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Abstract

Carolus Clusius (Charles de l’Écluse, 1526–1609), one of the most renowned naturalists of sixteenth-century Europe, was a versatile man of letters. One of his fields of interest neglected in scholarship is his attitude and activities around what was called fossilia at that time, and what can today be called non-living naturalia: metals, gems, various strange “stones”, fossils or medicinal earths. Such naturalia appear several times in his correspondence. This two-part study reviews how Clusius took part in the collecting, exchange and discussions about these inorganic objects in the European respublica litteraria. He could even be involved in geological or palaeontological issues of his age. The investigation not only throws light on the activities of Clusius and some of his correspondents, but also taps into the broader topic of communication and exchange in the Literary Republic of the time, and may even contribute to the history of the natural sciences in the period. Some of the non-living naturalia Clusius was interested in (like “Saint Ladislaus's coin” or the medicinal earth of Tokaj) could be found in Hungary and he looked for them by way of friends in that region (it is known that one of his most important patrons was the Hungarian aristocrat Boldizsár Batthyány). For reasons of space, the present study has been published in two parts: Sections 1–3 appeared in the previous issue, while Sections 4–7 are published in this one. A map to the entire study is included at the end of the present part.

Open access
Studia Slavica
Author:
Володимир Шилов

Вы когда-нибудь хотели праздновать Новый год дважды? Если да, то добро пожаловать в Закарпат-скую область Украины, где, помимо официального восточноевропейского времени (UTC+2), суще-ствует еще и неофициальное (центральноевропейское время, UTC+1), которое отстает от первого ровно на один час.

В течение ХХ в. Закарпатье было частью разных государств, но до середины 1940-х годов данный регион не знал никакого другого часового пояса, помимо центральноевропейского (или UTC+1). Это время считалось официальным и в Австро-Венгрии (до 1918 г.), и в Чехословацкой Республике (1919–1938/1939), и в Королевстве Венгрии (1939–1944). С приходом сюда Красной Армии в 1944 г. незамедлительно встал вопрос о переходе на московское время (UTC+3). Иными словами, было решено к существующему центральноевропейскому времени (UTC+1) прибавить лишних два часа. Конечно, это стало причиной недовольств среди местных жителей. Однако поскольку выражать протест в СССР было очень опасно, некоторые из них решили и дальше пользоваться временем, к которому они уже привыкли (UTC+1), но делать это тайком. Так, закарпатцы создали «свое соб-ственное», так называемое «местное» время (UTC+1). Им пользовались наряду с официальным на тот момент московским (UTC+3).

После распада Советского Союза и появления независимой Украины в 1991 г. официальный ча-совой пояс был изменен с московского (UTC+3) на киевский (UTC+2). Хотя во временную зону UTC+2 географически входит большая часть территории Закарпатья, некоторые люди не захотели отказываться от «местного» времени (UTC+1), которое существует в регионе и поныне.

Характерной особенностью «двойного восприятия» времени на Закарпатье является то, что это явление можно увидеть на уличных надписях (например, на графиках работы магазинов или распи-саниях автобусов). Сюда можно отнести различного рода уточнения времени (киевского или «мест-ного») в виде определенных фраз или их сокращений, использование двух часовых поясов на одной надписи и многое другое. Поэтому есть смысл исследовать временной вопрос Закарпатья в рамках анализа языкового ландшафта.

В этой статье показаны все возможные сценарии использования времени на уличных надписях в Закарпатской области на разных языках (украинском, русском, словацком и английском). Все представленные в работе материалы основаны на реальных фотографиях с улиц. Большая часть из них была сделана автором данной статьи во время рабочей поездки по восьми закарпатским горо-дам (Ужгород, Мукачево, Берегово, Хуст, Рахов, Тячев, Чоп и Иршава) в 2019–2021 гг.

Open access

Abstract

Since the start of the new millennium, there has been a marked turn in nutrition-related ethnographic research in Hungary. Following the reconstruction of the historical and regional processes of change in Hungarian dietary traditions, professional attention has increasingly shifted towards the present day. In this study, I first summarize the most important aspects of contemporary gastronomy and the respective research opportunities, before exploring the question of the relationship between contemporary food culture and public catering for children. The conclusion reached is that public catering for children and the food on offer in school canteens cannot be discussed without an understanding of the changes taking place in contemporary food culture, which in turn cannot be understood without taking into account contemporary social and cultural developments. Until the slowly changing culture of public catering becomes more closely aligned with the rapid changes in eating at home and in restaurants, fewer and fewer children will make use of school canteens, and where they do, they will barely touch the food but prefer to go hungry.

