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O leksiku u kajkavskom narječju

Vocabulary in the Kajkavian Dialect

Studia Slavica
Author: Đuro Blažeka

U radu se daju temeljni podatci o kajkavskom leksiku, njegovu podrijetlu, kontaktu s mađarskim i njemačkim jezikom te suvremenim pojavama u interferenciji s hrvatskim standardnim jezikom (pseudoanalogonimija, najnovije semantičke adaptacije). Kako je leksik hrvatskih kajkavskih govora rubno zastupljen u postojećim etimološkim rječnicima hrvatskoga jezika, u radu se ističe da je teško napraviti klasifikaciju velikog broja leksema koji se ne nalaze ni u kojem od slavenskih jezika.

Kod leksičkog posuđivanja hungarizama vrlo je rijetko riječ o popunjavanju leksičkih praznina, a mnogo češće o posuđivanju zbog izvanjezičnih razloga (zemljopisnih i političkih) jer ih je velika većina u trenutku primarne adaptacije imala ekvivalente u govorima primaocima. Od semantičkih polja koje pokrivaju hungarizmi najbrojnije je ono koje se odnosi na pejorativna značenja u kontekstu osobina, izgleda i ponašanja ljudi, a od onih koje pokrivaju germanizmi je ono koje se odnosi na tehničke izraze iz najrazličitijih obrta.

Arhaičan kajkavski leksik ili nestaje ili suvremenim semantičkim adaptacijama pronalazi novo mjesto u vokabularu suvremenih govornika kajkavskog narječja. Apostrofira se velika učestalost deminutiva / hipokoristika, i to ne samo kao tvorbena mogućnost ili rubni sloj leksika, već kao izuzetno često korišteni leksik u svakodnevnoj komunikaciji. Opisuju se istraživanja pseudoanalogonimije koja su osim za lingvističke spoznaje važna i za metodiku nastave hrvatskog jezika, što bi mogla biti stožerna točka oko koje bi i kajkavsko narječje dobilo bolji položaj u školama.

Na kraju se govori o najnovijim trendovima u istraživanju kajkavskog leksika i solidnom razvoju kajkavske dijalektne leksikologije zbog pojave velikog broja amatera koji cijeli život skupljaju leksik i prepuštaju njegovu obradu jezikoslovcima pa djelo objave kao zajednički rad. Na kraju se predlaže metodologija istraživanja razlikovnosti leksika između pojedinih mjesnih govora kad za neki mjesni govor već postoji objavljeni opsežni znanstveni rječnik. Na taj bi se način lakše pratili procesi širenja i rasprostranjenosti najrazličitijih jezičnih pojava iz područja semantike i tvorbe riječi, a ne samo općepoznatih jezičnih izoglosa koje se tiču uglavnom fonologije.

U zaključku se ističe da je posljednji trenutak da se leksička istraživanja kajkavskog narječja intenziviraju jer za razliku od fonologije i morfologije, semantika je puno brže podložnija promjenama s obzirom na to da nove realije doslovce svakodnevno prodiru u suvremeni život, a to se manifestira na i na standardni jezik i na interdijalekt i na mjesne govore.

The paper provides basic information about the Kajkavian lexicon, its origin, its contact with the Hungarian and German languages and about contemporary phenomena in its interference with the Croatian standard language (pseudo-analogonymy and the latest semantic adaptations). As the lexicon of Croatian Kajkavian dialects is marginally represented in the existing etymological dictionaries of the Croatian language, the paper points out that it is difficult to classify a large number of lexemes that are not found in any of the Slavic languages.

Lexical borrowing of Hungarianisms occurs very rarely to fill in lexical gaps and is much more common for non-linguistic reasons (geographical and political) because the vast majority of them had equivalents in the recipients’ vernaculars at the time of primary adaptation. Of the semantic fields covered by Hungarianisms, the most numerous is the one that refers to pejorative meanings in the context of human characteristics, appearance and behaviour, whereas those covered by Germanisms refer to technical expressions from various trades.

