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Abstract

Identification of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes from tumor related antigens is a promising approach for malignant tumor immunotherapy. TC2N, a recently identified tumor associated antigen from human glioblastoma, is regarded as a promising target of tumor-specific immunotherapy. As one of the most widely used histocompatibility molecules in Chinese is HLA-A*0201, we were able to identify the TC2N peptides that are provided by this molecular type. A panel of antigenic peptides produced from TC2N were predicted by using a computer tool. The binding affinities of three peptides with the highest predicted score to the HLA-A*0201 molecule were evaluated after synthesis. In vitro and in vivo stimulation of the main T-cell response against the predicted peptides. The results demonstrated that TC2N (152-160) was able to release IFN-γ and lyse U251 cells in vitro as well as in vivo by eliciting peptide-specific CTLs. Our results indicated that peptide TC2N (152-160) (RLYGSVCDL) was a novel HLA-A2.1-restricted CTL epitope capable of inducing TC2N specific CTLs in vitro. As TC2N might qualify as a viable target for immunotherapeutic approaches for patients with GBM, we speculated that the newly identified epitope RLYGSVCDL would be of potential use in peptide-based, cancer-specific immunotherapy against GBM.

Open access

Abstract

Autophagy is a cellular stress-induced intracellular process, through which damaged cellular components are decomposed via lysosomal degradation. This process plays important roles in host innate immunity, particularly the elimination of intracellular pathogens inside host macrophages. A more detailed understanding of the roles of autophagic events in the effective manifestation of macrophagic antimycobacterial activity is needed. Furthermore, the effects of medicinal plants on macrophagic autophagy response to mycobacterial infection need to be clarified. We herein examined the significance of autophagic events in the manifestation of host immunity during mycobacterial infection, by performing a literature search using PubMed. Recent studies demonstrated that autophagy up-regulated macrophage functions related to the intracellular killing of mycobacteria, even when pathogens were residing within the cytoplasm of macrophages. The majority of medicinal plants potentiated macrophagic autophagy, thereby enhancing their antimycobacterial functions. In contrast, most medicinal plants down-regulate the development and activation of the Th17 cell population, which reduces macrophage antimycobacterial activity. These opposing effects of medicinal plants on macrophage autophagy (enhancement) and Th17 cell functions (inhibition) may provide a plausible explanation for the clinical observation of their modest efficacy in the treatment of mycobacterial infections.

Open access

Abstract

Dietary iron intake causes the elevation of ferritin levels, and higher iron intake might improve insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary iron intake and serum ferritin levels, insulin resistance, and nutritional status in patients with cardiovascular disease. Health information of individuals were obtained with a questionnaire form. There were a total of 103 patients, 59 male (57.3%) and 44 female (42.7%). Patients also filled a questionnaire on dietary habits, a 3-day food record. There was a statistically significant difference between ferritin quartiles and total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and TG/HDL-C ratio (P < 0.05). Study data show that dietary iron intake was associated with the elevation of serum ferritin levels (P < 0.05) and this difference was significant in Q1 and Q4 groups in post-hoc analysis. There was a negative correlation between serum ferritin levels and total cholesterol and HDL-C in patients with insulin resistance (r = −0.384, P < 0.05; r = −0.520, P < 0.05). In conclusion we found a strong association between serum ferritin levels and inflammation, causing an oxidative stress, atherosclerosis, and bringing along cardiometabolic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 DM.

Open access

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus infections have already presented a substantial public health challenge, encompassing different clinical manifestations, ranging from bacteremia to sepsis and multi-organ failures. Among these infections, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is particularly alarming due to its well-documented resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, contributing significantly to global mortality rates. Consequently, the urgent need for effective treatment options has prompted a growing interest in exploring phage therapy as a potential non-antibiotic treatment against MRSA infections. Phages represent a class of highly specific bacterial viruses known for their ability to infect certain bacterial strains. This review paper explores the clinical potential of phages as a treatment for MRSA infections due to their low toxicity and auto-dosing capabilities. The paper also discusses the synergistic effect of phage-antibiotic combination (PAC) and the promising results from in vitro and animal model studies, which could lead to extensive human clinical trials. However, clinicians need to establish and adhere to standard protocols governing phage administration and implementation. Prominent clinical trials are needed to develop and advance phage therapy as a non-antibiotic therapy intervention, meeting regulatory guidelines, logistical requirements, and ethical considerations, potentially revolutionizing the treatment of MRSA infections.

