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Central European Geology
Authors:
Máté Zsigmond Leskó
,
Richárd Zoltán Papp
,
Ferenc Kristály
,
József Pálfy
, and
Norbert Zajzon

Abstract

Although the Mesozoic rocks of the Transdanubian Range have been the subject of a multitude of different studies, mineralogical research is largely underrepresented. The clay mineralogy of Lower Jurassic (especially the Pliensbachian and Toarcian) strata was broadly investigated earlier; however, systematic high-resolution clay mineralogical studies remain scarce. Here we present a mineralogical study focusing on the Upper Pliensbachian strata of the Lókút-Hosszúárok section, located near the Eplény Manganese Ore Field. We identified dioctahedral smectite, randomly interstratified illite/smectite, illite as 10 Å phyllosilicate, quartz and cristobalite. Based on our new results we propose that the smectite was formed by aging of Mg or Fe hydroxide-silica precipitates. The smectite and cristobalite were presumably formed from the siliceous tests of radiolarians, whose abundance was controlled by a local upwelling system. The occurrence of Pliensbachian smectite in the Lókút outcrop shows similarities with the Úrkút smectites known from both Pliensbachian and Toarcian strata, which implies that similar processes controlled the sedimentation during the Pliensbachian as well as during the black (gray) shale-hosted ore accumulation in the Eplény and Úrkút basins.

Open access

Abstract

In this paper we review five cancellariid assemblages from the Hungarian part of the Pannonian Basin (Börzsöny, Bakony, and Mecsek Mts regions) which yielded 26 species. Ten species are recorded for the first time in Hungary. One species, Scalptia nemethi n. sp. is described as new. A revision of the Hungarian museum collections and historical Hungarian literature is also provided. Sveltia salbriacensis Peyrot 1928 is considered a junior subjective synonym of Petitina inermis (Pusch 1837).

Open access

Cseresznyefák terméshozását és gyümölcsminőségét befolyásoló műtrágya kísérletek eredményei

Results of fertilizer experiments on yield and fruit quality of sweet cherry trees

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Ádám Csihon
,
István Gonda
,
Mihály Orosz-Tóth
,
Sándorné Kincses
, and
Imre Holb

Plant nutrition significantly influences yield and fruit quality in fruit orchards. In this three-year study (2016–2018), different fertilizer treatments were compared in an intensive sweet cherry orchard. Trees of cultivar ‘Carmen’ were grafted on Prunus mahaleb ‘Cema’ rootstock, and were trained to free spindle. For NP, NPK and NPKMg treatments, yield ranged between 11.8 and 16.6 kg/tree in the three years, while the yield was 9.1 kg/tree on the control trees. Crop load (fruit amount calculated to the trunk thickness) was 151–166 g cm-2 for fertilized trees, while it was 120 g cm-2 on the untreated trees. Fruit sizes of fertilized trees reached 30 mm in 2018, while the fruit sizes of control trees were smaller with 2.5 mm. Water-soluble dry matter content (%) of the fertilized trees was lower in 2016 and 2017, but higher in 2018 compared to the control plots. In 2017 and 2018, fertilizer treatments resulted in an increase of the content of phosphorus (16–70%), potassium (4–22%) and magnesium (12–43%) in the fruits compared to control plots.

Open access

Kadmiumstressz detektálására alkalmazható in situ és destruktív mérési módszerek összehasonlító vizsgálata búzán

Comparative study of in situ and destructive measurements for indication of cadmium stress on wheat

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Bettina Kelemen
,
Anna Füzy
,
Imre Cseresnyés
,
István Parádi
,
Ramóna Kovács
,
Kálmán Rajkai
, and
Tünde Takács

The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) inoculation were investigated in wheat [Triticum aestivum L. cv. TC-33] under controlled conditions. The experiments aimed to reveal what stress responses belong to the different levels of Cd load in the growth medium (0; 1; 2,5 and 5 mg Cd kg- 1 substrate). To detect the effect of Cd stress, we compared plant physiological and growth indicators measured with both in situ and destructive methods. Electrical capacitance (CR) was evaluated during the experiments as a method to indicate stress responses through of Cd-induced root system changes.