The archaic Kajkavian lexicon either disappears or finds a new place in the vocabulary of modern speakers of the Kajkavian dialect with modern semantic adaptations. A high frequency of diminutives / hypocorisms is emphasized, not only as a creative possibility or a marginal layer of vocabulary but also as an extremely frequently used vocabulary in everyday communication. Research activities of pseudo-analogonymy are described. They are important not only for linguistic knowledge but also for the methodology of teaching the Croatian language, which could be a pivotal point around which the Kajkavian dialect could get a better position in schools.

The paper continues to talk about the latest trends in the research of Kajkavian lexicon and the solid development of Kajkavian dialect lexicology due to the emergence of a large number of amateurs who collect lexicon all their lives and leave it to linguists and publish the work as a joint work. Finally, a methodology for researching the distinctiveness of lexicons between individual local dialects is proposed, when an extensive scientific dictionary already exists for a local dialect. In this way, it would be easier to follow the processes of spreading and prevalence of various linguistic phenomena in the field of semantics and word formation, and not only the well-known linguistic isoglosses that concern mainly phonology.

In conclusion, it is pointed out that it is the last moment to intensify the lexical research studies of the Kajkavian dialect because, unlike phonology and morphology, semantics is much more susceptible to change, given that new real objects literally penetrate modern life on a daily basis and this is manifested in both the standard language and in the interdialect and the local vernaculars.

Open access
Studia Slavica
Authors: Полина Оленева and Анна Литовкина

В течение многих столетий паремии (пословицы и поговорки) служили великолепной почвой для бесконечной трансформации. В последние же десятилетия паремиологическая трансформация приняла такие масштабы, что порой можно чаще встретить трансформы, чем традиционные паре-мии. Вольфганг Мидер назвал такого рода паремии антипословицами (нем. Antisprichwörter, англ. anti-proverbs). Этот термин был широко принят паремиологами всего мира.

Данная статья посвящена анализу русских пословиц и антипословиц о деньгах. В первой части работы были рассмотрены способы трансформации традиционных русских по-словиц: замена одного или двух слов; замена второй или первой части пословицы; добавление новых слов или, наоборот, выпадение слов; использование буквального значения вместо метафоричного; смешение нескольких пословиц. Многие антипословицы одновременно включают в себя несколько способов трансформации.

Во второй части статьи мы кратко осветили такие понятия как семантическое поле и гиперсема в контексте денег (к которой относятся помимо лексемы деньги также и такие слова как рубль, ко- пейка, платить, богатый, бедный, золото, долг, платеж и др.), а также мы привели примеры по-словиц о деньгах из различных языков мира (например, из английского, немецкого, французского, испанского, итальянского).

Третья часть статьи была посвящена анализу русских пословиц и антипословиц о деньгах. Сна-чала нами были рассмотрены примеры трансформации пословиц, в текстах которых есть слова, относящиеся к гиперсеме «деньги» (19 примеров). Потом мы направили фокус нашего внимания на антипословицы, в текстах которых присутствовала гиперсема «деньги», но в самих пословицах ее не было (14 примеров). Всего в этих двух разделах нами было проанализировано 33 русские пословицы и 88 антипословиц о деньгах. Фокус нашего внимания был прежде всего на том, что происходит в ходе трансформации с пословицами, какие виды трансформации являются наиболее популярны-ми в нашем корпусе, а также мы рассмотрели, какие смысловые изменения происходят с послови-цами во время их модификации. Эту часть статьи мы завершили анализом трех самых популярных в нашем корпусе пословиц о деньгах: Не в деньгах счастье; Не имей сто рублей, а имей сто друзей; Долг платежом красен и их многочисленных переделок.

