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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Tamás Zsom, Viktória Zsom-Muha, Lien Phuong Le Nguyen, Dávid Nagy, Géza Hitka, Petra Polgári, and László Baranyai

Abstract

Application of cold storage temperatures below optimum induces a high risk and threat of chilling injury (CI) in the case of sensitive commodities. Sweet pepper belongs to this group of vegetables, so our main objective was to investigate and monitor the effect of non-optimal temperatures (2.5 and 5 °C) induced stress (chilling injury) on kápia type sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during its postharvest storage by nondestructive quality measuring methods. Fresh, semi-matured (reddish-green colored) samples of ‘Kapitány F1’ cultivar were stored at 2.5, 5 and 10 °C for 7 d followed by 7 d shelf-life. Nondestructive texture measurements were carried out by a purpose built tabletop acoustic stiffness device. Surface color and chlorophyll content related quality indices were evaluated by a chroma meter, a DA-meter® and a chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system. High resolution digital pictures were captured and analyzed for possible CI defects by means of surface color values (normalized RGB, hue and saturation). According to our results, the evaluated quality indices (DA-index®, acoustic stiffness coefficient, surface color parameters; F0, Fm, Fv and Fv/Fm chlorophyll fluorescence parameters) clearly represented the temperature dependent quality changes during low temperature storage, subsequently followed by ambient shelf-life. Samples stored under and at 5 °C showed the chilling temperature stressed symptoms of delayed and partly retarded postharvest ripening, even under simulated shelf-life conditions, but without the onset and manifestation of the characteristic visible symptoms of chilling injury. This may raise doubts and suggest possible future research areas regarding the role of non-optimal cold storage temperatures induced stress, the effect of chilling injury contributing factors and consequences.

Open access

Abstract

In the agri-food industry world, billions of tons of waste are produced every year. This represents both a direct loss (due to the failure to exploit their potential value, and their nutritional and energy content) and indirect loss, due to their necessary treatment and/or disposal. Some substances contained in the wastes, of potential high value, can be recovered by means of extraction. Conventional extraction processes involve the use of solvents, which end up requiring an additional process of separation from the solute identified as the desired product. In recent years, extraction techniques have been proposed without the use of solvents. This work compares the performance of two microwave cavities used for extraction operations, both working at 2.45 GHz.

A calorimetric analysis performed by following the heating rate and temperature evolution in rack of 25 beakers filled with 25 mL of water, coupled with the solution of the heat transfer balance in the system, allowed to build the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic power dissipated as heat in each of the beakers. Fluid-dynamics aspects related to the recovery of the vapour phase produced during the extraction were also analyzed, with particular emphasis on the mean residence time of the vapour fraction in the extraction chamber as a function of its configuration.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Mai Sao Dam, Xuan Thi To, Quoc Tan Pham Le, Lien Le Phuong Nguyen, László Friedrich, Géza Hitka, Tamás Zsom, Tien Cam Thi Nguyen, Chuong Quang Huynh, My Diem Thi Tran, and Vuong Duc Nguyen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of edible coating on hydroponic strawberry during storage. Strawberries were coated with either 1% or 1.5% chitosan (CS) or with solution containing 1.5% chitosan and 0.5% calcium gluconate (CaGlu). After treatment, samples were stored at 10 °C, RH 90% for 10 days. The weight loss, soluble solid content, firmness, surface color, pH, and percentage of decay were evaluated each day during the experiment. It was observed that coating extended the postharvest life of hydroponic strawberry compared to control. Fungal growth occurred on control group at the 5th day and fruit treated with 1% CS at the 8th day of the storage period, whereas no visible sign was detected for other treatments. Soluble solid content and pH showed only minor change for all samples. Weight loss of coated fruit was below 6% after 10 days of storage, whereas the weight loss of control samples was around 10% at the end of measurement. Moreover, coating could maintain the firmness of strawberry compared to the control. The combination of chitosan and calcium gluconate showed the potential for prolonging the storage period of hydroponic strawberry till 10 days without decay, whereas the control sample had more than 60% of rotted fruit.