Open access

Abstract

The introduction of school meals in the 20th century has its roots in several parallel but independent initiatives. The common source of these initiatives was the practice of philanthropy and charity, based on religious upbringing. Public catering for children was first institutionalized in Budapest by a charitable organization, the Children's Society (Gyermekbarátok Egyesülete), after which several denominational associations followed suit. In the early 20th century, the City of Budapest itself also took the initiative, setting up its first daycare centers where needy children were not only fed but also participated in educational and recreational activities. Resources for social welfare were eroded during the war, thus foreign aid organizations stepped in to help the children of Budapest immediately after the war, while childcare became the sole responsibility of the public authorities from the 1920s. From then on, the state covered the entire costs of providing meals, similar to the system of soup kitchens established specifically for supplying food to destitute adults.

Open access

Abstract

The Hungarian writer Sándor Petőfi (1823–1849) achieved the union of the Hungarian people thanks to the verses of his National Song (Nemzeti dal), which have always been quoted and recited with great interest. Therefore, the following paper aims to analyse some problems with the poem's translation into Spanish and present a new version of this emblematic poem for the Hungarians.

Open access

Fructus, Attianus, Ariomanus

Restoring two altar-inscriptions from Poetovio

Fructus, Attianus, Ariomanus

Két poetovioi oltárfelirat kiegészítése
Archaeologiai Értesítő
Author:
Melinda Szabó

Abstract

The study includes two inscriptions from Poetovio both on altars, one dedicated to Mithras, the other to Isis, both erected for the wellbeing of a person. In addition to the findspot they have in common that both persons mentioned in them were employees of the publicum portorium Illyrici customs office. This insight is the basis for the new additions to the study, as for both inscriptions it was possible to reinterpret the previously known inscriptions based on the pattern used by customs post employees, which could be observed on other inscriptions. The new addition will allow the two inscriptions to be included in the research on the operation and staffing of the Illyricum customs district.

Open access

Abstract

Prescribed and supported by the state, public catering in Hungary fulfils a common social need; its aim is to meet the nutritional requirements of consumers in terms of both quantity and quality. Public catering is legally regulated and is also important from the perspective of health policy. As the smallest unit of common catering, family meals differ from public catering in several respects. One fundamental difference is that public catering rests on scientific foundations: it is planned, organized, and controlled by a qualified manager. This manager may be a trained dietitian or a catering manager, according to the National Qualifications Register. The training for these two roles is interlinked and goes back more than a century.

Open access

Abstract

The present study examines the Hungarian practice of public catering for children from an economic perspective, bearing in mind that the production and consumption of food is, at the same time, an economic activity. Taking this approach, we focus on which institutions contribute to or hinder efficiency, by which we mean the efforts of economic agents to generate maximum welfare from the available (meager) resources. For social reasons, the supply of public catering for children is a statutory obligation on the part of local authorities, where efficiency must be combined with social considerations. The study reviews the rationing mechanism of school meals catering as a public service, looking first at the main factors determining the level of demand for public catering for children, and then at the main factors that influence supply.

Open access

Abstract

The study examines the provision of school-holiday meals for children and shows how it is embedded in society. Proper nutrition is very important for children's physical and cognitive development. However, international research shows that children's social and cultural background has a significant impact on their nutrition. To reduce these disparities and ensure that all children have a healthy diet, effective government intervention is necessary. In Hungary, school canteens and free meals during school holidays for children in need serve this purpose. The latter service is of great importance for the children of families affected by food poverty. Yet, statistics show that some of these children are unable to use this service. This study examines the period before 2016 and highlights the social embeddedness of the service and its consequences on the provision. Whether child food poverty is perceived as a social issue and a common cause generating community intervention largely depends on the local actor's correct perception of the issue, the local appraisal of need, and the consideration of parents' “deservingness.” The study also makes some suggestions about areas where further interventions should focus to improve the nutrition of children affected by food poverty.

Open access