Большая часть антипословиц о деньгах отражают актуальные реалии для носителей русского языка, в которых добавлены темы секса, коррупции, преступного мира, работы, кредитов, здоровья, ежедневных будней и праздников, качеств характера и др. По мнению В. Мидера, антипословицы нередко становятся моралистичными или даже дидактичными высказываниями, и мы это наглядно увидели на примере многочисленных антипословиц о деньгах.

For centuries, proverbs have provided a framework for endless transformation. In recent decades, the modification of proverbs has taken such proportions that sometimes we can even meet more proverb transformations than traditional proverbs. Wolfgang Mieder has coined the term anti-proverb (or in German, Anti- sprichwort) for such deliberate proverb innovations. This term has been widely accepted by paremiologists all over the world as a general label for such innovative alterations and reactions to traditional proverbs.

This paper is devoted to the analysis of Russian proverbs and anti-proverbs about money.

In the first part of the work, we have demonstrated various mechanisms of proverb variation, e.g. replacing a single word; substituting two or more words; changing the second part of the proverb; adding new words; omitting words; adding literal interpretations; melding two proverbs. Many anti-proverbs include several ways of transformation.

In the second part of the paper, at first, we have briefly covered such notions as the semantic field of the word money (which includes, in addition to the lexeme money, such words as ruble, kopeyka, pay, rich, poor, gold, debt, payment, etc.). Moreover, we have also introduced examples of proverbs about money from various languages of the world (for example, English, German, French, Spanish, and Italian).

The third part of the paper has been devoted to the analysis of Russian proverbs and anti-proverbs about money. In the first section, we have considered examples of transformations of proverbs with words related to the semantic field of the word money (19 proverbs). In the second section, we have focused on anti-proverbs in which the words belonging to this semantic field are present but in the original proverbs are absent (14 proverbs). In a nutshell, in these two sections, we have analyzed 33 Russian proverbs and 88 anti-proverbs about money. Mainly, we have focused on what happens during proverb transformation as well as on what types of transformation are the most common in our corpus. In addition, we have also examined various types of semantic change occurring to proverbs during their modification. We have finished the third part of the paper with an analysis of three most common proverbs about money in our corpus: Не в деньгах счастье [Money does not bring happiness]; Не имей сто рублей, а имей сто друзей [Do not have a hundred roubles but have a hundred friends]; Долг платежом красен [Debt should be returned by paying back].

The vast majority of the anti-proverbs about money portray real situations for native speakers of Russian. Among the themes treated in our proverb alterations are sexuality, corruption, criminal world, work, credits, health, weekdays and holidays, character traits, etc. According to Mieder, anti-proverbs often become moralistic or even didactic statements, and we have observed it in the numerous anti-proverbs about money treated in our study.

Open access

Прах и промах. А. Белый и В. Набоков: полигенетизм, параллель, пародия

“Prakh” and “Promakh” (Ashes and Failures). А. Belyi and V. Nabokov: Polygenetics, Parallelism, and Parody

Studia Slavica
Author: Жужа Хетени

В статье проводится анализ концовки двух романов двух авторов, «Серебряного голубя» А. Белого (1909) и «Отчаяния» В. Набокова (1934) с целью раскрыть, каким образом последний отвечает на традицию символизма и на его эмблематического автора-теоретика.

Влияние А. Белого на В. Набокова рассмотрено в статье как многоплановое явление, не только как следование по стопам принятого наследия или его отрицание. Это скорее внимание ученика к мастеру поэтической формы, рождающее стилистические параллели, с одной стороны, а с дру-гой стороны – это отношение к преодолеваемому литературному предшественнику, выражающееся в сложных трансформациях. Тончайшим жанром второго типа отношения является амбивалентная по натуре пародия, касающаяся и критики идейного и мировоззренческого плана.

Исходя из этих тезисов, статья, впервые в набоковедении, предлагает определить «Отчаяние» В. Набокова по жанру как роман философский.

