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Abstract

Contexts, knowledge, and theory matter for faculty development (also known as staff, academic, or educational development) because of the complexity of higher education and therefore of faculty professional development. This paper attempts to unpack this complexity by examining higher education contexts more closely, in particular: academic identity in relation to research and the discipline, change management in higher education, and the importance to academic development of valuing teaching in a coherent, integrated, and holistic way. The paper is framed by two ‘big ideas’, that of pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1986, 1987), and that of learning as acquisition and participation (Sfard, 1998). I end by providing examples of practice underpinned by these ideas and considering implications for academic development.

Open access

Abstract

The paper focuses on the democratic rule of law principle as it appeared in the practice of the Hungarian Constitutional Court under the 1989 Constitution and the 2012 Fundamental Law. The rule of law doctrine had a paramount role in the argumentation of the Court in the 1990s as a normative fact and a programme of the Hungarian state. Under the Fundamental Law introduced in 2012, however, it has been somewhat relegated to the background in case law. The study first recalls the main achievements and characteristics of the democratic rule of law state interpretations of the Constitutional Court and then focuses on developments since the introduction of the Fundamental Law. On the one hand, it outlines the constitutional and institutional capacity of the court regarding the protection of the rule of law principle. On the other hand, it reveals the characteristics of the post-FL interpretation through case studies in the field of legal certainty and judicial independence, both of which were representative elements of the pre-2010 constitutional practice from the point of view of the democratic rule of law state doctrine.

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Abstract

The number of hate crime cases in certain countries that was brought to the authorities' attention and was included in the official statistics of countries and relevant international organizations could be negligibly low. However, alternative databases do not provide such a serene landscape as these data sets aim to provide a more credible picture of the real volume of hate crimes. The results of the victim surveys conducted amongst members of the potential victim groups can be even more shocking. Now it is obvious that only a small number of these crime cases is officially reported and behind the high latency, numerous personal and institutional causes can be identified, most notably in relation to victims and law enforcement authorities. The main objective of this literature review is to present these reasons and barriers that authorities are facing, difficulties of enforcement in individual cases and the significant structural problems in the application of law.

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Abstract

Recent constitutional reforms in Poland have demonstrated a lack of respect for the rule of law and for the fundamental values which form the foundations of the EU legal order. The Polish authorities have substantially deviated from principles that the country has accepted as a part of the Copenhagen criteria. The aim of the article is to analyse the mechanisms and procedures applied by the EU institutions to address the systemic threats to the rule of law in Poland. The main focus of the assessment is on the effectiveness of the measure and its potential for a proper solution to the problem. The response provided by the EU demonstrate that there has been a shift from a political to judicial enforcement of values. The article argues that the remedies that were deemed to be the least suitable to address the systemic deficiencies in the rule of law – an infringement action and a preliminary ruling procedure – proved to be the most effective remedy to defend independence of the Polish judiciary. Unexpectedly, the most efficient institution to ensure the respect for values enshrined in Article 2 TEU in Poland proved to be the CJEU, providing extensive interpretation of Article 19 (1) TEU and Article 47 of the Charter. Nevertheless the values are still much more difficult to enforce than the law. While the most serious infringements have been reversed, this has not prevented the Polish authorities from further violating the rule of law.

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Abstract

The paper reflects on academic literature on the international normative and institutional framework related to hate crimes. Various theoretical and pragmatic issues have been discussed by academic authors, such as the challenges coming with the obligation of states to record hate crimes or to conduct efficient investigation, the limits of the potential impact of international review mechanisms, or the aims and content of resolutions adopted by international institutions and judgments delivered by the European Court of Human Rights. However, a wide range of practical and conceptual issues related to the existing international standards and the efficiency of international review mechanisms remain to be discussed in the academic sphere.