Open access

Abstract

The effect of three types of emulsifiers (polyglycerol monostearate ester – E475, sucrose stearate ester – E473 and modified inulin palmitate ester – HP-25) on the starch retrogradation in sponge cake (SC) during storage was investigated. The method of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was applied to determine the changes in the starch retrogradation during the staling process. The retrogradation temperature and the enthalpy of the endothermic transition decreased when emulsifiers were added. The lowest values of the enthalpy for the whole storage period were found for SC with 1% HP-25. The methods of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) showed significantly bigger (1.43 times) amount of strongly bound water in the crumb of the SC with E475 and HP-25 in comparison to the control sample on the sixth day of storage. Based on our results, emulsifiers possessed retarding effect on the starch retrogradation and extend the shelf-life of the SC.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: K. Szalay, B. Keller, R. Rák, N. Péterfalvi, L. Kovács, J. Souček, F. Sillinger, and A. Jung

Abstract

One of the biggest challenges of raspberry production in Hungary nowadays is reducing the unfavorable effects of climate change. The maturation phase of main varieties within this region falls in a period of extremely high temperature and atmospheric drought detaining desirable fruit growth. Dedicated plant breeding alone is not enough. An immediate action is required. There has been a need for physical protection against excessive direct radiation. In order to restore, or even save the domestic raspberry production and market, introducing of greenhouse or polytunnel solutions are needed. Experimental plantations of three different raspberry varieties were set in two repetitions: covered and uncovered versions. Each cover has characteristic interaction with light which can generate different environmental conditions and also differences in plant growth and fruit quality. Besides the monitoring of elementary biological indicators, a wide range of sensors (temperature, humidity, solar irradiation) was used to identify differences and to find the optimal tunnel material for maximal plant productivity. Within the framework of the project we also tested a portable spectroradiometer and a snapshot imaging camera to study the practical value of proximal sensing in water- and photosynthetic light use efficiency and vitality mapping.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Anna Visy, Karina Ilona Hidas, József Surányi, Gábor Jónás, and László Friedrich

Abstract

Excessive consumption of salt causes many diseases, including high blood pressure and cardiovascular system disease. In most countries, salt intake is above the WHO guideline daily intake. In Hungary, the average salt intake is more than double the recommended value. Based on these, significant changes are needed in food technology and recipes. To avoid excessive salt intake Hungary has joined the European Union's community program for salt reduction.

The aim of this study was to compare the salt content in different areas of Mangalitsa ham during the dry salting, and compare the average salt content with the regulations of the Codex Alimentarius Hungaricus. The ham was dry salted with 10% by weight of the meat and placed in a controlled atmosphere storage room. The curing took 21 days. The NaCl uptake was measured with Mohr method. The ham was cut at 3 points Cushion (C), Fore Cushion (FC) and Butt End (BE). The salt content of BE was generally higher than the other two areas (C, FC). The differences can be explained by the difference in the thickness of the pieces of meat and fat. The average salt content of the different areas did not exceed the threshold limit in the Codex Alimentarius Hungaricus. At the beginning of the experiment, the salt content of each meat layer was very different, the absorbed salt was concentrated in the surface layer. Over time, as the ham lost a lot of water and due to the lack of outer salt, a significant increase in salt content began in the meat centrum. By day 80, the salt content of the meat centrum exceeded the salt content of both the fat and the surface layer.