Роман опровергает прежде всего символистскую теорию жизнетворчества, отвечая не только А. Белому, но, в более широком плане, и идейной и поэтической традиции Серебряного века.

Сравнение Дарьяльского с Германом, включением фигуры Раскольникова поставлено в статье в расширенный контекст «идейных убийств», касающихся вопроса свободы воли человеческой управлять своей судьбой, строить ее по планам. Особенно наглядно это в тройном сопоставлении, указывающем такое же амбивалентное отношение Набокова к наследию Достоевского, на которо-го явно опирается сюжет романа Набокова. Он становится объектом прямой пародии Набокова, открыто опровергающего и высмеивающего Достоевского, но тем самым (невольно) и ставит его в роль центральной фигуры внимания. Тройное сравнение раскрывает и то, что наследие Достоев-ского воспринято и интерпретировано Набоковым через наследие символизма. Это наследие, хоть и через кривые отражения, все же и именно тем самым и увеличено, ибо воспроизведение непосред-ственными предшественниками придает ему дополнительную глубину косвенной интерпретации.

Статья затрагивает своеобразие приема двойников у В. Набокова, который отрицал и высмеивал прием «Doppelgänger», и предлагается термин «псевдодвойники».

Приведенные тезисы основаны на тщательном анализе полигенетических коннотаций палки, ох-ватывающих культурные коды мифических аллюзий, античной и сакрально-библейской традиции, и косвенных, интертекстуальных литературных перекличек. В рассмотрении образа палки просле-живается сравнительная статистика синонимов в двух романах, и даже их языково-графические свойства; образы, построенные на форме букв ассоциациями автора-синестета.

The paper focuses on the endings of two novels by two authors, The Silver Dove by A. Bely (1909) and Despair by V. Nabokov (1934) to reveal how the latter responds to the tradition of Symbolism and its emblematic author-theorist.

The influence of A. Bely on V. Nabokov is considered in the paper as a multidimensional phenomenon, not only as following in the footsteps of the accepted heritage or its denial. Rather, it is the student’s attention to the master of the poetic form, giving rise to stylistic parallels, on the one hand, and on the other hand, it is the attitude to the literary predecessor being overcome, expressed in complex transformations. The finest genre of the second type of attitude is parody (ambivalent in its nature), parody, concerning here both ideological and philosophical criticism.

Based on these theses, the paper, for the first time in Nabokov studies, proposes to define Nabokov’s Despair as a philosophical novel by genre. The novel disproves, above all, the Symbolist theory of “zhiznetvorchestvo” (‘the creation of life’), responding not only to A. Bely but also to the ideological and poetic tradition of the Silver Age.

The comparison of Daryalsky to Herman, by also involving the figure of Raskolnikov, is placed in the paper in the extended context of “ideological murders” concerning the question of the freedom of the human will to control his fate, to build it according to human plans. This is particularly evident in the triple juxtaposition, which indicates the same ambivalent attitude of Nabokov toward the legacy of Dostoevsky, on which the plot of Nabokov’s novel is clearly based. He becomes the object of Nabokov’s direct parody, openly refuting and ridiculing Dostoevsky, but in doing so, (unwittingly) also places him as the central figure of attention. The triple comparison also reveals that Dostoevsky’s legacy is perceived and interpreted by Nabokov through the legacy of Symbolism. This legacy, even if through a distorted reflection, is nevertheless and precisely thereby magnified, for the reproduction by his immediate predecessors gives it an additional depth of indirect interpretation.

The paper touches upon the peculiarity of the reception of doubles in V. Nabokov and proposes the term pseudo-doubles (as the author denied and mocked the technique of Doppelgänger).

The thesis is based on a thorough analysis of polygenetic connotations of the stick, covering cultural codes of mythical allusions, ancient and sacral-biblical tradition, and indirect, intertextual literary interferences. In examining the image of the stick, the comparative statistics of synonyms of the word in the two novels are traced as well as their linguistic and graphic properties, images built on the form of letters by the synaesthete author’s associations.

