Authors:László Kovács, István Lénárt, and Orsolya Endrődy
Brand names are prevalent in our society: they influence consumption and future buying behaviour. As research has shown, children are also aware of brands and brand names, and brand names learned in childhood can influence their attitude towards the known brands.
The collaboration of various scientific fields including pedagogy, psycholinguistics, and marketing communication enabled us to investigate the appearance of brand names in the verbal consciousness of 4–5-year-old kindergarten children of different nationalities.
In the frames of this research, brand names were identified by the application of an interdisciplinary and comparative word association experiment conducted with 100 Hungarian, 100 Russian, and 100 Laotian children, from the 4–5-year-old age group. The experiment is a traditional word association experiment and the research design was not set into the context of any brands or consumption habits research.
Results show that in the experiment, several globally known brand names were elicited (e.g. Lego, My Little Pony, Batman), however significant cross-cultural dissimilarities were also revealed. Most activated brand names can be connected to the world of children (e.g. toy brands), but in the experiment spontaneously elicited brands reflect not only the conception of childhood but also the society and culture surrounding the children.
Taiwan government consolidated the kindergarten and daycare systems in 2012, and launched a new national curriculum framework, Early Childhood Education & Care Curriculum Framework (ECECCF), as a guidance for quality early childhood education programs. Research has shown that the effects of a new educational program highly depended on the fidelity of its implementation. It has thus been suggested that the degree of implantation of a program needs be evaluated before conducting further program evaluation.
Thus, the purpose of this study was to construct an Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework Implementation Scale (ECECCF Implementation Scale) for Taiwanese preschool programs. 216 preschool classes in Taiwan were involved. The study consisted of two stages: In Stage 1, the exploratory factor analysis showed that the implementation of ECECCF could mostly be explained by four factors, and all the factors extracted had acceptable reliability and validity. In Stage 2, rubrics were constructed for each item and factor analysis was re-conducted, resulting in a 19-item scale of four factors (Awareness and Adjustment, Learning Centers Arrangement, Teaching Guidance and Curriculum Development). The reliability and validity tests shows that: (1) the final version of the ECECCF Implementation Scale is a valid and reliable instrument, explaining 62.9% of the total variance; (2) the criterion validity indicated that the ECECCF scale can not only be used for assessing the implementation of ECECCF, but also can be used for understanding teachers’ needs in instructional and operational curriculum for further professional development.
Authors:Orsolya Endrődy, Bahbibi Rahmatullah, and István Lénárt
The recognition of the importance of early childhood education (ECE) has been growing continuously in recent years. Early childhood institutions are where professional pedagogy and child-rearing practices meet first in someones' life (Tobin et al., 2009), it has great significance in education. Acknowledgement of the existence of the needs of young children's education is evident, however, we have limited chances to compare different education systems outside of Europe and the United States. Realizing this situation, we came to the conclusion that it is highly necessary and required to publish such an analytical issue in the Hungarian Education Research Journal. Teacher's views and their narratives of childhood are relevant if we aim to understand the fundamental differences of ECE institutions in any region or country. In our present investigation we collected data from Hungary, Laos and Malaysia in order to acquire greater knowledge on the conceptions of early childhood in the three countries. We assumed however that the teachers' qualification and the early childcare system is diverse, yet we have found similarities among the teachers' perception.
This paper addresses the current educational rights of the Roma community (in the Czech Republic). The aim of the paper is to present the educational system, its advantages and disadvantages and the ways in which the legal system supports educational rights. The second part of the paper focuses on the exercising and negotiation of rights in the contemporary social context. The work is based on ethnographic research conducted since 2005 by the Levínská, Bittnerová, & Doubek team in socially excluded localities. The data analysis is based on the theoretical concept of cognitive anthropology and the cultural models theory (D’Andrare, & Strauss, 1992). Cultural models and the ways in which parents, students and teachers negotiate rights are presented. The tension between rationality and morality (Bateson, 1958) is demonstrated by the models’ endurance; communication, cognitive and material support; and independence. Although the system itself provides equal opportunities, the prospects that education affords are a fundamental problem. One obstacle is racial bias, which influences members of the dominant group. Another significant obstacle is poverty and the costs of higher education, which are beyond the financial capacity of poor families. A third obstacle is knowledge, which is insufficient in excluded localities and poor families, and that families are unable to give students adequate support in navigating the full scope of student responsibilities.
In the last two decades more and more studies have emphasized the central role of teachers' social and emotional competence in their teaching performance. In spite of this, there are not enough programs focused on developing teachers' social and emotional competence that are integrated into teacher education. This is particularly true in Vietnam where the concepts of social and emotional competence (SEC) and social and emotional learning (SEL) are rather new. In the study, we present four main emerging impact aspects of teachers' SEC including teachers' well-being and career motivation, teacher-student relationship, classroom management, and the effectiveness of SEL implementation. The article gives some recommendations for teacher education regarding SEC issue in Vietnam as well. These recommendations would contribute to develop a new approach of teacher education to meet the country's new general education curriculum enacted in 2020.
Authors:Anikó Fekete, Anikó Fehérvári, and Gábor Bodnár
During the research entitled Teaching Creative Music, the focus is on getting to know creative music, which is becoming more and more widespread in Hungary, however using it, but still takes up little space in our music education, and its impact in high school and university environments is limited. The Kodály Concept contains a number of well-established practices also László Sáry’s collection of Creative Music Exercises (Sáry, 1999), mainly evoking Christian Wolff and John Cage, evoking the work of Stockhausen, also works well, but there is no teaching aid for the secondary school classes (9-12) based on different combinations of systematic vocal and rhythmic tasks – although in the 2017 NAT [“National Curriculum”], creative music activity as a reproduction is included as a requirement among the development tasks. There is also less experience among those pursuing higher music studies in terms of methodological preparation at the national level.
We believe that much more student-based assignments should be used in high school singing and music education so that their classroom motivation and musical creativity can develop further, and their subject-related knowledge deepen.
We are interested in the “rehabilitation” of this field, as there are a lot of opportunities in the creative music exercises, during which repetitive activity and musical creativity are essential, and Odena and Welch have already studied the latter (Odena–Welch, 2007).
Music pedagogical research supports the need to study the field, as high school students are undermotivated in their lessons and their musical creativity is not sufficiently exploited (Deliège–Wiggins, 2006).
In this article, we would like to explore an analysis of some of the practices of a creative music course over a semester in terms of how student activity and creativity changed during the 9 hours of the practice (measured with 3 groups per week). For all of this, we also use elements of Teachout and McKoy’s model, who examined music teacher attributes in terms of teacher success and failure.
Anxiety has commonly been regarded as one of the most significant affective obstacles in language learning achievement, and has been the subject matter of many second language researches (MacIntyre & Gregersen, 2012; Huang, 2012; Hewitt & Stefenson, 2011; Riasati, 2011; Horwitz, 2001).
The primary purpose of the present study is to explore the anxiety levels of a class of students studying at the University of Dunaújváros and to investigate their attitude towards acquiring a second/foreign language. On the basis of the information gained the study is aiming at revealing some degree of correlation between students’ anxiety and their academic achievement.
Responses to the Foreign Language Anxiety Scale show that the relatively high levels of anxiety among these participants are related to the worry about (1) the consequences of failing their foreign language class, (2) thinking that the others are better at languages and (3) communication with native speakers of the foreign language. However, the results on the relationship between anxiety levels and academic achievements show no significant correlation between these two variables, which leads us to the conclusion that the participants’ anxiety levels do not exceed the level which would have a negative impact on their academic results.