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Abstract

Sámuel Domby of Gálfalva (1729–1807) defended his doctoral dissertation De vino Tokaiensi at the University of Utrecht in 1758, and it was published in the same year. Domby was not the first medical student to write about the curative effects of the Tokaj-Hegyalja wines, but his book is really considered unique because he summarised and in many ways also exceeded the knowledge of earlier authors on the subject. He not only communicated what was known about the wines of Tokaj-Hegyalja, but also demonstrated through a series of medical, meteorological observations and chemical experiments why these wines were so excellent, what effects they had on a healthy human body and what ailments could be effectively treated by drinking them. In many respects, his work has stood the test of time: for instance his observations on the importance of terroir and the protection of origin are still worth considering today.

Open access

Abstract

In this paper, we present a contrastive pragmatic analysis of Small Talk in English and Chinese. We use a radically minimal, finite and interactional system of speech acts to study DCTs conducted with U.S. American native speakers of English and native speakers of Chinese. Our analysis points to a number of important differences between Small Talk in the two linguacultures contrasted, such as a reliance on routines in English Small Talk, and an overall reliance on the speech act Remark in Chinese. The influence of the classic sociolinguistic variables Power and Social Distance for the enactment of Small Talk is also shown to be different in English and Chinese.

Open access

A Late Neolithic enclosure system at Gönc (County Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, north-eastern Hungary)

Késő neolitikus körárokrendszer Gönc határában (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén vármegye, Északkelet-Magyarország)

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors:
Melinda Hajdu
and
Dániel Kiss

Abstract

Gönc-Kenderföldek has since long been known as a Late Neolithic site, where a rich and diverse find assemblage from the Late Neolithic (Lengyel, Tisza and Csőszhalom cultures) was collected in the course of the field surveys conducted in its area. The exact location of the site was determined during the past years. Described and discussed in this study is the geomagnetic survey of site, which revealed sections of an enclosure system of four slightly oval ditches.

Open access
Open access

Abstract

Fair trial is the cornerstone of all judicial proceedings and a fundamental right guaranteeing, among other things, the right to interpreting to those who do not understand and speak the language of the court. With the outbreak of the COVID pandemic, courts around the world struggled to continue adjudication, turning to the solution of remote hearings and hybrid interpreting to comply with requirements of both health policy and the right to linguistic presence in judicial proceedings. This paper describes the solutions applied in domestic, international and EU courts, shedding light on the shortcomings of remote hearings and their possible detrimental effects on interpreting and fair trial.

Open access

Abstract

Allocation and management of working memory resources are crucial for successful interpreting. A number of studies have found clear indications that simultaneous interpreters have larger working memory capacity, at least in some areas, than other bilinguals. To date, no studies have focused on the working memory of dialogue interpreters. The study reported in this paper investigated the main differences and similarities in working memory between experienced and inexperienced dialogue interpreters when it comes to central executive functions. We also compared experienced dialogue interpreters to experienced simultaneous conference interpreters. Fifteen dialogue interpreters with two working languages, Swedish and either French, Polish or Spanish, participated in the following working memory tests: tests for updating (2-back), inhibition (arrow flanker), attention-sharing, storage and processing (Barrouillet, letter span, matrix span, operation span). We found no significant differences between the experienced and inexperienced dialogue interpreters, and there were significant differences between the experienced dialogue interpreters and a comparison group of experienced simultaneous conference interpreters (n = 28). Although the number of participants is small, the study may serve as a baseline for future work on the cognition of dialogue interpreting.

Open access
Across Languages and Cultures
Authors:
Károly Polcz
,
Szvetlana Hamsovszki
,
Erika Huszár
,
Emőke Jámbor
,
Nóra Szigetváry
, and
Marianna Válóczi

Abstract

Online terminological glossaries may play a key role in translating and disseminating terms in multiple languages, especially in those highly specialized domains where no other terminological sources are available. The influence of English as a lingua franca is undeniable in the process of shaping target language terminologies. The purpose of this paper is to explore types of secondary term formation and the related translation procedures as reflected in specialized online glossaries in the domain of start-up companies to find out whether they are universal or language-specific. The study investigates 28 online glossaries in five languages with a total of 1,566 terms. It is hypothesised that contact-based term formation with a considerable influence of English is significantly more frequent than interpretative term formation with little or no such influence. It is also proposed that among the translation procedures transference is of the highest occurrence. According to the third hypothesis, languages differ in their preference for various translation procedures. Statistical tests have confirmed all three hypotheses. In addition, our findings also shed light on the lexical gaps in the target languages under investigation.

Open access