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Abstract

This paper is based on the assumption that there was a well-articulated idea behind the rapidly spreading phenomenon of theft after the formation of collective farms in Transylvania during socialism: people thought that what they were doing was not wrong because the real culprit was the socialist state that deprived them of their control over their lands. Had that not happened, they would still be their own masters, existentially complete, and should the supremacy of this state cease one day, they would once again be who they were before. This idea vitalized their expectations and hopes as a sacred aura. After 1989, these hopes came true temporarily, and partially, but, as it turned out, the peasant order imagined as existential completeness did not return. After joining the EU, the generation that went through socialization owning and cultivating their own land and then lived awaiting and hoping as collectivist peasants had to realize that it was all wrong: the new system brought its own shortcomings, frustrations, and disappointments as their world lost its sacredness.

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Abstract

The present study proposes an analysis of the conceptual apparatus that may facilitate the description and interpretation of the changes that have taken place in Transylvanian villages and ruralities over the past quarter century. The central question is: what is left of the village after these changes? Respectively, was this change superficial or has it affected the deeper strata as well? I argue that we are talking about a structure in which some strata have been radically transformed while others have remained unaffected. This led to the production of numerous ways of life that proved to be resilient. In the changing and diversified space of ruralities, there are several mentalities and tendencies that are parallel and simultaneously different temporalities that either complement or eliminate each other. Sometimes they coexist peacefully, other times they are in constant conflict with each other.

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Die Rolle des Herausgebers der Zeitschrift Kmetijske in rokodelske novice bei der Entwicklung einer einheitlichen slowenischen Schriftsprache

The Role of Bleiweis’ Newspaper Kmetijske in rokodelske novice in the Formation of a Unified Standard Slovenian Language

Studia Slavica
Author: Marko Jesenšek

Die Zeitschrift Kmetijske in rokodelske novice, herausgegeben von J. Bleiweis, spielte bei der Entwicklung der einheitlichen slowenischen Schriftsprache Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts eine bedeutendere Rolle als bisher angenommen. Sie prägte die Kulturentwicklung im slowenischen Sprachraum langfristig; als Publikationsorgan stand sie allen Slowenisch schreibenden Autoren zur Verfügung, für Leser stellte sie eine kleine Schreibschule sowie eine Motivation zum Lesen slowenischer Texte dar.

Zu ihren kulturell äußerst bedeutenden Leistungen zählen die Stärkung und Fortentwicklung des Slowenentums, die Unterstützung des politischen Programms des Vereinten Sloweniens, die Ausgestaltung einer einheitlichen slowenischen Schriftsprache und Etablierung einer einheitlichen slowenischen Schrift (slovenica), die Ablehnung von Sprachideen der illyrischen bzw. panslawischen Bewegung, mit der Zeit ebenso die Festlegung von so genannten neuen Formen, abgesehen davon, dass diese vom Herausgeber Bleiweis zunächst als Widerspruch gegen „unserer reinen“ und „verständlichen“ slowenischen Sprache erklärt wurden.

Bleiweis Bemühungen um die Durchsetzung des Slowenischen in Amt und Bildung resultierten in der Ausgestaltung entsprechender funktionaler Varietäten; diese umfassten die allgemeinsprachliche Kommunikation in „häuslicher Umgebung“, den Sprachgebrauch in der Publizistik, die fachsprachliche Ausprägung als Ergebnis der Übersetzung des Grundgesetztes (Državni zakonik) sowie die Literatursprache, dies vor allem durch die Veröffentlichung der Poesie von France Prešeren.

Zur breiten Anerkennung und Hochachtung von Bildungswesen, Zeitschriften und Büchern trug die Zeitung wesentlich bei. Ihr Herausgeber Bleiweis verstand sie zwar als „Bildungsblatt für einfaches Volk“, jedoch wurde die Zeitung auch zum politischen Periodikum für gebildete Leserschaft. Sie stand im Zentrum der slowenischen Renaissance und förderte öffentliche Diskussionen über alle relevanten Fragen des Slowenentums jener Zeit, insbesondere über sprachliche, kulturpolitische und literarische Fragen.

J. Bleiweis’ newspaper Kmetijske in rokodelske novice (Agricultural and Artisanal News), also known simply as Novice (News), played a key role in the creation of a unified Standard Slovenian language by bringing together all Slovenian writers and providing readers with a means to learn about writing and encouraged the reading of Slovenian texts.