Open access

Adattudományi innováció az egészségügy környezeti kihívásainak kezelésében: a nagy adatállományok hasznosításának jelentősége és lehetőségei a járványkezelésben

Innovation in Data Science to Address the Environmental Challenges of Health Systems: the Significance and Opportunities of the Analysis of Big Routine Datasets in Pandemic Management

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Péter Gaál, Tamás Joó, Tamás Palicz, Péter Pollner, István Schiszler, and Miklós Szócska

Összefoglaló. A COVID-19 járvány rámutatott arra, hogy az egészségügy kiemelt nemzetbiztonsági terület. Az egészségbiztonsági kockázati tényezőkkel szemben ellenálló egészségügyi rendszerek adattudományi innováció nélkül nem képzelhetők el. A közlemény két esettanulmányon keresztül mutatja be, hogy a nagy, működés során generálódó adatbázisok elemzése hogyan segítheti a járványokkal szembeni védekezést. A mobilcella információk elemzése a leghatékonyabb eszköz a tömeges népességmozgások nyomon követésére, így a vesztegzár intézkedések hatásának döntéstámogatási célú vizsgálatára, az oltásellenes közösségimédia-aktivitás hálózatelemzése pedig segíti az immunizációs kampányok tervezését és megvalósítását. Tanulmányunkban amellett érvelünk, hogy az egészségügy információ- és kommunikációtechnológia fejlődésére építő digitalizációja a kulcsa egy környezeti változásokkal megbirkózni képes egészségügy kialakításának.

Summary. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that health and health care should be considered a top priority area of national security. Health security risks can only be addressed with resilient health systems, which are not possible to be established without innovation in health data science. This publication introduces two examples to illustrate this point, both in the field of the management of epidemics. The first case provides a summary of our previous publication about how mobile phone Call Detail Records can be used to trace population movement to evaluate the effectiveness of movement restriction measures, such as the lock down, which was implemented in Hungary during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our analysis shows that the collation and processing of Call Detail Records is an effective and inexpensive method to monitor mass population movement, and complements well the GPS-based smartphone method, which is more suitable for contact tracing and controlling of home quarantine of individuals. Our CDR-based method could be used by other countries, as well as to monitor movement between countries at the European level or internationally, with minimal adaptation effort. The second case introduces a study to gain insight into and better understanding of the potential impact of antivaccination social media activism on the Human Papilloma Virus vaccination campaign in Hungary in 2014. The network analysis of Facebook antivaccination posts and comments showed that during this period, the activists in this network were unable to reach a wider population and were not able to disturb the implementation of the expansion of the well functioning Hungarian public vaccination programme. Unfortunately, this is not the case regarding the COVID-19 vaccination campaign in progress, which suggests that the antivaccination activism is a real and serious security threat to be dealt with. In conclusion, we argue in this paper that the digital transformation of health care, based on the explosive development of information and communication technologies, is of key importance to the establishment of resilient health systems, which are able to cope efficiently with the challenges posed by the rapid environmental changes generated by societal transformation of the 21st century.

Open access

Az epidemiológiai surveillance és járványmatematikai előrejelzések szerepe a pandémiás hullámok megelőzésében, mérséklésében – hol tartunk most, és hová kellene eljutni

The role of epidemiological surveillance and mathematical forecasting in preventing and mitigating pandemic waves – what has been accomplished and what should be achieved

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Beatrix Oroszi, J. Krisztina Horváth, Gergő Túri, Katalin Krisztalovics, and Gergely Röst

Összefoglaló. A Járványmatematikai és Epidemiológiai Projekt egy egyedülálló kezdeményezés Magyarországon, mely jelentős tudást és tapasztalatot halmozott fel a COVID–19 világjárvány során. Jelen tanulmány a pandémia 2. hullámának példáján keresztül áttekinti, hogy miként működött a járványügyi észlelés és monitorozás rendszere, hogyan, milyen eredményekkel végezték a projekt munkatársai a helyzet- és kockázatértékelést, az előrejelzések készítését, végül javaslatokat fogalmaz meg a surveillance- és előrejelző rendszer fejlesztésére a járványügyi biztonság növelése érdekében.

A 2. járványhullám 2020. június 22. és 2021. január 24. között zajlott Magyarországon, melynek során a megerősített COVID–19 esetek száma 356 197 fő volt, ami az első hullámban regisztrált esetszám 87-szerese. Összesen 12 226 megerősített COVID–19 halálesetet regisztráltak, az első hullámban jelentett szám 21-szeresét. Az országos R érték először 2020 augusztusában emelkedett 1,0 fölé. Mintegy 3 héttel azután, hogy az R érték augusztus utolsó hetében tartósan 1,0 fölé emelkedett, a halálos kimenetelű COVID–19 esetszámok növekedése is elindult, mivel a fiatalokról a járvány az idősebb korosztályokra is átterjedt. Mindezt a matematikai modellezési eredmények hetekkel korábban jelezték.

