between the mean value of the intensity of the emotion depicted in the graph and the score of the emotional dimension of illness perception (r = 0.35; p =0.001) in a sample of individuals who depicted a negatively charged emotion in their graph and the total score of the graphical emotion intensity and the score of the emotional dimension of quality of life (r = 0.30; p = 0.005). An outstanding finding of our research is that the three disease narratives identified by the two independent coders (i.e: chaos, restitution and quest story), there was a significant difference in the mean intensity of the graphically depicted emotion (F(2, 117) = 4.254; MSE = 403.528; p = 0.016; η2 = 0.07), the value of the closing event emotion intensity (H(2) = 10.297); p = 0.006; η2 = 0.10), trait anxiety (F(2, 117) = 4.070; MSE = 102.556; p = 0.020; η2 = 0.07), perceived stress (F(2, 117) = 5.895; MSE = 34.058; p = 0.004; η2 = 0.09) and perception of illness (F(2, 117) = 4.807; MSE = 175.871; p = 0.010, η2 = 0.08). Conclusions: The Emotional Graph of Illness Trajectory has adequate psychometric properties and its validity in the population studied in the present research is considered good. The technique has been shown to be an effective tool in exploring the emotional perspective associated with the illness narrative.
Background: Temperament is an innate, though constantly developing disposition that is important to measure in infancy. Several theories have emerged to identify infant temperament types. Aim: Our study aims to examine the psychometric properties of the 15 selected items of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire in a representative Hungarian sample. Methods: Data of half-year-old infants (M = 5.74 months, SD = 0.51, range: 5–7 months) participating in the second wave of the Cohort ‘18 Hungarian Birth Cohort Study (n = 8,104) was analysed. The 15 selected items of the parental questionnaire Infant Behavior Questionnaire, abbreviated from the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-R-Very Short Form was applied in face-to-face interviews by health visitors. Results: The three-factor model (Positive affectivity/Surgency, Negative affectivity, Orientation and regulatory capacity, with 5-5 items), showed an acceptable fit (RMSEA = 0.047 [90% CI: 0.045; 0.049], Gamma Hat = 0.975, SRMR = 0.041, χ2(86) = 1625.54, CFI = 0.910, TLI = 0.890) after allowing the correlation between two items’ error variances. The internal consistency of the Positive Affectivity/Surgency (Cronbach’s α = 0.55) and Orientation and Regulatory Capacity (Cronbach’s α = 0.53) scales are weak, while their distribution shifts toward high values. The internal consistency of the Negative Affectivity scale is adequate (Cronbach’s α = 0.72), with a distribution close to normal. Four temperament types were distinguished based on cluster analysis: Average temperament (n = 2516, 31.6%), Easy temperament (n = 2229, 28.0%), Difficult temperament (n = 1896, 23.8%) and Low activity (n = 1325, 16.6%). Low birth weight and the maternal evaluation of the burden of infant’s sleeping and crying, were associated with temperament characteristics suggesting more difficult or lower activity temperament. Conclusions: The 15 selected items of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire is suitable to quickly assess infant temperament and compare it to nationally representative data, considering its limitations.
Background: The ability to self-regulate develops dynamically during the first five years and plays a crucial role in many areas of life. Emotional and behavioral self-regulation is a fundamental part of one’s social-emotional development, school readiness, successful school integration and the development of learning skills. The results from the impact evaluation of intervention programs support the case for early-childhood development and the point that developmental disadvantages can be compensated. All of these justify the need to adapt children’s self-regulation questionnaire as an instrument for Hungarian usage with sufficient reliability and validity. The screening of self-regulation difficulties in preschool and during the transition period between kindergarten and elementary school is of particular importance for the design of appropriate intervention programs and for the prevention of school disadvantages. Aim: The main aim of the study was to develop a Hungarian adaptation of the Child Self-Regulation and Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) and to test its validity through factor analyses on a sample of 3–6-year-old children with neurotypical development (n = 724). Methods: Following the standard steps of translation, the factor structure of the questionnaire was assessed using exploratory and hierarchical factor analyses. Our analyses resulted in a 19-item questionnaire, the criterion validity of which was tested using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: Based on the analyses of the Hungarian sample, a 19-item, bifactorial, three-dimensional Hungarian version of the Child Self-Regulation and Behavior Questionnaire was developed, which has good psychometric properties (fit indicators:. χ2(133) = 398.71, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.948, TLI = 0.933, RMSEA = 0.074, RMSEA CI90 = 0.065–0.082), Conclusions: The Hungarian version of the Child Self-regulation and Behavior Questionnaire is a valid measurement tool and can be used with good internal reliability to study the development of self-regulation, to screen for self-regulation difficulties in preschool and during the transition period from kindergarten to elementary school, as well as aid in the field of school readiness.