The newspaper built on the sense of Slovenian affiliation and the idea of the United Slovenia by reinforcing the unified Standard Slovenian language and unified Slovenian writing called slovenica, rejecting the Illyrian movement and Pan-Slavicism, later somewhat less convincingly with the adoption of new forms that Bleiweis initially established as a defiance against “our pure” and “comprehensible” Slovenian language.

Bleiweis’ efforts to establish the use of the Slovenian language in schools and public life made it possible for the Slovenian language to achieve four-part perfection regarding its functional varieties, i.e. expanding from its basic practical and communicative “home environment” to the public sphere, where it functioned easily in journalism, took on the fully-fledged role of a specialist language in the translation of Državni zakonik (the official collection of national rules and regulations) and that of an artistic language also used in Prešeren’s poems published in Novice.

As a result of Bleiweis’ Novice, schools, newspapers, and books in Slovenia were able to gain public acclaim. Despite the editor maintaining that Novice was an “educational journal for a simple people”, it was in fact also a political newspaper that suited intellectuals; it was at the heart of the Slovenian national revival and, as such, opened a public discussion about all the important issues of Slovenism, particularly regarding language, culture, politics, and literature.

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Dvojna tradicija latinice u Hrvata: povijesni pregled

The Dual Tradition of the Latin-Script Orthography in the Croatian Language: A Historical Overview

Studia Slavica
Author: Előd Dudás

Povijest hrvatske latinične grafije je iznimno bogata i istraživačima pruža brojne zanimljivosti, mada je dosad bilo objavljeno veoma malo djela o toj temi. Prvi takav pokušaj je bio Maretićeva povijest latiničke grafije (Maretić 1889). Svakako treba istaknuti rad Milana Moguša i Josipa Vončine (Moguš–vončina 1969) koji je u mnogočemu ispravio Maretićeve pogrešne tvrdnje. Također u posljednje vrijeme je bilo objelodanjeno nekoliko radova o povijesti latiničke grafije u Hrvata (Kapetanovič 2005, Farkaš–Ćurak 2016, Farkaš 2019). Kad se govori o istraživanju hrvatske latinice, nikako ne smijemo zaboraviti doprinos Lászla Hadrovicsa. On je bio jedini koji se usredotočio na detaljniji prikaz dvojnog razvoja latinice u Hrvata od samih početaka. U ovom ćemo radu ići njegovim tragovima, budući da je cilj našega rada predstavljanje dvojne tradicije hrvatske latinice i onog kulturnopovijesnog konteksta koji je okarakterizirao razvoj hrvatske grafije.

U razvoju latinice crkva je imala najvažniju ulogu. Crkva je bila i središte pismenosti u srednjem vijeku. Iz toga slijedi da izgovor određenih latinskih glasova je utjecao na razvoj grafije pojedinih nacionalnih jezika. U slučaju hrvatskog jezika sve to je još posebnije, budući da na južnom dijelu Hrvatske nalazimo jak talijanski i mletački utjecaj, a na sjevernom je dijelu, što naime poklapa s Zagrebačkom biskupijom, očit jak mađarski utjecaj. Južna je tradicija pratila talijanski način izgovora latinskih glasova, što je utjecalo i na razvoj latiničke grafije. S druge strane nalazimo mađarski način izgovora lat. /s/, tj. [ʃ], [ʒ] na sjevernom području. Ova dva sustava su stoljećima karakterizirali hrvatsku latiničnu grafiju, međutim od kraja XVI. stoljeća je bilo više pokušaja za primjenu mješovitog sustava, a jedino je bilo to uspješno u slavonskoj grafiji XVIII. stoljeća.

The history of the Croatian Latin-script orthography is remarkably rich and contains several interesting facts for the researchers; however, only a handful of writings have been published in this matter. The first work written in the topic is Maretić’s history of orthography (Maretić 1889). It is also important to mention the study by Milan Moguš and Josip Vončina (Moguš–vončina 1969), in which they corrected several false statements written by Maretić. Recently, a few more papers on orthographic history have been published (Kapetanovič 2005, Farkaš–Ćurak 2016, Farkaš 2019); nevertheless, it is necessary to point out the work by László Hadrovics, the only researcher in the subject who paid great attention to the dual tradition of the Latin-script orthography in the Croatian language. Following the steps of Hadrovics, the main goal of this paper is to present which cultural historical reasons determined the development of the dual tradition of the Croatian Latin-script orthography as well as to introduce the use of graphemes in detail.