November elején az előrejelzés 12 000 fő feletti kórházi ápoltat vetített előre a karácsonyi időszakra, melynek elkerülésére kormányzati intézkedéscsomag készült. A 2020. november 11-i szigorítás a járványt az eredeti pályáról eltérítette, így a kórházban kezeltek száma a 2. hullámban az előrejelzésnek megfelelően 8018 főnél elérte a csúcsot, majd csökkenni kezdett. Január elején a modellezés azt mutatta, hogy a lecsengő szakaszban, az akkori intézkedések mellett is képes az időközben hazánkban is megjelent új variáns, a gyorsabban terjedő SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7, járványügyi fordulatot hozni, ami szintén megvalósult.

Összességében az epidemiológiai helyzetértékelés és matematikai modellezés képes volt a második hullám minden fő aspektusát időben és jól megragadni, a veszélyes folyamatokat előre jelezni és ezzel lehetőséget adni a gyors reagálásra. A 2. hullám tapasztalatai megmutatták, hogy a járványmatematikai és epidemiológiai képességek milyen hozzáadott értékkel bírnak a döntéstámogatásban. Az észlelési és előrejelzési rendszereink megerősítése és a matematikai modellezéssel egységes keretrendszerben történő továbbfejlesztése további lehetőségeket nyithat meg az észlelés, megelőzés, egészségügyi és gazdasági károk elhárítása érdekében szükséges döntési folyamatok bizonyítékalapú támogatásában, és az ország járványügyi biztonságának növelésében.

Summary. The Mathematical Modelling and Epidemiology Task Force is a unique initiative in Hungary that has accumulated significant knowledge and experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the example of the second wave of the pandemic, the present study reviews how the epidemiological surveillance and monitoring system operated, how the task force carried out the situation and risk assessments as well as forecasting, and finally, makes suggestions for improving the surveillance and forecasting system to increase health security.

The second wave of the pandemic lasted between 22 June 2020 and 24 January 2021 in Hungary. The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases was 356,197,87 times the number of cases registered in the first wave. A total of 12,226 confirmed COVID-19 deaths were recorded, 21 times the number reported in the first wave. The reproduction number first exceeded 1.0 shortly in early August 2020. About three weeks after the R-value remained consistently above 1.0 in the last week of August, the number of fatal COVID-19 cases started to increase as the epidemic spread from the young to the older age groups. All of this was predicted by mathematical modelling results weeks earlier.

In early November, the forecast projected more than 12,000 hospitalized patients for the Christmas period, so the government introduced new measures to prevent this surge. The restrictions, implemented on 11 November 2020, diverted the epidemic from its original trajectory, so the number of hospital admissions in the second wave peaked at 8,018, as projected, and then began to decline. In January, SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 was detected in Hungary. Modelling showed in early January, that even in the declining phase, and with the measures being in place, this new variant was able to change the epidemiological trend. This was in fact observed on 24 January, when the epidemic curve started to increase again.

Overall, epidemiological situation assessment and mathematical modelling were able to capture all significant aspects of the second wave in a timely manner and precisely, predicting the possible dangerous changes in the situation, and thus providing opportunity for rapid response. The experience of the second wave has shown the added value of integrating comprehensive epidemiological analysis and mathematical modelling into decision making. Strengthening our epidemiological intelligence and forecasting systems, and further enhancing them in a unified framework can open up further opportunities to provide evidence-based support for decision-making processes.

Open access

Abstract

This paper focuses on exploring the intellectual basis for establishing an academic development program for international doctoral students in social sciences and humanities in Central Europe so as to cultivate a reflective scholarly approach to teaching early on in their academic career. The program conceptions and practices are embedded in the notion that a scholarly approach to teaching integrates the understanding and demonstration of knowledge about teaching and necessitates a continuous learning process about teaching through reflection and through conducting research on teaching in the various disciplines. In particular, taking on board the domains of teaching knowledge which derived from the kinds of reflections on teaching (cf. Kreber & Cranton, 2000; Mezirow, 1991), instructional, pedagogical and curricular knowledge and continuous reflection at the level of content, process as well as premise, are represented in an integrative manner in our overarching program principles and pedagogical strategies. As we see, professionalization of doctoral students' teaching practice in higher education (cf. Lueddeke, 2003) is particularly important in the context of enhanced faculty mobility and internationalization. Therefore, this paper aims to contribute to the literature and practice on establishing academic development programs, especially in academic environments with low institutional support for teaching and lack of formal requirements for professional development.