Open access

Abstract

Micro-organisms can attach to food surfaces and develop biofilms which present a concern in food and environmental safety. The main goal of the current study was to investigate the biofilm formation of six non-pathogenic Listeria strains under different stress conditions using a microplate assay. The effect of the weak biofilm-forming non-pathogenic Listeria strains on the biofilm formation of a strong biofilm-forming pathogenic Listeria strain (Listeria monocytogenes #8) was also examined. Listeria innocua CCM4030, Listeria innocua 2885 and Listeria seeligeri/welshimeri 292 showed the same patterns of biofilm formation with increasing NaCl concentrations from 0.05 to 15%, but all the other strains showed a continuously decreasing trend of OD595 in the same conditions. This study showed that in the case of non-pathogenic Listeria strains, higher concentrations of NaCl do not present a stress condition that enhances biofilm formation. Decrease in pH inhibited biofilm formation for all the non-pathogenic Listeria strains. The weak biofilm forming non-pathogenic Listeria strains (Listeria innocua 2885 and Listeria innocua CCM4030) overgrew the strong biofilm-forming Listeria strain (Listeria monocytogenes #8) during biofilm formation. This phenomenon could be beneficial and potentially be used as a novel control strategy to prevent the colonization of the pathogenic Listeria at food processing facilities such as in meat industry.

Open access

ABSTRACT

Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet is a common bean in Asia. High protein content and similar amino acid composition with soybean makes good substitutes against dependency on imported products in Asian countries. One example of a bean product is vegetable milk. Fortification is executed to create a product, which compels our diet. Many people experience low protein and mineral intake from food. Fortification of plant origin products utilizing food waste by-products, namely eggshell waste by-product, may give an opportunity on this field. Milk created using beans is processed immediately. However, physiological process (germination) is capable of increasing its nutrition quality. This research focuses on variation of germination time: 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. Protein digestibility is selected as the main parameter to consider the time. Protein, and mineral content, pH, and total soluble solid content of the milk are analyzed. Germination time of 36 h establishes sprout with digestible protein of 13.36 ± 0.59 g/100 g, milk protein content of 7.21 ± 0.06 g/100 g, pH of 6.74 ± 0.17, and total soluble solid content of 19.0 brix. The addition of eggshell extracted calcium as calcium fortification is 2% w/v, which resulted in mineral content of 276 ± 0.13 mg/100 g.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Karina Ilona Hidas, Csaba Németh, Anna Visy, Adrienn Tóth, László Ferenc Friedrich, and Ildikó Csilla Nyulas-Zeke

Abstract

Eggs are commonly used in the food industry because of their excellent nutrient value and also for their coagulating, foaming, emulsifying, colouring and flavouring properties. Manufacturers substitute shell eggs with processed egg products, such as liquid whole egg, liquid egg yolk or albumin. They have a shelf life of a few weeks, but freezing can increase it to 1 year. However, freezing causes gelation in case of egg yolk. This process is highly dependent on the conditions of freezing and thawing.

In our study, raw liquid egg yolk was frozen and stored for 14 days at −18 °C. On days 1, 7 and 14 samples were thawed by two different methods. Denaturation temperature and enthalpy were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Besides, rheological properties were examined at 20 °C, Herschel–Bulkley model was fitted to flow curves of the examined samples. The dry matter content was also recorded during the experiment. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyse data.

The results of the study showed that method of thawing had no significant effect on calorimetric and rheological properties and dry matter content. In contrast, freezing and frozen storage had a significant effect on denaturation enthalpy and rheological properties.

Open access

Abstract

The statement of overheating of honey during the processing is important in quality characterization of honey products. Four Hungarian acacia honeys were heated up to 35, 40, 50, 60, and 80 °C and held in water bath for 0.5, 4 and 24 h. The electrical impedance spectrum of honeys before and after heating at room temperature (22 °C) were measured with precision LCR meters in frequency range from 30 Hz up to 30 MHz at 1 V voltage with Ag/AgCl electrodes. The spectra after open-short correction were approached with a circuit model consisting of a serial connection of two distributed elements and a resistance. The model parameters were determined. One of the resistance parameters can be used for detecting the previous heating of honey after detailed investigation of the recrystallization process following the heating. The complex electrical permittivity also was determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz up to 3 GHz.

Open access