The church played an important role in the development of the Latin script. During the Middle Ages, the church counted as the centre of the literacy, thus it is obvious that the ecclesiastical Latin pronunciation defined the evolution of the individual national languages’ orthographies. From this point of view, the Croatian is a special case, as in the Middle Ages, the Southern Croatian areas were strongly affected by the Italian, more precisely by the Venetian language, while in the northern areas, overlapping the Archdiocese of Zagreb, a strong Hungarian impact can be observed. The southern orthographic tradition follows the Italian pronunciation, i.e. the spelling is also based on the current Italian orthography. Nevertheless, in the northern areas, the Latin /s/ phoneme is pronounced in a Hungarian way, as [ʃ] or [ʒ]. The two orthographic systems were in use side by side over the centuries; nonetheless, since the end of the 16th century, there were several attempts to create a “mixed” system, which was successfully carried out only in the 18th-century Slavonian orthography.

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Nejasna mjesta u Sibili Ane Katarine Zrinske

Unclear Parts of Ana Katarina Zrinska’s Sibila

Studia Slavica
Author: István Lukács

Ana Katarina Zrinska (rođ. Frankopan) značajna je spisateljica hrvatskog baroka. Njezini otkriveni pjesnički tekstovi koncem prošloga stoljeća pridonijeli su revalorizaciji čitavoga životnog djela. Obitelj Zrinski posjedovala je izuzetno lijepo ukrašen rukopisni primjerak gatalice (Sibile), na čijoj unutarnjoj strani nalazimo vlastoručne bilješke same Ane Katarine Zrinske kao vlasnice te nadalje jedan tajanstveni rebus. Prema mojoj interpretaciji grofica je na dan nadnevka 2. travnja 1670. pokušavala tražiti odgovor putem gatalice na pitanja kakva će sudbina zadesiti njenog supruga (Petra Zrinskog) i brata (Frana Krstu Frankopana) koji su za par dana krenuli na svoj kobni put u Beč. Poznata je činjenica da je hrvatska Sibila zapravo prijevod mađarske Fortune, a ova opet prijevod poljske Fortune. Temeljitu usporedbu triju gatalica zasada nitko nije izvršio.

Hrvatsku je Sibilu prvi put objelodanio Ljudevit Ivančan (1906), najnovije je Zvonimir Bartolić (2007) objavio faksimil i transkribirani tekst te napisao opširniju studiju i dodao tumač riječi. U mađarskim i hrvatskim kritičkim izdanjima ima više nedostataka, među inim netočnog transkribiranja, krivih tumačenja nekih riječi, sintagmi.

U svome radu usporedbom upitnih mjesta poljske, mađarske i hrvatske gatalice pokušavao sam popraviti, dopuniti, odnosno razriješiti proturječnosti u kritičkim izdanjima hrvatske i mađarske gatalice, a u studiji sam na osnovi potpunih hrvatskih i poljskih strofa iznio svoje prijedloge za dopunu riječi i izraza u mađarskoj Fortuni, nadalje protumačio i, ako je bilo potrebno, korigirao riječi i sintagme koje nisu bile ili su bile krivo interpretirane u mađarskom i hrvatskom kritičkom izdanju, a na kraju sam preko nekih zanimljivih konkretnih primjera pokušao objasniti razlike između mađarskog i hrvatskog teksta.

Posebno sam poglavlje posvetio pitanju nejedinstvene versifikacije hrvatske Sibile, napose posveti Siromahom, iznimno točnom i majstorski složenom samostalnom tekstu pisanom dvostruko rimovanim simetričnim dvanaestercima. Premda je u hrvatskoj književnopovijesnoj znanosti danas opće prihvaćena teza kako je Sibila prijevod više osoba (zna se, naime, da su u čakovečkom dvorcu Zrinskih djelovali dijaki), temeljitu filološku analizu nitko nije izvršio.

Na osnovi usporedbe mađarske i hrvatske gatalice ovo stajalište čini nam se nepobitnim, primjerice sa značenjem iste mađarske riječi (marha u značenju ‘imovina’) u jednom je slučaju prevoditelj bio načisto, a u drugom ju pak nije uspio protumačiti, stoga je izostavljena u prijevodu. Neujednačeno oblikovani pjesnički tekst same gatalice s jedne strane, s druge pak strane iznimno lijepo i brižno sastavljena posveta (Siromahom) idu u prilog istoj tezi.