Open access

A talajspektrális könyvtárak nemzetközi jelentősége és hazai megalapozása

The international importance and national establishment of soil spectral libraries

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Ádám Csorba
,
Tamás Szegi
,
Gábor Várszegi
,
Gábor Nagy
, and
Erika Michéli

Napjainkban soha nem látott igény mutatkozik megfelelő mennyiségű és minőségű talajadatra és információra. Spektroszkópiai technológiák a hagyományos laboratóriumi módszerekkel együttesen, párhuzamosan alkalmazva lehetőséget kínálnak a talajfelvételezés idő- és költséghatékonyabbá, valamint környezetkímélőbbé tételére. Jelen munkában lokális, regionális és globális léptékű talajspektrális könyvtárak bemutatása mellett az első országos szintű, az Agrártechnológiai Nemzeti Laboratórium projekt keretében kidolgozásra kerülő, Magyarország talajtani változatosságát reprezentáló spektrális adatbázis létrehozásának koncepcióját mutatjuk be. A spektrális könyvtárak olyan speciális talajadatbázisoknak tekinthetőek, melyek tartalmazzák egy adott terület talajait reprezentáló talajminták hagyományos laboratóriumi módszerrel meghatározott paramétereit, valamint spektroszkópiai módszerrel rögzített spektrumait. A spektrális könyvtárakban tárolt adatok alapján elvégzett, spektroszkópiai kalibrációkra alapozott talajparaméter becslési eljárások lehetőséget kínálnak az adatbázisban szereplő talajminták fizikai-kémiai-ásványtani tulajdonságaihoz hasonló minták paramétereinek spektrális alapú megbízható megbecsléséhez. A hazai spektrális könyvtár alappillérét a Talajvédelmi Információs és Monitoring (TIM) rendszer mintavételezés kezdeti évében (1992-ben) gyűjtött, talajok genetikai szintjeiből vett talajmintákról felvett spektrumokra építjük. A spektrális adatbázist a középső-infravörös (middle-infrared, MIR), valamint a látható- és közeli infravörös (visible and near-infrared, VIS-NIR) tartományban, a Global Soil Laboratory Network (GLOSOLAN) iránymutatásai alapján rögzített spektrális adatokra építjük. A folyamatosan bővülő spektrális könyvtár, és az erre az adatbázisra épülő talajtulajdonság-becslő eljárás lehetőséget fog kínálni számos fizikai és kémiai paraméterének megbízható meghatározására, ezzel (számottevő többletköltség nélkül) nyújt lehetőséget a jelenlegi laboratóriumi kapacitás növelésére.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Doxycycline-based prevention of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been assessed in various studies and has been recommended by the European AIDS Clinical Society to be proposed to persons with repeated STIs on a case-by-case basis. However, while good preventive effects could be shown for Chlamydia trachomatis and Treponema pallidum in Europe, no reliable prevention against doxycycline resistance-affected bacterial causes of STIs like Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium was confirmed.

Methods

In a modelling-approach, we assessed potential beneficial effects even against the latter microorganisms in case of optimized adherence with doxycycline prevention. These effects were modelled for Germany in comparison to traditional prevention schemes like condom-based STI-prevention and testing-as-prevention.

Results

With estimated risk reduction in the ranges of 86% for N. gonorrhoeae and of 82% for Mycoplasma genitalium, expectable preventive efficacy similar to alternative preventive approaches could be calculated in case of optimized adherence with doxycycline prevention. In case of repeated risk exposure, the preventive potential of condom-based prevention was decreased compared to both optimized doxycycline prevention and testing-as-prevention.