Open access

В статье предлагается несколько стихотворений русских поэтов на тему моря. Описательный аспект в них пропитан эмоциональными переживаниями авторов. При этом меняющийся вид моря, его богатство световыми и звучными оттенками и переливами нарисованы c высоким поэтическим мастерством, позволяющим ощущать определенный параллелизм между динамикой моря и изме-нениями в душевной жизни человека. Эти романтические стихотворения содержат явные элементы реалистического подхода к действительности, а вместе с тем и некоторые черты, свидетельствую-щие о склонности авторов к трансцендентальности.

Элегия Жуковского «Море» (1822) – прекрасный пример олицетворения: море рассматривается как мистическое существо, которое живет, дышит и исполнено тревожной мыслью. Реалистичное изображение моря содержит скрытую аллюзию на переменчивые настроения человеческой души.

В стихотворении Пушкина «Погасло дневное светило…» (1820) поэт вспоминает о своей поте-рянной бурной молодости. В его же стихах «К морю» (1824) море как символ абсолютной свободы напоминает судьбы двух великих мужей века: Наполеона и Байрона.

В стихотворении «Море и утес» (1848) Тютчев выражает свою веру в миссию России как защит-ника христианства. Помимо аллегорического смысла, мастерство изображения яростных бурь волн против «спокойного и уверенного в себе утеса» предлагает прекрасную параллель с известными морскими картинами Айвазовского. В его стихотворении «Как хорошо ты, о море ночное» (1865) непрерывное движение моря намекает на трансцендентальное. Последние строки этого стихотво-рения говорят о неутолимой скорби поэта, вызванной недавней смертью его возлюбленной. Его же стихи «Волна и дума» (1851) представляют эмблематический символ взгляда поэта на аналогию природы и человеческого духа: наши мысли – это то же непрерывное, тщетное и обманчивое явле-ние как бушующие и отступающие волны моря.

Бунин посвятил два стихотворения морю. В одном из них (1895) вид спокойного ночного моря вызывает у наблюдателя восхищенное предчувствие вечной красоты и неземной истины. В другом стихотворении (1897) описание бурного Северного моря напоминает унылое настроение поэта. Па-раллель между этим зрелищем и подавленным состоянием души поэта проявляется в уничижитель-ных семантических тонах эпитетов и предикатов.

В стихах Бальмонта «У моря ночью» (1903) вид ночного моря возбуждает у поэта отчаянное ви-дение нависающей смерти.

В своем коротком стихотворении (1884) Надсон сравнивает море с мощным органом в величе-ственном соборе, но вместе с тем оно приводит видение кого-то «безумно смеющегося и грозящего».

При этом цитированные романтические стихотворения содержат явные элементы реалистиче-ского подхода к действительности, хотя в то же время некоторые их черты свидетельствуют о склон-ности авторов к трансцендентальности.

The paper presents a selection of poems about the sea, written by Russian lyric poets in the 19th century. The descriptive aspect in the poems is imbued by the emotional experience and actual mood of the authors. At the same time, the changing sight of the sea, the abundance of its luminous tints and sounding modulations are shown with high poetic mastery suggesting a certain parallel between the dynamism of the sea and the alternating states of the human mind. Parts of the texts indicate the authors’ disposition to transcendence.

Zhukovsky’s elegy Море [The Sea] (1822) is a fine example of personification: the poet addresses the sea regarded as a mystical being that lives and breathes, filled with anxious thought. The realistic portrayal of the sea contains a hidden allusion to the changing moods of the human soul.

Pushkin’s poem Погасло дневное светило… [The Day Star is Gone] (1820) recalls reminiscences of his lost turbulent youth. In the poem К морю [To the Sea] (1824), the sea as the symbol of absolute freedom reminds of the fates of the two outstanding men of the century, Napoleon and Byron.