Ana Katarina Zrinska Frankopan is an important woman writer of Baroque Croatian literature, whose poems unearthed towards the end of the last century shed new light on her entire work. The Zrinski family owned a special ornate manuscript fortune teller book (Sibila), the inner cover of which contains handwritten entries and a rebus from the Countess. According to my interpretation, on the day of the entry (2 April 1670), the Countess tried to get an answer from this book about the fate of her husband (Petar Zrinski) and her brother (Krsto Frankopan), who left for Vienna a few days later. It is a well-known fact that the Croatian Sibila was translated from the Hungarian Fortuna and the Hungarian from the Polish Fortuna. An accurate philological comparison of the three fortune teller books has not been done by anyone so far.

The Croatian Sibila was first published by Ljudevit Ivančan (1906) and then more recently by Zvonimir Bartolić (2007) in a facsimile with a full modern transcribed version of it, including a study and a gloss. There are several shortcomings in the critical editions of the Hungarian and Croatian fortune teller books, such as inaccurate transcriptions, misinterpretations, and omissions. In this study, the author makes an attempt to fill the aforementioned lacunae and resolve the contradictions in the texts published by Zvonimir Bartolić and Géza Orlovszky by carefully comparing certain passages in the Polish, Hungarian, and Croatian fortune teller books.

In the present paper, based on the available full Croatian and Polish verses, the author proposes to replace the missing words and expressions in the given verse of the Hungarian version of Fortuna. He also interprets and corrects words that are not interpreted or misinterpreted in the Hungarian and Croatian critical editions, and finally tries to find an explanation for the differences between the Hungarian and Croatian texts using several interesting examples.

In a separate chapter, the author deals with the somewhat inconsistent poetic text of the Croatian Sibila, and discusses in more detail the highly accurate, twice-rhyming, halved twelve separate text written Siromahom i.e. ‘For the Poor’. Although it is now believed in Croatian literary studies that Sibila is not the work of one but of several translators (it is a known fact that there were many copyists working at the court of the Zrinski family in Čakovec), no one has proved this.

After an accurate comparison of the Hungarian and Croatian fortune teller books, it is quite apparent that the above statement is true, as the author’s analysis revealed that, for example, one translator knew the obsolete meaning of a given Hungarian word accurately (‘cattle’ in the sense of property), whilst the other did not, as it is missing from his translation. This is also supported by the uneven wording of the verses, which is particularly striking in the case of the poetic text of the extremely demanding dedication entitled Siromahom.

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Sprachgeschichte und Sprachkontakte in den Forschungen von István Nyomárkay

Language Contacts and Language History in István Nyomárkay’s Research

Studia Slavica
Author: István Vig

Der wissenschaftliche Nachlass des Akademikers István Nyomárkay (1937–2020) umfasst etwa 280 Publikationen. Aufgrund des begrenzten Umfangs fokussiert sich diese Studie auf die Darstellung seiner wichtigsten Monografien.

Im Bereich der Sprachkontakte wird die morphologische Integration der Internationalismen in das Sprachsystem der kroatoserbischen / serbokroatischen Schriftsprache in der ersten Monographie (1984) analysiert. Viele der betrachteten Internationalismen, die letztendlich lateinischen Ursprung haben, wurden nicht direkt aus dem Lateinischen übernommen, sondern wurden aus dem Deutschen, Italienischen und Französischen entlehnt. Dieses Buch war derzeit die erste große Synthese in diesem Bereich.

Die folgende Monographie (1989) erforscht die Entstehung der neuen Zivilisationswörter der kroatischen Sprache in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Die meisten Ausdrücke wurden aus politischen und kulturellen Gründen nach ungarischen Mustern geprägt. Sie sind teilweise Lehnprägungen, teilweise Neubildungen. Bei ihrer Entstehung wirkten Impulse von ungarischen Vorbildern mit.

Auf das Gebiet der Sprachkultur gehört das Buch von 2002. Hier wird der Einfluss einer 1779 in Wien veröffentlichten deutschen Grammatik auf slowenische, slowakische, kroatische und ungarische Grammatiken analysiert. Obwohl zahlreiche Elemente der deutschen Grammatik übernommen wurden, passten die Autoren andere Befunde in modifizierter Form ihren eigenen Sprachen an.