Open access

A COVID–19 patológiája.

Halálok SARS-CoV-2-fertőzésben: vírusfertőzésben vagy vírusfertőzéssel?

Pathology of COVID-19.

Cause of death in SARS-CoV-2 infection: viral infection or other chronic diseases with SARS-CoV-2 (death “in” or “with” COVID-19)
Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Zsuzsa Schaff, Krisztina Danics, Adrián Pesti, Gábor Lotz, Tibor Várkonyi, Deján Dobi, István Vályi-Nagy, Klára Törő, Tibor Glasz, and András Kiss

Összefoglaló. A SARS-CoV-2-pandémia óta a Semmelweis Egyetemen és egyéb intézményekben rendszeresen végeznek boncolásokat, melyek feltárták a COVID–19 jellegzetességeit. A legsúlyosabb kép a tüdőben mutatkozik, melynek légtelensége változó kiterjedésű, oka összetett, így tüdővizenyő, fehérjében gazdag izzadmány, az erek vérrög okozta elzáródása és gyulladás. A szív, a vese, az agy és a máj változó mértékben érintett, érrögösödés, elhalás, degeneratív elváltozások mutatkoznak. A SARS-CoV-2-vírus fehérjéi (tüske, nukleokapszid) és a vírus genetikai anyaga (RNS) kimutatható az egyes szervekben, leginkább a tüdőben. Klinikopatológiai elemzéssel megállapítható, hogy a halál a SARS-CoV-2-fertőzés mint közvetlen kórok következménye, vagy egyéb krónikus megbetegedés, melyet súlyosbított a SARS-CoV-2-fertőzés, vagy a halál a vírusfertőzéstől függetlenül következett be.

Summary. Since the beginning of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic with substantial mortality, serial autopsies at the Semmelweis University Budapest Hungary and other institutions revealed the most characteristic pathological changes and cause of death of patients in Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19). The virus primarily affects the respiratory system and the most severe alterations can be seen in the lungs. The most characteristic changes, however, are non-specific, as the atelectasis of various extents and severe congestion. The alveoli are filled with edema fluid, protein-rich alveolar exudates, often forming hyalin membranes. Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) can be noted, which have exudative and fibroproliferative forms. The desquamated alveolar epithelial and inflammatory cells which fill the alveolar spaces further block the oxygen transportation, causing hypoxia and induces ventilation problems. Vascular thrombosis and emboli coming from thrombotic vessels from other organs, might involve the small and larger vessels are common findings in COVID-19 sometimes associated with vasculitis. Extended hemorrhages and giant cells are common findings too. Superimposed bacterial infection might cause purulent bronchopneumonia. Aspiration pneumonia, in which remnant of food and parts of filters etc might be present in the bronchi, causing acute bronchopneumonia, occurs specially in intubated patients. Other organs such as the heart, kidneys, the central nervous system and the liver are similarly, though less severely involved by thrombosis, necrotic and degenerative changes. Myocardial fibrosis is common, however usually associated with previous chronic diseases similarly to the findings in the kidneys. Liver steatosis is common, partly as the result of infection, however treatment and previous liver diseases could be in the background too. Smaller and larger cerebral bleedings, cerebral infarcts of various sizes are detected often. The protein components (spike and nucleocapside) of the SARS-CoV-2 could be demonstrated by immunohistochemical methods and the RNA genome of the SARS-CoV-2 by in situ hybridization in several organs, with highest amounts in the lungs. Clinicopathological analyses effectively determine whether the cause of death in SARS-CoV-2 infection had been the direct result of the infection, or any other previously known chronic disease, which had been superposed by the viral infection. However, in certain cases, the death might not be associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The correct determination of the cause of death of the patients with COVID-19 is by consultation between clinicians and pathologists.

Open access