Conclusions

As suggested by the applied modelling, the preventive effect of optimized doxycycline prevention against bacterial STIs is in a similar range, like other common prevention strategies.

Open access

Abstract

Pulmonary infections of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) or in intensive care units are frequently caused by the Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Since these bacteria are commonly inherently multidrug-resistant (MDR) and hence, antibiotic treatment options are limited, bacteriophages may provide alternative therapeutic and prophylactic measures in the combat of pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa. This prompted us to perform a comprehensive literature survey of current knowledge regarding effects of phages applied against pulmonary P. aeruginosa infections. The included 23 studies revealed that P. aeruginosa specific phages lyse and eliminate the bacteria even in case of biofilm production in vitro, whereas application to mice and men resulted in mitigated P. aeruginosa induced clinical signs and enhanced survival. Besides distinct host immune responses, no major adverse effects limiting therapeutic and/or prophylactic phage application were noted. However, the immune system and antibiotics generate synergies with phages due to the mutable sensitivity of P. aeruginosa. In conclusion, results summarized in this review provide evidence that phages constitute promising alternative treatment options for lung infections caused by MDR P. aeruginosa. Further studies are needed, however, to underscore the efficacy and safety aspects of phages application to infected patients including immune-compromised individuals.

Open access

Abstract

Aim

The ability of neutrophil CD16 (nCD16) expression to predict outcome in complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) has not yet been studied; therefore we aimed to evaluate its potential prognostic value in such patients.

Methods

Between November 2018 and August 2021 a single-center prospective study was performed in the Department of Surgical Diseases at a University Hospital Stara Zagora. A flow cytometry was used to measure the levels of nCD16 before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day (POD) in 62 patients with cIAIs.

Results

We observed a mortality rate of 14.5% during hospitalization. Survivors had significantly higher perioperative expression of nCD16 than non-survivors (P = 0.02 preoperatively and P = 0.006 postoperatively). As predictor of favorable outcome we found a good predictive performance of preoperative nCD16 (AUROC = 0.745) and a very good predictive performance of postoperative levels (AUROC = 0.846). An optimal preoperative threshold nCD16 = 34.75 MFI permitted prediction of survival with sensitivity and specificity of 66.7% and 77.8%, respectively. A better sensitivity of 72.5% and specificity of 85.7% were observed for threshold = 54.8 MFI on the 3rd POD.

Conclusion

Perioperative neutrophil CD16 expression shows a great potential as a predictor of favorable outcome in patients with cIAIs.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos
,
Marisela Aguilar-Durán
,
Sergio Estrada Martínez
,
Agar Ramos-Nevárez
,
Carlos Alberto Guido-Arreola
,
Antonio Sifuentes-Álvarez
,
Sandra Margarita Cerrillo-Soto
,
Raúl Graciano Ibarra
, and
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

Abstract

We aimed to determine the association between the seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii and the ABO and Rh blood groups in 2,053 people. ABO and Rhesus blood groups and anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were determined using commercially available assays. Of the 2,053 people studied, 171 (8.3%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. Sixty-five (38.0%) and 36 (21.1%) of these 171 individuals had high anti-T. gondii IgG antibody levels (≥150 IU mL−1) and anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies, respectively. We found the following prevalences of T. gondii infection among the ABO groups: 8.5% in group A, 4.3% in group B, 4.7% in group AB, and 8.9% in group O (P = 0.19). The prevalences of T. gondii infection among Rh groups were: 8.4% in the Rh-positive group and 7.1% in the Rh-negative group (P = 0.58). Logistic regression analysis showed that the frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups were similar (P > 0.05) among people with positive and negative serology for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, with high (≥150 IU mL−1) and lower (<150 IU mL−1) levels of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, and with positive and negative serology for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Results does not support an association between T. gondii infection and ABO and Rh blood groups.

Open access

Abstract

Platycranus metriorrhynchus Reuter, 1883, the first representative of the predominantly Holomediterranean plant bug genus, Platycranus Fieber, 1870 is reported as a new element of the Hungarian true bug fauna. Diagnostic characters and bionomics of the species are discussed.

Open access