During the growth period, the photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm), the chlorophyll content index (CCI) of the leaves, and the CR of the root-soil system were monitored in situ. After harvest, the membrane stability index (MSI), the cadmium and phosphorus concentrations of the plants, the root dry mass (RDM), the shoot dry mass (SDM) and the leaf area (LA) were measured. The root colonization of AM fungi was estimated by microscopic examination. Data matrices were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA) which had been proved to be a good statistical method to the sensitivity between measurement methods.

Taking all parameters into account in the PCA, a complete separation was found between the contaminated and non-contaminated variants along the main component PC1. The measured values of the Cd1 treatment sometimes overlapped with that of control plants, but differed from that of the Cd2 and Cd3 doses. The parameters well reflected that AMF inoculation alleviated the stress caused by Cd. PCA shows a visible effect of AM, but the separation between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants is weaker than that between Cd contaminated and non-treated ones. The Cd stress significantly decreased the Fv/Fm, CCI, CR, SDM, RDM and LA. The CR and growth parameters proved to be the best indicators to characterize the Cd phytotoxicity in the TC-33 wheat cultivar.

Open access

MÚLT-JELEN-JÖVŐ a hazai mezőgazdasági talajvizsgálatokban

PAST-PRESENT-FUTURE in Hungarian soil analyses

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Viktória Vona
,
István Attila Bakos
,
Zsolt Giczi
,
Renátó Kalocsai
,
Márton Vona
,
István Mihály Kulmány
, and
Csaba Centeri

The purpose of the present paper is Authors aim was to deliver a compilation of to summarize the Hungarian soil analysies methods and theas well as to present the advisory system for nutrient management advisory system. Both of them are based on several decades of work. We need to should learn from these past experiences of reasonable and good agricultural practices. We can only apply the present and future results of soil science and find out what direction should we develop, if we were aware of the results of the past and we calculate with their governing effects. The majority of our recent methods are based on historical researches and the present current statesituation of our field of scientific fieldce can only be judged and developed further if we knew the former history of the methodological findings. The recent Hungarian soil analysis system provides useful results that can be used very well today, however, the adaptation of the new international methods , learned from the follow-up of the international trends can might provide open new perspectives in for the Hungarian laboratory analyses methodology. TThe subject is extremely timely because there are hea never- met demand for cost and time effective, environmentally friendly soil analysis methods underpin how actual and hot the topic is. nowadays.

Open access

A talaj fixált ammónium-ion tartalmának hatása a talajvíz tisztulási folyamataira a szennyezőforrás felszámolását követően települési környezetben

Effects of fixed ammonium ion content of the soil on groundwater purification processes after the elimination of the pollution source in municipal environment

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Tamás Mester
,
Daniele Cavalli
,
Dániel Balla
, and
György Szabó

Growing NH4 + content of groundwater results in increasing exchangeable and fixed ammonium ion content of the soil. NH4 + bond in the soil may go again into solution parallel with the dilution of the soil solution but at a slower rate than fixing. This process influences significantly the NH4 + content of the soil. In settlements with no sewerage system the high NH4 + content of sewage flowing out of uninsulated septic tanks may increase the fixed NH4-N content of the soil that could have a significant effect on the quality of groundwater even after the potential disappearance of pollution sources.

In this study the effects of the fixed NH4-N content of the soil around an uninsulated residential septic tank on the purification processes of the groundwater were investigated. The septic tank in the study area was dismantled in 2014 after 27 years of operation as a sewerage system was constructed. When the tank was still in operation in 2012 and 2013, very high, 55–75 mg l-1 NH4 + content was measured in the water of the monitoring well 1 metre from the tank in the course of seasonal sampling. When sewage outflow was terminated in 2014 concentrations decreased right away but even 5 years after pollutant supply was stopped, concentrations (35–57 mg l-1) highly exceeding the pollution limit (0.5 mg l-1) were measured. Considering this very high concentration, it can be assumed that great amount of NH4 + is still released into the groundwater.