Family dysfunction is a significant risk factor for adolescent problematic gaming, yet few studies have investigated the bidirectional relations between changes in family dysfunction and adolescent problematic gaming and potential mediating mechanisms. This study thus examined the bidirectional relations between family dysfunction and adolescent problematic gaming and the mediating role of self-concept clarity within this relation.
Participants included 4,731 Chinese early adolescents (44.9% girls; M age = 10.91 years, SD = 0.72) who were surveyed at four time points 6 months apart.
Random intercept cross-lagged panel modeling found (a) family dysfunction directly predicts increased problematic gaming, (b) adolescent problematic gaming directly predicts increased experience of family dysfunction, (c) family dysfunction indirectly predicts problematic gaming via self-concept clarity, and (d) adolescent problematic gaming indirectly predicts family dysfunction via self-concept clarity.
Discussion and conclusions
The present study suggests that adolescents may be trapped in a vicious cycle between family dysfunction and problematic gaming either directly or indirectly through impairing their self-concept clarity. Findings indicate fostering youth self-concept clarity is essential to break the vicious circle between dysfunctional experiences in the family and problematic gaming among adolescents.
Data implicate overlaps in neurobiological pathways involved in appetite regulation and addictive disorders. Despite different neuroendocrine measures having been associated with both gambling disorder (GD) and food addiction (FA), how appetite-regulating hormones may relate to the co-occurrence of both entities remain incompletely understood.
To compare plasma concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2) between patients with GD, with and without FA, and to explore the association between circulating hormonal concentrations and neuropsychological and clinical features in individuals with GD and FA.
The sample included 297 patients diagnosed with GD (93.6% males). None of the patients with GD had lifetime diagnosis of an eating disorder. FA was evaluated with the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0. All patients were assessed through a semi-structured clinical interview and a psychometric battery including neuropsychological tasks. Blood samples to measure hormonal variables and anthropometric variables were also collected.
From the total sample, FA was observed in 23 participants (FA+) (7.7% of the sample, 87% males). When compared participants with and without FA, those with FA+ presented both higher body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001) and leptin concentrations, after adjusting for BMI (p = 0.013). In patients with FA, leptin concentrations positively correlated with impulsivity, poorer cognitive flexibility, and poorer inhibitory control. Other endocrine measures did not differ between groups.
Discussion and conclusions
The present study implicates leptin in co-occurring GD and FA. Among these patients, leptin concentration has been associated with clinical and neuropsychological features, such as impulsivity and cognitive performance in certain domains.
Social chatbots powered by artificial intelligence (AI) may be particularly appealing to individuals with social deficits or conditions that affect their social functioning. In this letter, we discuss some of the noteworthy characteristics of social chatbots and how they may influence adaptive and maladaptive behaviors, including the potential for ‘dependency’ on chatbots. We call for more independent studies to evaluate the potential developmental and therapeutic effects of this increasingly popular technology.
Whilst some research has explored the impact of COVID-19 on gambling behaviour, little is yet known about online search behaviours for gambling during this period. The current study explored gambling-related online searches before, during and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. We also assessed whether search trends were related to Gambling Commission behavioural data over the same period.
Google Trends™ search data, covering thirty months from January 2020 to June 2022, for five gambling activities and five gambling operators were downloaded. Graphical displays of the weekly relative search values over this period were then produced to visualise trends in search terms, with key dates in COVID-19 policy and sporting events highlighted. Cross-correlations between seasonally adjusted monthly search data and behavioural indices were conducted.
Sharp increases in internet searches for poker, slots, and bingo were evident during the first lockdown in the UK, with operator searches sharply decreasing over this period. No changes in gambling activity searches were highlighted during subsequent lockdowns, although small increases in operator-based searches were detected. Strong positive correlations were found between search data and industry data for sports betting and poker but not for slots.
Google Trends™ data may act as an indicator of population-level gambling behaviour. Substitution of preferred gambling activities for others may have occurred during the first lockdown when opportunities for sports betting were limited. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of internet search data in predicting gambling-related harm.