Tyutchev’s poem Море и утес [The Sea and the Cliff] (1848) pertains to the Western European revolutionary events of 1848. In the form of an allegory, the poet expresses his belief in the mission of Russia as the defender and stronghold of genuine Christianity. Apart from its allegorical sense, the mastery of depicting the furious storms of waves against the “calm and self-confident Cliff ” offers a fine parallel to the well-known maritime paintings of Ayvazovsky. The poem Как хорошо ты, о море ночное [How Fine is You, the Sea at Night] (1865) includes a hint at transcendence in the description of the continually moving sea. The last lines of this poem allude to the unappeasable grief of the poet caused by the recent death of his beloved. The poem Волна и дума [The Wave and the Thought] (1851) is an emblematic symbol of Tyutchev’s view on the parallelism of nature and the human mind: our thoughts are regarded as just the same incessant, idle, and deceptive phenomena as the storming and receding waves of the sea.

Bunin devoted two poems to the sea. One of them (1895) presents the sight of the tranquil nocturnal sea, arousing a delighted state of the observer, his presentiment of everlasting beauty and “unearthly truth”. The other poem (1897) describes the stormy Northern Sea with its piercing wind and heavy waves. The parallel between this sight and the depressed state of mind of the poet appears in the pejorative semantic tones of the epithets and predicates.

In Balmont’s poem У моря ночью [At the Sea by night] (1903), the sight of the sea by night stirs up in the poet a desperate vision of imminent death.

In his short poem (1884), Nadson compares the sea with a powerful organ in a majestic cathedral but at the same time a vision appears to him of “somebody insanely laughing and threatening”.

In the cited poems, the romantic (i.e. individual and emotional) attitude to the sea is integrated with superior skill in describing elements of reality, and reveals a certain inclination of the poets to transcendental experience.

Open access

Abstract

In Hungary, the academic study of folklore started at the turn of the 20th century. In the period between 1889 and 1920, institutions for the study of folklore and ethnography were established. The author points out that ethnographic collections in this era were motivated by concern about the loss of folk culture phenomena owing to changes brought by modernisation. Major arguments for the establishment of the Hungarian Ethnographic Society as well as the Museum of Ethnography referred to the need to salvage endangered items of folk culture from vanishing. Folklore collections were interpreted as rescue missions aiming to save material in the penultimate moment. The author of this paper investigates the way in which an outstanding folklorist of the period, Lajos Katona (1862–1910), professor of comparative literary studies, defined the essence, purpose, and method of ethnographic/folklore collections. Katona urged on several occasions that collectors of folklore be equipped with professional guidebooks and other auxiliary materials. He played a role in the popularisation of the activities of the Folklore Fellows, furthering the establishment of a network of voluntary collectors. Empirical data collection in the field is a central notion of folklore studies, one of the most important methodological and epistemological categories of the discipline, which functions as a distinctive feature differentiating it from other fields of study. Therefore, it is of central importance to shed light upon how and why the principles of the collection and recording of folklore phenomena in oral culture have changed.

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Abstract

The village today is only partially what we used to know of in the past, our previous image rooted in a sinking world, nothing but memories. In the 21st century, even in rural communities, the daily routine, practices and strategies of economic life are determined by the processes of modernization and globalization, in conjunction with information and communication technologies along with the wide-ranging proliferation of digital devices. It can be said that life in the 21st century village also shows a simultaneous constraint of modernization (the constraint of evolution and change) and the presence of masses incapable of changing (even if their number is continuously decreasing). The coexistence and confrontation of these opposing forces and ideologies characterizes the Hungarian/Transylvanian rural space in Romania during the 21st century. All these have led to the degradation of previous community patterns, resulting in the faltering position of tradition as well as a major change in the role it plays in the life of said communities.