In order to prove this, the exchangeable and fixed NH4-N and NO3-N contents of the soil were determined by 20 cm down to a depth of 4 metres (2019). The measurements indicated the significant accumulation of exchangeable and fixed NH4-N in the zone between 220 and 400 cm. Highest fixed NH4-N concentrations of 457 mg l-1 were found between 220 and 240 cm suggesting that sewage outflow was most intense at this depth. Slow decrease in concentrations can be observed in deeper zones but concentrations higher than 350 mg l-1 were measured between 220 and 380 cm. Based on correlation analyses, the quantity of fixed NH4-N shows no correlation with the soil texture thus it can be stated that the vertical pattern of NH4-N content is determined dominantly by sewage outflow and its depth. In the unsaturated zone of the borehole a significant accumulation of NO3-N was also identified. The maximum of NO3-N was found in the zone between 100 and 140 cm. The peak nitrate calculated for NO3 - ion with a value >1300 mg kg-1 is 2.5 times the limit set for the nitrate content of the geological medium.

Based on the results, exchangeable and fixed NH4-N contents in the soil are still very high, 5 years after sewage outflow was stopped. The continuous solution of this component still contributes to the high NH4 + content of the groundwater. As a result, the contaminated soil in the immediate environment of the septic tank is still a pollution source.

Open access

Abstract

The laboratory micro X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) technique is a suitable method to study minerals in-situ in whole-rock specimens without any sample preparation or in polished thin sections, and even in small amounts in powdered form. The micro X-ray diffraction method uses the conventional, closed-tube X-ray generator, but modifications were needed in the diffraction column, sample holder and detector in order to achieve μ-XRD capability.

In this paper, we present a case study of the capillary method used in µ-XRD on hydrothermal clay mineral assemblages that formed in the Velence Mts (Hungary). The capillary method in µ-XRD has many advantages in the investigation of small amounts of clay minerals: (1) easy and rapid preparation of randomly oriented, powdered samples; (2) rapid measurements; (3) accurate diffraction patterns. By using the capillary method, the formation of preferred orientation can be eliminated; thus the (hkl) reflection of the clay minerals can be precisely measured. Illite polytype quantification and the investigation of (060) reflection of clay minerals can be used satisfactorily in µ-XRD.

Hydrothermal clay mineral assemblages are indicative of temperature and pH. Their examination can determine the physicochemical parameters of the hydrothermal fluids that interacted with the host granite in the Velence Mts. The analyzed hydrothermal clay minerals from the western part of the mountains suggest lower temperatures (150–200 °C) and intermediate pH conditions. In contrast, the clay mineral assemblages' characteristics for the eastern part of the mountains indicate more intense argillization and higher temperatures (∼220 °C) and intermediate pH conditions.

Open access

Abstract

Permian felsic volcanic rocks were encountered in petroleum exploration boreholes in SE Hungary (eastern Pannonian Basin, Tisza Mega-unit, Békés–Codru Unit) during the second half of the 20th century. They were considered to be predominantly lavas (the so-called “Battonya quartz-porphyry”) and were genetically connected to the underlying “Battonya granite.” New petrographic observations, however, showed that the presumed lavas are crystal-poor (8–20 vol%) rhyolitic ignimbrites near Battonya and resedimented pyroclastic or volcanogenic sedimentary rocks in the Tótkomlós and the Biharugra areas, respectively. The studied ignimbrites are usually massive, matrix-supported, fiamme-bearing lapilli tuffs with eutaxitic texture as a result of welding processes. Some samples lack vitroclastic matrix and show low crystal breakage, but consist of oriented, devitrified fiammes as well. Textural features suggest that the latter are high-grade rheomorphic ignimbrites.

Felsic volcanic rocks in SE Hungary belong to the Permian volcanic system of the Tisza Mega-unit; however, they show remarkable petrographic differences as compared to the other Permian felsic volcanic rocks of the mega-unit. In contrast to the crystal-poor rhyolitic ignimbrites of SE Hungary with rare biotite, the predominantly rhyodacitic–dacitic pyroclastic rocks of the Tisza Mega-unit are crystal-rich (40–45 vol%) and often contain biotite, pyroxene, and garnet. Additionally, some geochemical and geochronological differences between them were also observed by previous studies. Therefore, the Permian felsic volcanic rocks in SE Hungary might represent the most evolved, crystal-poor rhyolitic melt of a large-volume felsic (rhyodacitic–dacitic) volcanic system.

The Permian volcanic rocks of the studied area do not show any evident correlations with either the Permian felsic ignimbrites in the Finiş Nappe (Apuseni Mts, Romania), as was supposed so far, or the similar rocks in any nappe of the Codru Nappe System. Moreover, no relevant plutonic–volcanic connection was found between the studied samples and the underlying “Battonya granite.”

Open access