Unter Nyomárkays lexikographischen Werken ragt das sprachhistorische Wörterbuch des Burgenlandkroatischen (1996) hervor. Das 4864 Stichwörter umfassende Wortmaterial stammt ausschließlich aus 64 Quellen. Das Wörterbuch, ein wichtiges Werk für die Sprachgeschichte, dient auch als geeignetes Hilfsmittel zum Lesen alter Texte.

Die letzte Monographie (2007) des Autors über die Geschichte der kroatischen bzw. serbischen Sprache gehört in den Bereich der Sprachgeschichte. Es ist die erste Synthese der Geschichte der erwähnten Sprachen auf Ungarisch. Es handelt sich um ein im leserfreundlichen Stil geschriebenes wissenschaftliches Werk, das ungarischen Linguisten und Studierenden gewidmet ist.

Es ist sehr wichtig hervorzuheben, dass alle oben betrachteten Bücher auf der Analyse von zahlreichen Quellen beruhen.

Academic István Nyomárkay (1937–2020) left a great legacy of his oeuvre, consisting of more than 280 publications. For size limits, this study presents only a few of the most important domains of Professor Nyomárkay’s research, based on some of his books.

In the field of language contacts, his first monograph (1984) examines the integration of international loanwords into the morphological structure of the Croato-Serbian / Serbo-Croatian literary language. These international loanwords, eventually, are of Latin origin. Many of them are not Latin loanwords but they got adopted into the Croato-Serbian literary language by the mediation of the German, Italian, and French languages. This book was the first major synthesis in this field at that time.

The next monograph (1989) examines the formation of the new words in the vocabulary related to Croatian civilization in the second half of the 19th century. Due to political and cultural reasons, the new expressions were created mainly on Hungarian patterns. Some of them are calques, other ones are new word formations inspired by Hungarian.

The book published in 2002 pertaining to language-culture research investigates the influence of a German grammar published in Vienna in 1779 onto the grammars of Slovenian, Slovak, Croatian, and Hungarian. The authors took over many elements of the German grammar and adapted them to their own language each, with some modifications of several of its statements.

From among the lexicographical works of Nyomárkay’s, the historical dictionary of the literary language of the Croatians in Burgenland is an outstanding piece (1996). It contains 4,864 entries, which were taken from 64 resources. Apart from the fact that the dictionary is a work of salient importance from language historical point of view, it also offers considerable help in reading old texts.

The last monograph of the author on the history of the Serbian and Croatian languages (2007) pertains to the domain of language history. This is the first summary of the history of the aforementioned languages written in Hungarian. It is a piece of scholarly work in an easy to read style, addressing linguists and university students in Hungary.

It is very important to point out that each of the books considered above is based on the analysis of numerous sources.

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Abstract

Scholarly publication of folk riddles in Hungary started in the mid-19th century. Among the early sources was the first classic collection of Hungarian folktales, Eredeti népmesék [Authentic Folktales], compiled by László Arany, which includes a separate chapter comprising 54 riddle tales. Manuscripts related to this publication were found in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences among other collections from the 19th century and identified in the 1960s as having been recorded by members of the Arany family. The manuscripts contain all the riddles published by László Arany, along with 25 riddle texts that remained unpublished. Comparison of the two sources reveals the editing process: the selection and arrangement of the material, along with the text modifications applied by László Arany. The first part of this article consists of a few terminological notes on tales and riddle tales in 19th-century Hungary, followed by the description of the riddle material in the manuscripts associated with the Arany family. In the second part the author presents in more detail the editing process which shows a far higher degree of conscious editorial attention than other publications of folk riddles in the period.

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Abstract

Few studies have explored the relevance of metrical structures in segmental processes. This paper shows that Dagbani (Gur, Ghana), has a prosodic word dominating a trochaic foot which licenses segmental processes and phonotactics. The foot is the domain for marked vowels and unmarked consonants. The prosodic word regulates the sequencing of syllables of different degrees of sonority and weight within a word. The Optimality Theoretic analyses make use of classical metrical theory and prosodic principles used in defining the prosodic word in stress languages to highlight the typological relevance of these principles and the prosodic universality of these metrical structures.

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Abstract

This paper investigates the historical development during the past three centuries of the English suffix -en, used to create denominal adjectives (e.g. golden, silken), focusing on words that have remained in the language until the present day. We specify a way of calculating the rate of loss of the suffix and apply this to different lexical items involved in this process. Finally, we explore the roles of word frequency and collocations, in order to shed some light on how these factors relate to the loss of a linguistic form.

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