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Abstract

As a result of globalization processes, the lives of average people are nowadays filled with uniform products. In Ukraine, contemporary clothing featuring national markers stands out from among the wide range of cultural and artistic trends. Ukrainian academics are currently studying the specific features of the diffusion of traditional clothing into everyday urban life. A knowledge of the historical path of the penetration, adaptation, and development of traditional Ukrainian clothing within the urban cultural system is necessary for an understanding of its modern transformation processes. An examination of the theoretical model of the diffusion and development of nationally marked clothing from 1861 to 2020 reveals that, in the context of urbanized culture, the spread of Ukrainian clothing is subject to five factors: social and economic, religious and ritual, identification (patriotic), cultural and artistic, and design and production. Within each subperiod, namely 1861–1920, 1921–1990, and 1991–2020, these factors have influenced clothing culture to varying extents, and their content is transformed in accordance with the historical circumstances. In addition to the publication of the above developments in scientific journals, considerable efforts to popularize them are also being made. Several thematic lectures have been given on the influence of the above-mentioned driving forces at different historical stages, accompanied by the multimedia presentation of prominent members of the Ukrainian intelligentsia posing in Ukrainian attire. The ZETA Atelier clothing manufacturing team produces collars embroidered with Ukrainian folk motifs, which became fashionable among Ukrainian intellectuals in the early 20th century. Collaboration based on the educational platform of the clothing brand Zerno has given rise to the idea of producing a line of stockinette T-shirts with prints of historical photographs of the Ukrainian cultural figures previously featured during lectures and presentations. The aim is to shape a contemporary urban culture of nationally marked clothing via the introduction of national images into consumer practices.

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Abstract

The present study introduces the role played by the Hungarian Heritage House in applied ethnography and the folk art revival. It is the first such study to review their antecedents over the past 70 years, the evolution of the institutional background, and activities of varying emphasis (research, teaching, certification) in the fields of folk dance, folk music, and folk handicrafts. The second part of the study evaluates professional tasks in the context of the organizational framework of the Hungarian Heritage House, which was founded in 2001, highlighting the internal relationships among activities embedded within the historically developed structure. The study then goes on to describe the intermediary role of the institution in relation to the practical use/usefulness of basic ethnographic research in terms of: (a) knowledge transfer — the utilization of basic ethnographic research in trainings and courses; and (b) digitization — ensuring wide access to ethnographically authentic archive folk music and dance recordings as the socialization of basic ethnographic research; and (c) research activities within the scope of applied ethnography and existing and potential cooperation with the academic sector. By way of conclusion, the study outlines pressing tasks in the field of applied ethnographical research that are crucial to the everyday, practical work of folklorism. These tasks include delineating the image (i.e., concept) of folk art and folk tradition in the Hungarian Heritage House; clarifying the terminological issues that affect the profession as a whole; creating a professional historical archive of folklorism; organizing a regular forum for critical discussion; and rethinking the cultural context and function of the folklore revival in light of the present-day challenges.

Open access

Abstract

The UNESCO World Heritage Convention (1972) was originally focused on nature conservation and built heritage. The immaterial aspect of the worldwide heritage discourse arrived at a turning point in 2003, when the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage was adopted. The definition of the intangible cultural heritage provides essential frames for a wide range of interpretations. The UNESCO concept focuses on inclusive, representative and community-based traditions which are contemporary and living at the same time. In this sense, the intangible cultural heritage conception is based on the fundamental dichotomy of tradition and modernity. For the communities concerned, a new perspective for living traditions is the process from tradition to heritage. There are four essential features of this process: participation, consciousness, organization and valorization. They can make a difference between tradition and heritage. The Hungarian model for the implementation of the UNESCO Convention is based on a bottom-up system, where the heritage bearers themselves initiate the nomination process for the National Inventory. It is based on their strong commitment to their heritage and it relies on their involvement and participation. In this paper, three case studies from North-East Hungary (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County) represent different ways of “creating a heritage.” The various patterns are closely related to the ideas of identity, community cohesion, tourism, local economy and the preservation of living traditions.

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